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Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2015 (North)
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
- Answer All the questions.
- Draw map and diagrams wherever necessary.
- Question No. V is on cartography
- Blind students attempt only VA, 52, 53 and 54 instead of V – B, C and D.
I. Answer the following questions in a word, or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
What is Geography?
The scientific study of the Earth surface and its various climates, natural resources and human activities.
What amount of time does the Earth take to complete one Rotation?
The period of rotation is 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds or roughly 24 hours.
What is an Earthquake?
It means vibration of Earth crust, The series of vibrations that result from the sudden movements of earth’s crust is known as earthquake.
What is Weathering?
The process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks by natural agents can be called as weathering.
What is Salinity?
The amount of salt which is present in a water body is called as salinity.
What is Environment?
The study of the surroundings of humans where they live and work is known as environment.
What is Geographical area of India?
The total geographical area of India is 32, 87, 263 sq km.
What is the other name to the Himalaya?
The other name of Himalaya is ‘Abode of Snow’ (or) Young Fold Mountains.
What type of climate is found in India?
India has a ‘Tropical Monsoon type of climate’.
What is Drought?
The term drought is applied to an extended period when there is a shortage of water availability due to inadequate rainfall, over utilization of water etc.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in each 2 or 3 sentences: (10 × 2 = 20)
Name the waves of Earthquakes.
- Primary (P) Waves
- Secondary (S) Waves
- Surface Waves
Out of the energy radiated by the sun, the radiant energy received by the earth is called as the incoming solar radiation or Insolation.
What are Tides?
The regular rise and fall of water level in the sea and oceans is called tides.
What is Conservation of Ocean?
The protection and preservation of ocean resources for the future generations is known as conservation of ocean.
What is Biomes?
Biome is the plant and animal community that covers a specific geographical area.
Name the types of Environment.
- Physical Environment
- Cultural Environment
Write Latitudianal and Longitudinal extent of India.
India extends between 8°4’North to 37°6’North latitude and 68°7′ East to 97°25′ East longitudes.
Name the neighbouring countries of India.
- Pakistan and Afghanistan are in the Northwest.
- China, Nepal and Bhutan are in the North.
- Myanmar is in the East and Bangladesh is in the Northeast.
- Srilanka and Maldives are in the South Oceanic Zone.
What are the tributaries of River Krishna?
The Bhima, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra and Musi are the main-tributaries of the river Krishna.
What are the importance of Black soil?
It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water for a long period and is high moisture retentive. This is most suitable for the cultivation of cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, pulses etc.
What is Conservation of Forest?
Protection and preservation of forest for the utilisation of future generations is called as ‘Conservation of Forest’.
Name the Flood prone areas of India.
- The Ganga basin
- The Brahmaputra basin
- The Central India and Peninsular River Basin.
III. Answer any Eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Explain the important branches of Geography.
1. Physical Geography.
The field of physical geography is wide as it includes the study of the entire surface of the earth and also its physical and biological process as well as their morphology. Modern geography has witnessed the development of many branches and some of them even grown into separate disciplines.
Some of the important branches of physical geography are as follows:
- Geomorphology: It is a systematic study of landforms, such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc.
- Climatology: Climatology encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of climates and climatic types and regions.
- Meteorology: The scientific study of atmosphere condition is called meteorology.
- Pedology: It is the scientific study of soil formation, structure, texture, chemical composition and their influence on plant growth.
- Hydrology: Hydrology studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life.
- Seismology: It is the study of Earthquakes, their effects and distribution.
- Astronomical Geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
- Volcanology: It is the scientific study of tectonic process of volcanoes.
- Astronomical geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
- Bio-geography: It is the systematic study of the distribution of plants and animals.
- Hydrology: The study of water on the earth’s land is known as hydrology.
- Oceanography: The study of waves, tides and currents and the other characteristics of oceans, known as oceanography.
2. Human geography: It deals with man and his activities particularly cultural environment factors on man made factors, Important among them are culture, Society, agriculture, mining, industry, transport forming trade population etc.
Some of the important grander of Human geography are as fallows:
1. Political geography: It deals with spatial unit, people distribution, political behavior, political divisions etc.
2. Economic geography: It refers to basic attributes of the economy such as production, distribution exchange of goods and consumption. It deals with the spatial aspects of production, distribution and consumption and also helps on understanding the most proper location for establishing different human activities.
3. Commercial Geography: It deals with the spatial distribution of trade and commercial practices etc.
4. Population Geography: It helps to understand the distribution, growth density, migration and various other components of population.
Explain the proofs in support of the spherical shape of the Earth.
There are several proofs to regard the earth as a spherical shape of the Earth.
a. Heavenly bodies appear to be spherical: The Sun, the Moon and other heavenly bodies appear to be spherical when viewed from different position. The earth is one of them and hence it must also be spherical in shape.
b. The Lunar Eclipse: The lunar eclipse proves that the Earth is in spherical shape. During lunar eclipse when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon. Aristotle was the first scholar to show this by looking at the shadow of the Earth on the lunar surface. Later, this was ascertained by Ptolemy. This is considered to be the oldest proof in respect of the shape of the Earth.
c. Sunrise and Sunset: The time of Sunrise and Sunset is not the same everywhere in the world. This is due to spherical shape of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all places on the Earth would have had sunrise and sunset at the same time everywhere in the world.
d. Circumnavigation: Circumnavigation of the world can only be possible when the Earth is in spherical shape. If one start on a sea voyage towards the east, by moving constantly in the same direction, he would be able to complete a circle of the world and reach the original point form where he had started.
e. The Bed Ford level experiment: Dr.Alfred Russel Wallace conducted an experiment in 1956, along the Bed Ford level canal area in Britain. It is the most convincing proof of the curvature of the Earth. He fixed three poles of same height at an interval of about mile apart and observed through a telescope. It was found that the pole in the middle was higher than other two poles. It is due to the curvature of the Earth. If the Earth were to be flat all the poles would have the same horizontal level.
f. Sighting a ship: A ship on the sea approaching the coast, when seen from the short does not come into view all at once. The observer first sees the mast and then the hull and finally the whole ship. A ship moving away from the coast disappears gradually and finally out of view. If the Earth were to be flat the whole ship would have come into view.
g. Aerial and Satellite Photographs: The photographs taken by the cosmonauts in the recent decades and satellites have provided ample proof to show that the earth is spherical in shape.
Describe the physical weathering.
The disintegration of rocks without any chemical change in their compost in is known as mechanical or physical weathering. The disintegration of rocks occurs mainly due to the influence of temperature variation, frost action, wind action, rainwater, etc.
A. Surface are heated and expand. During the nights the rock surfaces are cooled due to, fall in temperature, rocks contact. The repetition of exemptions and contraction causes tension and stress which leads to cracks in the rocks. Then the rocks disintegrate into i blocks. This process is known as Block disintegration, Rocks are made of different types of minerals.
So the different parts of the same rock mass react differently to temperature. This leads to differential expansion and contraction inside the rocks. The rocks break up into smaller grains. This process of weathering is, called “Granular disintegration”. Due to variat Temperature in the upper and lower layers, the outer layers of rocks peel out into the uric shells. This process of weathering is known as “Exfoliation”.
B. Frost: Rocks are disintegrated due to freezing and thawing of water in the cracks or joints in the rocks. This frost action is more important in the temperate and cold regions. The water present in the cracks of rocks freezes during the night due to fall in temperature below freezing point. When water freezes it expands by 1/10 its volume. It thaws (melts) during the day, due to increase of temperature and it contracts in volume. This alternative freezing and melting of water widens other cracks in the rocks, splits and breaks then into blocks. This is known as frost shattering.
C. Rain: Sometimes, when rain falls suddenly on highly heated rocks in hot desert numerous cracks are developed. This is just like a heated chimney of a lamp, when a drop of water falls on it. The repetition of this mechanism causes disintegration of rocks. In humid region, when torrential rain occurs, the drops strike the rock surface and loosen the particles.
D. Wind: In the deserts the wind blows with greater speed carrying with it sand and rock materials, they collide with each other or strike against the loose rock and cause weathering. In deserts the wind cause this type of weathering on a large scale.
E. Sea waves: Sea waves strike the costal rocks. Repeated striking enlarges the incipient joints. Fractures and cause breaking of rocks into small blocks. Weathering also takes place due to hydraulic pressure, abrasion and attrition caused.
F. Slope: A steep slope helps in weathering. In mountainous and hilly area, sometimes, on account of gravity, blocks of rocks move down the slope while rolling down the slope, they strike against other block and break up into pieces.
G Gravitation: the gravity of Earth makes the huge rocks to roll towards the slope. Rolling rocks strike against each other and break up into pieces.
Explain the structure of the Atmosphere.
The distribution of temperature is not uniform at different height of the atmosphere. Along with the variation of temperature there are unique features at different heights. Based on these characteristics atmosphere is divided into four parallel zones.
1. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and less closer to the earth. The word ‘Tropos’ means ‘turn’ It extends up to 18km at the equator and 8km at poles. Thus the average height is about 10-12km. The important feature of the troposphere are:
Hydrological cycle: It is confined to troposphere. The water evaporates and raised up, formation of clouds takes place. Later it is precipitated in various forms like rain, snow and hailstone. These processes are known as evaporation, condensation and precipitation.
Lapse rate: In this layer the temperature decreases at the rate of 6,5’ Celsius per every 1000 meters of height which is known as ‘lapse rate’.
Clouds: It is characterized with formation of clouds, thunder storms and lighting.
Gaseous Mass: The troposphere has about 75 percent of the total gaseous mass, The upper part of troposphere is known ‘Tropopause’.
2. Stratosphere: It lies above the tropo-sphere and extends up to 50km from the earth. The temperature is also most uniformly distributed. Hence it also known as isothermal zone. At a height of 22kms. There is a thin layer of ozone which absorbs ultraviolet rays of the sun. So it is called as ozonosphere. The name stratopause is given to the upper part of the stratosphere.
3. Mesosphere: It extends from 50 to 80kms. It is an intermediary zone between the lower and upper layers of the atmosphere. A thin layer of air separating mesosphere from the other upper layers in named as‘Mesopause’.
4. Ionosphere: It extends from 90 to 500km. It consists of atoms of air ionized due to intensive temperature. So it is also known as‘Ionosphere’or Thermosphere. The radio waves of different length are reflected back from this layer.
5. Exosphere: The region beyond the Thermosphere is called Exosphere. It extends to about 1,000 km and the gravity of the Earth s too weak in this layer. Magnetosphere is found above this layer. Atmospheric layer in between 500-700kms is known as Exosphere and the atmosphere lying beyond is called‘Magnetosphere’.
Describe the major pressure Belts of the world with a neat diagram.
The distribution of pressure is not equal on the earth’s surface. It changes from palace to place and time to time on the basis of air temperature and rotation of the earth. Any area in the atmosphere where air pressure is higher than in the surrounding areas is called “ High pressure” Thee are 4 high pressure belts and 3 low pressure belts on the earth’s surface.
Equatorial Low pressure belt: This belt lies between latitudes 5° N and 5° S. The Sun’s rays are almost vertical on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the temperature is uniformly high and pressure is low throughout the year. It is also known as “Doldrums”. The air gets warm and rises upward. Horizontal movement of air is absent and convectional currents occur. This is the zone of convergence of the trade winds.
Sub tropical high pressure belts: The air ascended in the form of convectional currents from the equatorial region partly descends in the between 30 to 40’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. The descending air has thus formed two high pressure zones known as subtropics high pressure belts. It is the zone from which trade and anti-trade winds originate. This belt is also known as “ horse altitudes’. It is dry and quite stable. The name horse latitude is given by the ancient sailors who used to transport horses on ships. Due to absence of strong winds, some times the ship could not move with horses. Hence sailors used to dump horses to make the ship move forward.
Sub Polar low pressure belts: In between polar high pressure knd sub-tropical high pressure belt, the sum-tropical low pressure belts are situated. They lies in between 60’ to 70’ latitudes in both the hemispheres. They are formed with spinning action of rotation of the earth and also uprising air as an effect of incoming cold polar winds.
Polar high pressure belts: The Polar Regions are characterized with low temperature. The air raised at the equator descends around the poles causing high pressure belts. The cold polar winds blow outward from this zone.
Explain the ocean bottom Relief.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief features. They are.
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 180 and 200 meters. Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses.
If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.
2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea plains is called “continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3.600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.
3. The deep sea plains: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3,000 and 6,000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust.
4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep’ or ‘trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc. There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.
Explain the ocean currents of Indian Ocean.
Indian Ocean is different from other ocean in the pattern of its current. This is due to the size of the Indian Ocean, the position of land masses and the seasonal change in the direction of monsoon winds. This is true of the North Indian Ocean. But in the south Indian Ocean, the currents flow as in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.
a. North Indian Ocean currents: The north Indian Ocean currents change their direction. twice a year as result of the alternating monsoon winds greatly influence the ocean currents in summer. The current flows off from the coast of Somali as the Somali current and drifts across the Arabian Sea as the south-west monsoon drift. Finally it joins the North Equatorial current and completes a clockwise circulation.
In winter, the North east winds influence the currents. Hence the currents starting form the stair of Malacca flows along the eastern and western coasts of India as “North East Monsoon Drift” and west ward. Then it turns near the Gulf of Aden to the west flows towards the south and turns east wards near the equator, finally it joins the North Equatorial Current and completes an antilock wise circulation.
b. South Indian Ocean currents: The currents of the south Indian Ocean are not affected by the monsoon winds. So the current of the south Indian Ocean are similar to those in the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. In the south Indian Ocean, the South-East trade winds blow towards the west and give rise to the equatorial current, i.e. the south equatorial current.
On reaching the eastern coast of Africa, it flow southwards and is divided in two to branches, as it is obstructed by Madagascar Island. One branch enters the Mozambique current. The other branch flows eastwards of Madagascar Island and is known as ‘Madagascar current’. These two currents join again. And flow southwards as the Agulhas current. At 40 S latitude under the influence of the westerlies, it flows eastwards as West wind drift. It is also known as Indian Ocean current.
On reaching Australia, it divides into two branches, One branch turns northwards along the west coast of Australia as the west Australian current. Again turns west and North West, and finally joins the south equatorial current. The other branch moves to the southern coast of Australia and enters the Pacific Ocean.
Explain the Northern Himalayan mountains.
India is characterized by great diversity in its physical features. On the basis of physiography, the country is divided in to four major physical divisions. They are:
- The Northern Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Coastal Plains and Islands
The Himalayas: This is loftiest and snow covered mountains in the world. The area occupied by the Himalayas was earlier a part of ‘Tethys Sea’. The formation of this mountain is by tectonic forces of Gondawana land Angara land masses. It is situated to the north of the Indus and Ganga and the Brahmaputra plains. The slopes of the Himalayas are gentle towards the north and steep towards south.
The Himalayas have distinct characteristics of high relief, snow covered peaks, complex geographical structures, parallel separated by deep valleys and rich temperate vegetation.The Himalayas are classified into three parallel ranges based on altitude and latitude.
The Great Himalayas or Himadri The lesser Himalayas or Himachal The Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks.
a. The Great Himalayas or Himadri: These are the inner most loftiest and continuous ranges of mountains. The average height of the Great Himalayas is 6200 m and the width varies between 120 and 190 km. The important peaks of great Himalayas in India are, Kanchenjunga-8598m in Sikkim, Nanga Prabat-8126m, Nandadevi, Badrinath, Karmet, Trishuletc.
b. The lesser Himalayas or Himachal: These ranges are also known as Inner Himalayas or Himachal ranges. It is situated between great Himalayas inn the north and Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks in the south. Its average height is around 1500-4500m and the width is about 60 to 80 km. These are very rugged and complex ranges due to erosion by rivers. The important ranges in Lesser Himalayas are Pirpanjal, Dhaul Dhar and nag – tiba etc. The important Hill stations are Shimla, Musooire, Ranikeht, Nainital, Almora, Chakrata, Darjeeling etc. Kulu valley, Kangra valley, Spiti valley are the famous valleys of Himachal.
c. The Outer Himalayas or Siwaliks: These are the outer most ranges situated to the south of Lesser Himalayas, known as Siwaliks. The Siwaliks extend from Jammu & Kashmir in the North West to Arunachal Pradesh in east. The average height of this range is around 600-1500m and its width varies between 15-5Qklm. The siwaliks are formed from the sediments brought down by the rivers of lesser, and Greater Himalayas.
There are flat floored structure valleys between Siwaliks and Lesser Himalayas, Known as Siwaliks. The Siwaliks extend from Jammu&Kashmir in the North West to Arunchal Pradesh in east.
Differencate between the North Indian rivers and South Indian rivers.
Explain the South-West Monsoon season.
The south-west monsoon winds as starts in June and ends in mid-September. It is also known as advancing monsoon season or rainy season. During this season, India gets more than 75% of its annual rainfall and more than 90% of the country’s area receives downpour. It is the prime season for Kharif crops.
In the middle of June the direct rays of the Sun fall on tropic of caner due to shift in the position of the Sun from Equator towards northern hemisphere. Therefore, there is an increase in temperature from south to north. The temperature in the main land of India and nearby land masses is high compared to water bodies of the Indian Ocean.
a. The Arabian Sea branch: The Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon strikes the western coast of India in Kerala on the 1st June. Arabian sea winds by carrying more moisture blow along the western coast of India and cause heavy rainfall in the western part of Western Ghats due to obstruction. These winds behave like sea breeze and cause continuous rainfall I the wind ward side of the Western Ghats tHl they lose their moisture.
Agumbe of Karnataka receives the highest rainfall during this season. This regions coming under southeast monsoon winds receive good rainfall wherever they get obstruction by hills and plateaus.
b. The Bay of Bengal branch blow from water bodies towards the Indian mainland due to variation in pressure. These winds carry moisture form the Bay of Bengl and blow along eastern coast and finally reach north eastern hills. In its path, whenever this wind receives obstruction, they cause good rainfall. The eastern part of Eastern Ghats and north astern hills receive heavy rainfall. These winds after crossing eastern coast merge the Arabian sea winds.
The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal winds, after merging, blow towards north eastern regions of India. The shape of the Himalayan Mountains and northeastern hills greatly obstruct these winds. Therefore the Meghalaya plateau region, particularly Nokrek areas of Mawsynram and cheerapunji, receive very high rainfall. This place is popularly called Rainiest or wettest place on the Earth.
The southwest monsoon after crossing northeastern region blow towards east. Since the Himalayas obstruct these winds they have to take westerly direction and blow along the foothills of Himalayas. The shift in the direct6 sun rays from Tropic of Cancer towards Equator results in the gradual disappearance of southwest monsoons. Indian economy depends on the Monsoons to a large extent.
Explain the types of soils in India.
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the surface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.
The main types of soil in India are:
1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.
- Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
- Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility
2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.
3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.
4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.
5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar are cultivated in this soil.
6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.
Explain the major Seismic zones of India.
Zone V: This is the most severe seismic (intensity above 7 in Richter scale) seismic zone and is referred as Very High Damage risk zone. The areas are. Northeastern states, parts of Jammu Kashmir, Uttarkhand, and Bihar and Kutch region.
Zone IV: This zone is second in severity (intensity between 5 and 7 in R.S) to zone VG. This is referred to as High Damage Risk zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal lie in this region zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal.
Zone III: This is termed as Moderate Damage (very strong) Risk zone (intensity between 3 and 5 in R.S). The areas are Gujarat, Madya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West coastal region etc.
Zone II: This zone is referred to as low Damage (strong) Risk Zone (intensity 2 to 3 R.S). The areas are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha etc.
Zone I: This zone is termed as Very Low Damage (Slight-tremor) Risk Zone. The left out parts of India and Deccan Plateau region.
IV. Answer any One of the following: (1 × 10 = 10)
Explain the structure of the Interior Earth with a neat diagram.
On the basis of the physical and chemical properties of the earth’s surface, behavioral patterns of seismic waves of earthquakes and the lava erupted form volcanoes, it is generally held that the earth is composed of three layers or parts.
1. The crust: The outer or upper most layer of the earth is the crust. It is solid and is the thinnest and lightest part. It is 6to 60 kms thick. It has two layers.
a. Continental crust or sial: The upper part consist of sedimentary and granite rocks’ and forms the continents. Its major constituent elements are silica and aluminum. So, it is termed as sial. Its average thickness ranges between 10-12 km.
b. Oceanic crust or Sima: The lower part of other Crust is known as oceanic crust. Its thickness is around 5 km. This layer is rich in silica and Magnesium. Therefore, it is called Sima. The lower continuous layer is mostly composing of silica and magnesium and so it is termed as sima. The mean density of this layer is 2.95gm. Conrad discontinuity between Sial and Sima and Mohorovicic discontinuity between Crust and Mantle are the major discontinues in the crust.
2. The Mantle: The portion of the earth’s interior, lying beneath the crust and above the core is known as mantle. It is largely made up of basic silicates, rich in iron and magnesium. It extends from 60 to 2,900km. The density of this layer from 3.3 to 5.7gm. The mantle has two parts.
a. Upper Mantle: This is the outer layer of the Mantle known as Asthenosphre. Most of the earthquakes and volcanoes take birth due to disorder in this layer.
b. Lower Mantle: This is the lower layer of the Mantle known as Mesosphere and it is in solid form. Repetti discontinuity between Asthenosphere and Mesosphere and Gutenberg discontinuity between Mantle and Core are the major discontinues in the mantle
3. The core: The core is the central part of the earth’s interior. It extends from the lower boundary of the mantle to the centre of the earth for about 6,400 kms. The most important materials of core are nickel and ferrous (Nife). The core consists of two layers, namely.
a. Outer core: It is the outer layer of the Core consisting hard molten rocks. Most of the materials are in molten form. It extends from 2900km to 4980km.
b. Inner core: It is the lower layer of the Core with very high temperature and pressure. Most of the materials are in solid form therefore, it is called solid core. The average temperature of this layer is around 2900° C. Transition discontinuity is found between Outer. Core and Inner Core.
Explain the Role of the river with a neat diagram.
River is an important external agent of denudation on the ever-changing face of the Earth. The work of river is more or less common in all the drainage systems of the world.
The work of river consists of three closely interrelated activities.
1. Erosional work: The process of wearing and taking away the part of rock is known as ‘Erosion’. It depends upon the volume and velocity of water, nature of slope and the nature of rocks. The erosional work of the river is performed in two ways.
a. The Mechanical and b. The Chemical erosion.
There are various Iandforms associated to erosional work of river.
a. ’V’ Shaped valley: In the mountain course the speed of the river is greater and volume is less. As the water rushes down the steep slopes there is maximum vertical , or later erosion. The rapid down cutting or vertical erosion results in the formation of ‘V’shaped valley.
b. Gorge: A deep and narrow valley with steep rocky, sides in the river course is known as ‘Gorge’. They are formed by the regular vertical cutting by the rivers in the valleys eg. Narmada gorge.
c. I shape valley: Avey steep, deep river valley formed by the river, lookinglike T, is called ‘I’ Shaped valley. These are very deep compared to gorges.
d. Canyon: It is a wide, deep and steep valley almost with vertical walls like feature found in the arid or semi arid regions is called ‘Canyon’ eg. Grand Canyon of River Colorado in USA.
e. Potholes: These are the small depressions in the rocky beds of other river valley. They are formed by corrosion. Pebbles, sand and small rocks carried by the river swirled around on the river bed. This action erodes the rock on the river bed forming potholes.
f. Waterfalls: Huge volume of water falling from a great height along the course of a river is called “Waterfalls’. They are formed when the hard and soft rocks come in the way of flowing river. The soft rock gets eroded faster and hard rock does not erode easily. Therefore huge amount of water falls from great height and creates waterfalls. Eg. The Jog falls, The Angel falls, The Victoria falls.
g. River Capture: It is formed mainly due to head-ward erosion by the river near its source. When the source of a river is captured by another major and strong river it is called‘River Capture’.
2. Transportational work: The process of carrying away the eroded materials is known as ‘Transportation’. The rock materials and eroded particles carried by a river is called its Load. The transportation capacity of a river is based on velocity of water, volume of water, load, slope, smooth valley floor etc.
The major landforms associated with the transportational work of the river are:
a. Alluvial fans: The term alluvium refers to the debris transported and deposited by rivers. When the fast flowing river enters the plateau or plain region, it experience sudden decline in gradient and obstruction in its path. Due to obstruction of the river spreads and deposits many of its light materials in fan shape known as ‘alluvial fans’.
b. Alluvial cones: In the plateau and foot hill region when the river spreads out, the eroded materials carried by the river is deposited in conical shape called ‘Alluvial cones’.
3. Depositional work: The process of carrying and accumulating the eroded materials by the river at the lower course is called ‘deposition’. In the lower course due to gentle slope the river slows down and deposits most of its materials on the banks, course and the mouth.
The important landforms resulting from depositional work of the river are:
a. Meanders: In the lower course, river flows slowly in zig zag or curved manner due . to smaller obstruction in its path. A curve or loop formed by the river in its path is called ‘Meander’. When the river course formed by such crescent shaped loops due to continuous lateral deposition it is called meandering course.
b. Ox-bow Lakes: The ox-bow lakes are formed by depositional and erosional actions taking place simultaneously and they are a result of excessive meandering. The River which flows through the shorter route leaving the curve of the meander cut off and crescent shaped lake is formed known as‘Ox-bow lakes’.
c. Flood Plains: When the river is in floods the water overflows on its bank and spreads in the surrounding regions. The silt carried by the water gets deposited in these areas and creates flat plains on both the banks of the rive known as ‘Flood Plains’.
d. Delta: A triangular shaped alluvial deposition forced at the mouth of the river is called ‘Delta’. Important types of deltas are
a. Arcuate or Common delta
b. Bird-foot delta
e. Distributaries: As the river approaches the sea or Ocean, due to reduction in gradient, joining of tributaries, its volume increases, speed decreases hence, the rivet begins to break up into a number of branches from the main river called ‘Distributaries’.
f. Estuary: Estuaries are the tidal mouth of a river having a narrow, gradually widening lay at the mouth. In Estuary River water is mixed with seawater. Eg. The Narmada estuary, The Kali estuary.
V. A. Answer the following questions in a sentence each: (5 × 1 = 5)
What is a Map?
A map is defined as a symbolical and convenient representation of the earth.
What is Scale?
A scale is the ratio of the distance between two points on a map and the actual distance
What is Index?
The conventions used for signs and symbols that are shown on a map are known as Index.
Name any two essential features of a Map.
Mention the two o uses of Maps.
- Maps are very useful to the Government for Planning and Administrative Purpose.
- They are very much helpful at the time of War and Defence.
B. Identify the Latitudes and Longitudes for the given places from the given Karnataka map: (5 × 1 = 5)
15°52′ North (Latitude) 74°30’East (Longitude)
17°54’North (Latitude) 77°35′ East (Longitude)
12°5T North (Latitude) 74°50’East (Longitude)
12°25’North (Latitude) 75°44′ East (Longitude)
C. Draw a diagram of the following: (2 × 2 =4)
D. Draw the outline map of India, mark and name the following: (3 × 2 = 6)
Physical divisions of India
Western Coast and Eastern Coast.
Krishna river and Cauvery river.
Rivers and Lakes
Blind Candidates only
Write the following questions: (5 × 3 = 15)
Explain the essential features of Maps.
The essential features of a map.
1. Title – A Map should have a title eg. India Physical, Karnataka Political, World Cultural, District Roads etc.
2. Scale – A Map must have a scale and Maps have to be drawn according to scale. It denotes the relationship between the length on the map and the actual distance on the ground. Scales may be Verbal or R.F (Representative Fraction) or Graphical eg. 1 cm = 10km, 1 inch= 100 miles, 1: 1000,1: 100000 etc.
3. Direction – A Map should have a direction symbol which helps the reader to understand the direction of a Place or Area or City or Country etc.
4. Index – It is a key or legend to the map. The conventional signs and symbols are shown in the index of a map. It helps the reader to find the required information from the map.
5. Latitudes and Longitudes – A Map must have a network of horizontal and vertical lines known as latitudes and longitudes. These are the Geographic co-ordinates through which location of a place or city or country is identified. In addition to this, they help to understand the direction and to calculate distance between places.
Explain the types of Maps.
Maps may be broadly divided into two types.
A. On the basis of Scale Maps are classified into three types.
(a) Large Scale Maps: The Maps drawn on the scale of 1 cm= 1 km or 1:1, 00,000 and 1 inch=1 mile or 1:63,360 eg. Cadastral maps (Village, Town and City maps).
(b) Medium Scale Maps: the Maps drawn on the scale of 1 cnm=1 Km to 1 cm=10 km or 1:1,00,000 and 1:10,00,000 eg. Topographical Maps (Mountains, Plateaus, plains).
(c) Small Scale maps: The Maps drawn on the scale below 1 cm: 15Km or 1:15,00,000 eg. Atlas and Wall Maps. These maps show broad physical and cultural features.
B. On the basis of purpose various types of Maps are prepared.
(i) Topographical maps: To show relief features, forests, land use, river system, roads, railways, pipelines, distribution of rural and urban settlements etc.
(ii) Cadastral maps: The Cadastral maps are drawn to register the ownership of field, farm, building, firm etc.
(iii) Economic Maps: These maps provide information about human economic activities eg. Agriculture, mining, industry, marketing, trade etc.
(iv) Population Maps: These maps show the information about distribution, growth, density, migration, age and sex composition of population. These maps are also drawn to show the distribution of occupational structure, language, social groups of people etc.
(v) Weather Maps: These are useful to analyzed weather condition and distribution of temperature, pressure, humidity, winds, rainfall etc.
Mention the uses of Maps.
- Maps are very useful to the government for planning and administrative purposes.
- Maps are essential to a geographer, to present spatial information systematically.
- They are useful to locate lakes, rivers, vegetation, coastal features and also to understand the distribution of soils, minerals, crops, population, tourist places.
- They are very much helpful at the time of war and defence.
- Maps are very important for the army. Military maps are very useful for the overall planning of the strategy of war and for coordinating military action during war.
- Maps are very useful tools for a geographer. Geography cannot be understood and made interesting without maps.
- Maps are also immensely useful to other sciences, like physical and social sciences. For example Geology, climatology, Meteorology etc.
- Maps serve as a permanent record to locate features like rivers, lakes vegetation etc.
- Maps enable us to know details of the landforms and other ground features. Mountains, plateaus, plains, coastal plains etc.
- Maps serve as a permanent record to locate features like rivers, lakes, vegetations etc.
- Maps showing the distribution of objects become very useful to understand the location and distribution of different objects such as minerals, soils, vegetation, agricultural crops, industries, population, etc.
- Maps help to mark political boundary, administrative areas to formulate legislation and legal jurisdiction.