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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (North)
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
How is the term Sociology derived?
The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “SOCIUS” means “Companion” or “Associate” and Greek word “LOGOS” means “Science” or “Study”.
Give one example of community.
Caste community, Linguistic community.
Who was the first person to say ‘Man is Social Animal’?
Aristotle was the first person to say ‘Man is a social animal’.
What is Litigation?
Litigation is ajudicial form of conflict.
How is the word ‘Family’ derived?
The word family is derived from Latin word Famulus which means a servant.
What is polyandry?
Polyandry means one wife with two or more husbands.
Write any one function of education.
Preservation function, reformative function.
Define social change.
According to Samuel Koening “Social change refers to modification which occurs in the life patterns of people.”
What is a Questionnaire?
According to Goode and Hatt “questionnaire as a device for securing answers to question using a form which the respondent fills in himself.”
Who introduced the concept of Green House?
II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in Two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Give II.M. Johnson’s definition of sociology.
According to Harry M. Johnson “Sociology is the science that deals with social groups.”
Mention any two books written by Dr. G.S. Ghurye.
Indian Sociological Society & Caste and Race in India.
What is division of labour?
The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex and age etc. Due to division of labour in various fields tasks are performed more efficiently. In modern society, skilled and specialised persons have more importance.
What is rationalization?
This involves excuses or explanations for one’s behaviour. One is not prepared to acknowledge one’s failures or defects for it may indicate guilt or the need for change.
Define social competition.
Social competition : People always compete to get into higher status and position. Competition of this kind is mostly observed in ‘open’ societies. Wherever individual ability, merit, talents and capacities are recognised.
What is cultural lag?
When non material culture cannot adjust itself to the material culture it falls behind the material culture. As a result there exists a gap between the two. According to Ogburn this gap between the material culture and non-material culture is called ‘cultural lag’.
What is nuclear family?
Nuclear family is one which consists of the husband, wife or wives and their children.
Give any two examples for technological change.
Mobile phone, computers.
What is migration?
Migration is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in the society.
What are the types of environment?
There are four types of environment. They are :
- Physical environment.
- Biological environment.
- Social environment
- The science of ecology.
What is Global Warming?
Mother earth in the essence of the birth and fastening of all living creatures, the earth’s temperature increases when water vapour, carbon-di-oxide, methane, other powerful gases get collected in environment and this gases do not find an other naturally increases the earth’s temperature is known as Global warming.
What is pollution by solid waste?
A pollution, chemical fertilisers, medicine and pesticides usage, industrial wastages and agricultural wastes are causing soil pollution.
III. Answer any Four question in Fifteen sentences each: ( 4 × 5= 20 )
Examine briefly the nature and characteristics of Sociology.
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.
Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.
Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.
On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.
But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.
Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:
- Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
- Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.
Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.
Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.
Explain the characteristics of folkways.
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.GSummer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the folk or people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.
(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and taking part in life about them.
(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously, they are not the result of any advance planning.
(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.
(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.
(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic, folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change, some are resist change very often.
What is assimilation? Explain its favourable factors.
Assimilation is one of the types of interaction.
Factors Favoring Assimilation:
1. Toleration: Assimilation is possible only when individual and groups are tolerated towards cultural differences of others. Tolerance helps people to comet ether, to develop contacts and to participate in common social and cultural activities. on the majority group or the dominant group itself is secure.
2. Intimate social relationships: Assimilation is the final product of social contacts. The relative speed in which it is achieved depends on the nature of the contacts. It takes place naturally in primary groups such as family and friendship groups.
3. Amalgamation or intermarriage: It is an effective favoring assimilation process. It does not combine two opposite sexes but also two different families, castes, religious and regional groups together. A factor which helps complete assimilation is amalgamation
4. which refers to the intermarriage of different groups without biological amalgamation complete assimilation is not possible. Mere inter mixture of the groups to a limited degree does not guarantee assimilation but intermarriage or amalgamation must be accepted in the mores and become a part of the institutional; structure, before assimilation exists.
Cultural similarity: If there are striking similarities between them an constituents of cultures of groups assimilation is quick to take place. In America, for example English
1. speaking protestants are assimilated with greater aped than non-Christians who do not speak English;
2. Education: Education is another conductive factor for assimilation. For immigrant people public education has played a prominent role in providing culture contact. Maurice R Davis has pointed out in his “world immigration” that in American public schools has been playing the vital role in the process of Americanizing the children of foreign born parents.
3. Equal Social and economic opportunity: Public education alone is not enough. People of all groups must have equal access to socio-economic opportunities. Only then, they can come closer and establish relations among themselves with mutual trust. As it has been observed in the case of America, full assimilation is possible only when full participation in social, cultural and economic life is allowed. Assimilation is a two way process when it happens between two culture groups. Each group contributing varying proportions of the eventual blend.
Which are the different agents effecting in socialization?
The School: School is also an important agent of socialization. Teachers in school play – a decisive role in molding child’s personality. Since the family in itself is not fully equipped to prepare the child for adult roles, school has an important role to play. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes, school transmits not only required knowledge but also important values such as cooperation, discipline, patriotism, friendship etc. it helps further development of intellectual, emotional and social development already begun in the family. It is a formal agency that socializes the child authoditway.
The Mass Media: The print and audio-visual means of communication have a great role to play in child’s socialization. Newspaper, magazine, text books, television etc., play a lucid role in transmitting culture from one generation to the other. The state may also use them deliberately to educate the mass. They may be used purposively to change the value system.
In traditional and simple societies the agencies of socialization are limited and harmonious in influencing the personality of the individual. In complex societies, however, there are many and diverse agencies, at time working at cross purposes.
State: The state plays an important role in socialization. It is an authoritarian agency. State makes laws for the people and lays down the modes of conduct expected of them. The people have to compulsorily obey these laws. The state has immense power at its command which helps the development of personality of an individual. This will help the individual to adjust with social situation. State makes arrangement to socialize people through the media and other means of communication. State teaches citizens to follow the rules of law and values. State motivates its citizens by rewarding for their achievements.
Formal education: On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction. Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modern social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.
Briefly explain the primary functions of family.
The primary functions are:
Member replacement and physical maintenance: In order to survive, every society must replace members who die and keep the survivors alive. The regulations of reproduction is centered in the family as are cooking and eating and care of the sick. Once children are bom, they will be nurtured and protected within the family. It is the family that feeds, clothes and shelters them.
Regulation of sexual behavior:The family regulates sexual behavior. Each member’s sexual behavior is influenced to some extent by what is learnt in the family setting. The sexual attitudes and patterns of behavior in the family reflects societal norms and regulate the sexual behavior,
Socialization of children: The family carries out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are taught largely by their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior. The family as an act of instrument of transmission of culture, it serves the individual as an instrument of socialization.
Status transmission: Individual social identity is initially fixed by family membership being bom to parents of a given status. Children take on the socio-economic class standing of their parents and the culture of the class into which they are born, including its value, behavior patterns, in addition to the internalizing family attitudes and beliefs. Children are treated and defined by others as extensions of the social identity of their parents.
Emotional support: The family as a primary group is an important source of affecting entertainment love and interaction, caring. It is seemingly the nature of human begins to establish social interdependency, not only to meet physical needs, but also to gratify emotional and psychological needs also.
Fulfillment of needs: Family is the most important primary institution that gives moral and emotional support for the members. Providing safety, security, love and affection. Warmth and comfort. It provides defense against Isolation. Family as an health agency provides most of the help for the young, the old and the sick. It is by large responsibility for the Health of its members.
Describe the factors that resist social change.
The factors that resist the process of social change. Lack of New Inventions: Social changes depends on the invention of new objects, techniques, thoughts, devices and plans to a great extent. Changes will take place without much opposition if the people have the strong craving for new things. Lack of inventions as such, do not provide a favorable atmosphere for change.
Rejection or Non-Acceptance of New Inventions: No change is possible if people go on rejecting the new inventions. Ex (1) Dr. William Harvey’s Blood Circulation. Theory, and Galileo’s theory concerning the planetary system and the movements of earth, were opposed in the beginning (2) opposition came in the British Parliament for the use of steam energy in British Naval Ships.
Imperfections of New Inventions: In the beginning, inventions are generally subject to imperfections, such as inadequate performance, easy breakage, and difficulty of repair. Social inventions also have imperfections in the beginning. People may oppose them for their inadequacies.
Fear Towards the New: Man has not only love for the past but also fear for the new. People express their fear for the new while making use of the new objects, listening to the new thoughts and following a new practice.
Tradition and Reverence for the past: People are traditional in their attitudes, the old and the traditional practices and things and ideas are upheld by the people. People are emotionally and sentimentally bound by them.
IV. Answer the Four questions in Fifteen sentences each: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )
Explain the subject matter of sociology.
Alex Inkle’s in his book “what is Sociology?” has provided a general outline of the fields of Sociology on which there is considerable agreement among sociologists. It could be presented in the following manner:
(1) Providing a sociological analysis of human culture and society: The major concern ,. of Sociology is human society and its culture. A sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of ” human society and culture with a Sociological perspective. He evinces interest in the 1 evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the maj or stages in the evolutionary process.
An attempt is also made to “analyse the factors and forces underlying historical Transformations of society”. Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological studies.
(2) Analysing the primary units of social life: Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities(urban, rural and tribal), association organisations and population.
(3) Studying the Nature and Functions of Basic Social Institutions: Social Institutions constitute the basic fabric the society. Any social system is built on the foundation of social institutions. Institutions such as – the family and kinship religions and morality, Economic and political, legal and educational, scientific and aesthetic, recreational and expressive, medical and welfare, etc. Serve the most important needs of man. Sociology. develops deep into the study of the origin and development, structure and function, changes ’ and challenges of a wide variety of social institutions.
(4) Sociology throws Light on the Fundamental social processes: Human society is neither static nor uniform, it is dynamic and diverse. This dynamic element in society is reflected by what are known as “social processes”. They reveal the way in which human interaction assume different patterns and courses in social life. The social processes such as co-operation and competition, accommodation, and assimilation, social conflict and communication, social differentiation and stratification, socialisation social control and deviance, social integration and social change, etc., assume prominence in sociological studies.
In the present era of explosion of knowledge, sociologists have ventured to make specialisations also, thus, today good number of specialised fields of inquiry are emerging out. Sociology of knowledge, Sociology of history, Sociology of culture, Sociology of religion, Sociology of family, etc., represent such specialised fields.
Explain the characteristics of primary groups.
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of primary groups.
(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.
(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate.
(c) Physical Proximity or Nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.
(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other
things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.
(e) Similarity of Background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less the same background, these must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.
(f) Shared Interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together. Any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.
Explain the characteristics of accommodation.
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff: “Accommodation is a term used by the sociologists to describe the adj ustment of hostile individuals or groups”. Maclver says that “the term Accommodation refers particularly to the process in which man attains a sense of harmony with his environment.
Characteristics of Accommodation:
1. Accommodation is the natural result of Conflict: Since conflicts cannot take place continuously they involved in conflict do not relish the sense of conflict they sit down for it settlement. Such settlements temporary or permanent may be called “Accommodation” in the absence of conflict the question of arriving at accommodation does not arise.
2. Accommodation may be a conscious or an unconscious: Man’s adjustment with the social environment is mostly unconscious. From birth to death man to be behave in conformity with the normative order. The new bom individual learns to accommodate himself with the social order which is dedicated by various norms such as customs, morals, traditions etc. Thus, unconsciously the new bom individual accommodation himself with his family, caste or race, neighborhood. Life is full of such unconscious accommodative activities.
3. Accommodation is Universal: Accommodation as a ‘condition’ and as a ‘process’ is universal. Human society is composed to antagonistic elements and hence conflicts are inevitable. Since no society becomes necessary. Thus accommodation is found in all societies and in all fields of social fife.
4. Accommodation is continuous: The process of accommodation is not confined to any particular stage in the life of an individual It is not limited to any fixed social situation also. On the contrary, throughout the life one has to accommodate oneself with various situations, further, as and when conflicts take place sooner or later accommodation would follow not only the individuals but also the groups within the society are obliged to accommodate among themselves.
5. The effects of accommodation may vary with the circumstances: It may act to reduce the conflict between persons or groups as an initial step towards assimilation. It may serve to postpone outright conflict for a specific period of time, as in a treaty between nations or labor.
Management agreement. It may permit groups marked by sharp social-psychological distance to get along together. It may prove to be beneficial for the parties involved in it. Sometimes it may help the superior or more powerful party to party to impose it on the weaker party.
Explain the functions of marriage.
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”
The functions of marriage are:
Regulation of sex life: Marriage is the powerful instrument of regulating the sex life of man. It is an Instinct, it has to be controlled and regulated through the Institution of marriage. Marriage thus regulative means of sex life marriage often called the license for sex life acts as a
Marriage regulates sex relations also:
It prohibits sex relations between the closest relatives i.e., between father and daughter, mother and son., brother and sister etc., such a kind of prohibition is called “incest taboo” Marriage also puts restrictions on the premarital and extra martial sex relations.
Marriage leads to the establishment of the family: Sexual satisfaction offered by marriage results in self-perpetuation. It is in family the children are bom and brought up. The marriage which determines the descent, inheritance and succession.
Provides for economic co-operation: Marriage makes division of labor possible on the basis of sex age and experience, partners of marriage divide work among themselves and perform them.
Marriage contributes to emotional and intellectual aerstimulation of the partners: Marriage brings life-partners together and helps them to develops intense love and affection towards other. It depends the emotion and strengthens and also helps them to develop intellectual co-operation between them.
Marriage aims at social solidarity: Marriage not only brings two individuals of the opposite sex together but also their respective families and their Kith and Kin, friendship between these groups is reinforced through marriage. It is often suggested that by encouraging marriage between different castes, races, classes, religious, linguistic and other1 communities.
Briefly explain the various factors of social change.
According to M. E. Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of, any aspect of social progress, social patterns, social interactions or social organization” The various factors of social change
In all societies there are several conditions or causes that make for social change. These conditions are understood as factors. The change may occur internally. All the factors which bring change in society naturally or change comes from within society is known as intrinsic change.
Natural factor or Geographical factors:
Change brought by natural conditions or change brought by environment is called as physical factor or geographical factors. Man and society exist within the environment. Whenever change occur in environment it brings change in society too.
Aecording to Ian Robertson, relationship between social and environmental factors bring change in society. We find less change in polar region. More on banks of river.
When society grows complex. It brings more loss on geographical factors. Civilization brings convenience to man but develops controversies with environment.
Recently because of technological and scientific developments we find less influence of physical factor. Growth of culture and civilization minimize the influence of geography.
Biological factor: It indicates two types A) One is non human biological factor and B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth. Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves l)size of population 2) structure of population 3) Heredity 4) race 5) Birth rate 6)Death rate 7) fertility 8) sex ratio
Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.
Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense problem in nation.
Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration 1) Urban rural migration 2) Rural urban migration.
Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’One child norm’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.
Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.
Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:
- Discovery: discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
- Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
- Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Sri Lanka.
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:
Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modern technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.
Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.
Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.
Explain the basic elements of religion.
James G Frazer considered Religion as a belief in power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Human life.
Elements of Religion:
Supernatural and the Sacred: At the centre of almost every religion lies the idea of the supernatural. It is something beyond physical understanding. It is omnipotent infinite or extraordinary. According to E. B. Tylor Belief in supernatural begins is called religion.
Belief in the supernatural begins might also include belief in other kinds of begins like magic forces, angles or soul of dead ancestors, believers might arrange the supernatural begins in a hierarchy according to their power or they may differentiate the supernatural begins in terms of their functions. It should be interesting to note that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the three Hindu Gods, are said to perform the function of creation of the cosmic order, its maintenance and destruction, respectively.
Beliefs and practice: Religious belief is a system of knowledge about the divine and its relationship with the human. It is simply not enough to believe in the existence of a supernatural force. The knowledge of its existence must be explained to people and to generations to come. Belief serves this purpose of revealing the existence of the supernatural or divine or the sacred. Belief explains the nature of the divine.
Provides Moral Prescriptions: Religion is the source of moral values, and religion without moral prescription is virtually not possible. Religion can distinguish between the right and the wrong, more powerful than other social institutions.
Methods of Salvation: Methods of salvation constitutes another elements of Religion. If may be in various forms like attaining moksha, Nirvana, Salvation, and the Christian has a redeemer in Christ, the son of God, who gave his life for man’s Sin. In short religion is the institutionalized set of beliefs men hold about super natural forces belief are formalized and regularized.
V. Answer any Two of the following in Twenty Five sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Explain the importance of Sociology.
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.
b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.
c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.
d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.
e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.
f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.
g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.
h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.
What are the elements of community? Explain.
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.
(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “a group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality”.
In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, provides to fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence people’s social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.
(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “A feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awakens community sentiments in pepple.
Other Characteristics of community:
1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.
2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.
3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.
4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.
5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.
Define socialization. Explain the role of culture in socialization.
Socialization is an important matter for society. It doesn’t occur accidently. But should be controlled through cultural directions. Social nature is very much influenced by the culture of an individual. It is a known fact that man is bom as a biological animal. He becomes social animal only through the process of socialization. Culture is the content that is length in the process of socialization. Though culture varies from society to society, every society has its own distinct culture. Therefore society, culture and socialization are closely related to each other, Socialization that turns the child in to a useful members of society according to cultural directions.
The role of culture in socialization can be explained in the followings:
- Culture provides the base to the socialization process was making the individual a normal social being.
- Culture provides the guidance to the individual to control his various activities.
Which he learns through the process of socialization.
- Culture assists socialization in teaching the culture qualities like morality, good behaviors, positive attitude, ideals and values.
- Culture through the process of socialization helps the individual to decide his career.
- Cultures through the socialization also provide guidance to the individual to maintain their behavior patterns according to social situation.
- Culture through the socialization process helps an individual to become an important contributor to society.
- Culture through the process of socialization helps to work for social welfare and develop a positive attitude towards all.
Describe the merits and demerits of interview.
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.
Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.
Merits of structured Interview:
- It provides safe basis for th&generalization
- In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
- It is more methodical and easy to administer
- The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
- In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.
Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.
Merits of Unstructured Interview
- The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
- In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem
Demerits of Unstructured Interview
- The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
- To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
- The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.
Merits of Interview method
- It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
- It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
- There is a high rate of response
- Interview method can be used with all types of persons.
Demerits of Interview method
- There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
- There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
- There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
- It is a costly and time-consuming method.
IV. Answer any Two of the following in Fifteen sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )
Write a report on co-operative processes in self-help group.
The institutions are born out of necessity to serve some cause – economic, social, cultural, political or military. The people behind its organisation have some objects. Self-help groups are voluntary organisations formed and managed by some members themselves. Self-help group is social and economical institution. Consists of 10 to 20 members. The aims are;
- Regularly save the amount from out of their earnings.
- Collectively agree to contribute to a common fund.
- Meeting their emergency needs.
- Taking democratic decisions.
- Resolving conflicts through discussion in open forum and
- Providing surety free loans at market driven rates to members.
SHG can achieve the following goals
- Institutional development at the grassroots level.
- economic independence to the poor especially poor women.
- generation of mutual trust and cooperation
- localised planning and participative decision-making
- Financial discipline
- inculcate habit of savings
- leadership development
- economic self-reliance and social solidarity
Income generating activities of SHGs are:
Agriculture related (activity-seed multiplication, bee-keeping, nursery raising etc.)
Small retail business/general stores, brick making, livestock development, animal husbandry, poultry, piggery etc. Cattle feed sales, bicycle repair, milk production and processing, clay-pot iA. making, leaf/paper plate making, flour mill and grain shop, carpentry, iron smithing, welding, garment shop, tailoring, knitting, embroidery, raw sugar making, beauty saloon, fruit/vegetable preservation and processing, motor winding etc. Loans can be availed for the above activities. iA,_ With the self-help group association and cooperative society, can further add to the income of members.
Explain the concept of social research.
Report Writing in final stage in Social Research process. It consists in communicating the finding of the study or investigation to others. There are different types of report. Report to general public is simple clear and interesting. Report meant to organizers, it is detailed. A report meant for scientific community must be technical.
A good report should be clear and accurate. It will not have any confusion. It should explain objectives of the study and comprehensive report must be properly organized with suitable arrangement and systematic presentation. It should be ethically neutral. It should not consist personal bias and prejudices. Report should have suitable writing style and attractive presentation. It should be always prepared according to the objectives of the study.
Report has no standard outline. But is should included a clear statement of the problem, information on finding and conclusions. In the preliminary of the report, there should be a Title page, preface or foreword, acknowledgements, methodology adopted, list Or graphs, illustrations, tables, charts it should have table of contents.
The contents of the report should have an introduction, which explains objectives of the study, statements of the problem and its definition, hypothesis, definitions of concent* review of literature and previous studies, scope, time and place of present study assumptions and limitations. Finally, report should include reference materials also. It includes Bibliography, appendices, glossary of terms and index. Certain format is followed in giving bibliography. Generally author’s name, year of publication, name of the book, referred page numbers, address of publisher is provided in reference. All these aspects of report, explain relevance of the study.
What are the changes in agricultural activity in rural area?
India’s main activity is agriculture. 67% of people are engaged in this activity. Farmers main production is food grains, such as wheat, rice, ragi and cereals. After independence, food production was very low, but population was very less in that period. Anyhow it was manageable and government imported some foodgrains from America. In Five Years Plan, some prominence on agriculture was given. Loans, subsidy were introduced especially for ST, SC. Backward classes – some wise people utilized this opporunity and some people became bad debtors to bank and co-operative societies.
New and hybrid varieties were introduced ‘ and at the same time. Chemical manure also came into market. More utilization of chemical manure, land became barren, new variety attracted new types of pest and viruses. The result is crop-failure: End result in farmers became debtor to bank and co-operative societ ies. Harassment from bank staff increased and farmer became drunkards. Dept became heavy and ultimately he put an end to his life by hanging or drinking pesticides. Now a days suicide cases are disappeared gradually.
Regarding water also New Technology were introduced. Tube Well were introduced by this underground water gradually exhausted.
Even drinking water also exhausted remained. Little water is full of flouride. One who uses this water suffer from tooth decay. Nobody will forget the tragedy of endo-sulphan near Kasargod, Kerala border. Still it effects the newly born babies. By new technology, new troubles were introduced.
Indian farmer has seen ups and downs in course of time since 50’s till date. Social, economical and cultural changes he witnessed.
What are the causes for environmental pollution?
Population is caused by many factors among which the following may be noted:
Abuse of Nature by man for his Greed: Of all the living organisms it is only man who is causing pollution. Man’s attempts to use natural resources for genuine purposes are not problematic; but their greed by him, is causing this problem. According Write “human greed and ignorance have allowed our culture to develop an ecological crisis like pollution”.
Population Explosion Hastening the process of Pollution: If we keenly observe the consistent increase in the human population we come to believe that the role of population explosion is the most dominant cause of environmental pollution. According Southwick- human population explosion is the main cause of pollution.
Uncontrolled Technology: Modem age places high premium on science and technology. Cores of rupees are being spent for the advancement of these two. But unfortunately, every technological advance is accompanied by some unwanted, unintended and unhappy consequences. We have failed to establish any comprehensive social control over technological development or use. This is because of the fact that in well developed countries, citizen consumes more food, use more fertilizer and pesticides, fuel, minerals, automobiles and other manufactured products of all kinds.
Unplanned and Imbalanced Industrialization: Increasing and controlled industrialization is the greatest contributor to pollution. Hence industrialized countries are mainly responsible for the environment pollution, the worst pollution occurs in countries where there have .been the greatest scientific, technological and industrial advances. Developing countries such as India, Thailand, Philippines and others have been caught in the spiral of industrial growth.
Thoughtless burning of agricultural wastes and destruction of forests can cause pollution: Rich industrialized countries are not only culprits in causing pollution. Recent investigations indicate that tropical grassland fires and the burning of agricultural wastes contribute almost as much pollution as do factories all over the world. There are 2000 million hectares of burnable land in the world in the form of cultivation land, permanent meadows and pastures.
Excess of Consumerism: Our changing attitudes and tendencies are also partially responsible for environmental pollution. We are.more and more leaning towards worldliness, luxuries and pleasure-seeking. We want to purchase and possess more and more luxury items like separate cars, mobiles, computers, iphones, air conditioners, air coolers, dozens of pair of dresses furniture of most modem styles, and so on. This tendency or craziness towards more and more purchases is often called ‘consumerism’.