Students can Download Sanskrit Shevadhi Lesson 13 विज्ञानपथः Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Summary, 1st PUC Sanskrit Textbook Answers, helps you to revise complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC Sanskrit Textbook Answers Shevadhi Chapter 13 विज्ञानपथः
विज्ञानपथः Questions and Answers, Notes, Summary
विज्ञानपथः Summary in Kannada
विज्ञानपथः Summary in English
We see the growth of Sanskrit since the Vedic period. Side-by-side even science developed. Our ancestors were not only great thinkers but also scholars and pundits. During the period several books were written. Let us try to know the great achievements of Indians in Astronomy, Mathematics, Biology and Environmental Science.
Astronomy and Mathematics:
Advanced thinking can be seen in Astronomy and Mathematics. The earliest references to astronomy are found in the Rig Veda. We see the reference to the ten planets of the solar system in the Vedas. The red spot in the planet Jupiter is extremely amazing and it is possible to see it in the modern photographs taken through the telescope. Information such as separation of the two satellites Mars and Earth from the moon, the revolution of planets around the Sun, the gravitational pull of the Earth are found in the Vedas. The modern scientists are under the illusion that these are their discoveries. Our ancestors knew well that planets move like a spinning top. That planets revolve in their own axis was known to them. They also knew the fact that the Sun is the source of energy on the earth and the basis of earth. We also see the reference to day, night, month, season, phases (उत्तरायण and दक्षिणायण) and years (संवत्सर). That the waxing and waning of the moon and its luminaries depends entirely on the Sun was known to them.
It is a matter of pride that the concept of numbers and the base ten system being used all over the world today have been the greatest contributions of Indians. Another special feature is blending of the numerals through padas or words. It was necessary/essential to erect different types of sacrificial altars for different sacrifices. Hence, to build such altars they knew different types of geometrical designs, their area, modifications, etc. Hence, this field was known then itself. Indians were forerunners in Algebra, explanation and analysis of equations, especially simultaneous equations. A simultaneous equation with many variables, use of geometry in Algebra and exposition of Geometry through Algebra are examples of their vast knowledge. This land became fertile on account of great masters like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Mahavira, Sridhara, Bhaskaracharya and others. Amongst them, Bhaskaracharya Il excels. His speciality is that the problems are posed by describing the beauty of natural objects. This field has expanded from the days of great masters like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Mahavira, Sridhara, Bhaskaracharya to the modern mathematician Srinivas Ramanujan. Because of the contribution of all it has spread widely.
Biology and Environmental Science:
Our ancestors have contributed immensely to the field of Biology. They classified plants and animals on the basis of their nature quality. Independent works such as ‘Treatise on Horses’ and ‘Treatise on Elephants’ have been written. Dalvana is known to be a specialist in the study of serpents. There are references to his expertise in 13 varieties of serpents. They considered protection of the environment as their primary duty.
They perceived God in everything – Sun, trees, water, wind, earth etc. They always considered polluting or destroying the nature/environment as sin. The ancestors did everything keeping in mind the uses and protection of plants and animals. That is why they used to say that planting five mango trees will prevent an individual from going to hell. In the construction of wells, lakes and other sources of water their contribution was really great. Not only in construction but also in their maintenance they were devoted and dedicated. They inflicted/levied fine on those who polluted the place and punished them too. They had a law for the purpose. In this way they protected the ground water level. Works like ‘Aryabhatiyam’ written by Aryabhata, ‘Panchasiddhantika’ and ‘Brihatsamhita’ by Varahamihira, ‘Kakshaputatantram’ relating to Chemistry by Nagarjuna, works on Ayurveda by Charaka and Sushruta, ‘Siddhanta Siromani’ of Bhaskaracharya bear ample testimony to the intelligence of ancient Indians. Let us all devote ourselves to the study of these works.