# 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South)

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## Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

Instructions:

2. Draw map and diagrams wherever necessary.
3. Question No. V is on cartography
4. Blind students attempt only VA, 52, 53 and 54 instead of V – B, C and D.

Section – A

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 x 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
What is the total Geographical area of the earth?
510 Million sq.km.

Question 2.
Name any one Valcano of India.
Narcondam in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Question 3.
What is weathering?
The process if disintegration and decomposition of rocks is known as “Weathering”.

Question 4.
Which region is predominant in corbonation.
Carbonation is very active in limestone regions.

Question 5.
Name the instrument used to measure speed of the wind.
“Anemometer” is used to measure the speed of winds.

Question 6.
How many pressure belts are there in the globe?
There are seven pressure belts on the globe.

Question 7.
What is the Hydrological cycle?
The cyclic mevement of water between the atmosphere and the earth’s sunface is called ‘Hydrological cycle’.

Question 8.
What is the Environment?
The whole sum of surrounding external conditions within which an organism, a community or an object exists is called Environment.

Question 9.
Mention the highest peak of penisular plateau.
The highest peak of Penisular plateau is Anaimudi (2695m) situated in Annamalai hills of Kerala.

Question 10.
Mention the average forest area of the country.
The average forest cover of the country is 22.50%

II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 11.
Mention the equatorial and polar diameter of the earth.
Equatorial diameter of the Earth is 12,75tton and Polar diameter of the Earth is 12,714km

Question 12.
Mention any two causes of a valcano.
A volcano is an opening in the crust of the Earth through which heated materials consisting of gases, hot water, lava and fragments of rocks are ejected from the interior of the Earth.

Question 13.
Give any two examples of metamorphic Rock.
Marble, Diamond, Quartzite, Ruby, Emerald are the examples of metamorphic rock.

Question 14.
Name any two agents of denudation?
The natural agents which are responsible for the modeling and shaping of the Earth’s surface are called “Agents of Denudation”.

• River-Its activity is common in the drainage regions
• Glaciers- Its activity is widespread in the polar and high mountain regions.

Question 15.
Mention the components of Atmosphere.
Various gases, water vapour and dust particles

Question 16.
Differentiate between weather and climate?
Weather is the average condition of the atmosphere at a particular place for short period. But climate is the average condition of the atmosphere over an area over a long period of time. Weather is described as sultry, cloudy, stormy, chilly, fine or mild etc. Climate is described as hot, cold, dry, humid and wet.

Question 17.
Mention any four dissolved minerals in the ocean water.
The total amount of dissolved solids in the ocean water is called salinity. The ocean’s salinity consists of various elements. They are Sodium chloride, Magnesium chloride, Magnesium sulphate, Calcium sulphate, potassium sulphate, Calcium carbonate, Magnesium bromide etc.

Question 18.
Name the two types of ocean currents.
On the basis latitude and temperature two types of ocean currents are ideñtified. They are:

• Warm Currents: These are the high temperature ocean currents flowing from the equatorial regions to Polar Regions.
• Cold currents: These are the cool ocean currents flowing from Polar Regions to equatorial regions.

Question 19.
Mention any two Ranges of Trans Himalayas.

Question 20.
Write any four west flowing rivers of Penisular India.
The Luni, Sabarmati, Tapi, Kali, Sharavathi, Netravati, Peryiar are the major west flowing rivers.

Question 21.
Name the states which have the highest and lowest forest area in the country.
Madhya Pradesli (44.8%) is the highest and Haryana state 2.6% is the lowest forest areas in the country.

Question 22.
Why is India called ‘Meteorological unit?
Monsoons are the periodic winds in which there is reversal of wind direction periodically. On account of the variability in climatic conditions, seasonally and regionally, India is called ‘Meteorological Unit’.

III. Answer any Eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: ( 5 x 8 = 40 )

Question 23.
Explain the important branches of Geography.
1. Physical Geography.
The field of physical geography is wide as it includes the study of the entire surface of the earth and also its physical and biological process as well as their morphology. Modern geography has witnessed the development of many branches and some of them even grown into separate disciplines.

Some of the important branches of physical geography are as follows:

• Geomorphology: It is a systematic study of landforms, such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc.
• Climatology: Climatology encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of climates and climatic types and regions.
• Meteorology: The scientific study of atmosphere condition is called meteorology.
• Pedology: It is the scientific study of soil formation, structure, texture, chemical composition and their influence on plant growth.
• Hydrology: Hydrology studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life.
• Seismology: It is the study of Earthquakes, their effects and distribution.
• Astronomical Geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
• Volcanology: It is the scientific study of tectonic process of volcanoes.
• Astronomical geography: It is the study of heavenly bodies of the space like planets, satellites, stars etc in relation to the earth.
• Bio-geography: It is the systematic study of the distribution of plants and animals.
• Hydrology: The study of water on the earth’s land is known as hydrology.
• Oceanography: The study of waves, tides and currents and the other characteristics of oceans, known as oceanography.

2. Human geography: It deals with man and his activities particularly cultural environment factors on man made factors, Important among them are culture, Society, agriculture, mining, industry, transport forming trade population etc.

Some of the important grander of Human geography are as fallows:

(1) Political geography: It deals with spatial unit, people distribution, political behavior, political divisions etc.

(2) Economic geography: It refers to basic attributes of the economy such as production, distribution exchange of goods and consumption. It deals with the spatial aspects of production, distribution and consumption and also helps on understanding the most proper location for establishing different human activities.

(3) Commercial Geography: It deals with the spatial distribution of trade and commercial practices etc.

(4) Population Geography: It helps to understand the distribution, growth density, migration and various other components of population.

Question 24.
Describe the special latitudes and Temperature zones of the globe with neat diagram.
Due to the Earth’s inclination at 66 1/2°and revolution, we recognize a few special latitudes on the globe. The vertical rays of the Sun strike the Earth at different points at different times of the year. On March 21st and September 23rd it falls on the middle of the Earth i.e., Equator. On June 21st the vertical rays fall on 23 1/2° North – Tropic of Cancer and on December 22nd it falls on 23 1/2° South- Tropic of Capricorn. On June 21st the Sun’s rays reach 66 1/2° South Antarctic circle. The North Pole (90° south) is the two ends of the Earth’s axis.

On the basis of special latitudes the globe may be divided into ‘Temperature zones’ or ‘ Heat zones’. Direct rays of the sun produce more heat than the slanting rays. The region near the equator receives more direct rays of the Sun. These rays are intense over smaller areas and so it heats up the Earth more. As we go away from the equator, the sun’s rays strike the Earth’s surface with slanting rays, spreading over a larger area so, they do not heat as intensely as the direct rays. Therefore, when we go from the equator to the poles, we come across zones with varying temperatures.

The Torrid Zone The zone stretches between 231/2°N and south latitudes and more or less receives the vertical rays of the sun. As a result, this region experiences moderately warm climate throughout the year.

The Temperate zone: In between the Torrid and the frigid zones i.e., between 23 1/2°N and South and 66 1/2°N and S lies the Temperate Zone. In this zone the sun’s rays fall obliquely and hence the region experiences a moderate climate.

The Frigid Zone: This zone extends from Arctic Circle to North Pole (66 1/2°N to 90°N) in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic circle to South Pole (66 1/2° S to 90° S) is known as ‘Frigid Zone’. Since the sun’s rays fall extremely obliquely in this region, the region experience extremely cold climate.

Question 25.
Explain the structure and composition of the Earth with neat diagram.
On the basis of the physical and chemical properties of the earth’s surface, behavioral patterns of seismic waves of earthquakes and the lava erupted form volcanoes, it is generally held that the earth is composed of three layers or parts.

1. The crust: The outer or upper most layer of the earth is the crust. It is solid and is the thinnest and lightest part. It is 6to 60 kms thick. It has two layers.
a. Continental crust or sial: The upper part consist of sedimentary and granite rocks’ and forms the continents. Its major constituent elements are silica and aluminum. So, it is termed as sial. Its average thickness ranges between 10-12 km.

b. Oceanic crust or Sima: The lower part of other Crust is known as oceanic crust. Its thickness is around 5 km. This layer is rich in silica and Magnesium. Therefore, it is called Sima. The lower continuous layer is mostly composing of silica and magnesium and so it is termed as sima. The mean density of this layer is 2.95gm. Conrad discontinuity between Sial and Sima and Mohorovicic discontinuity between Crust and Mantle are the major discontinues in the crust.

2. The Mantle: The portion of the earth’s interior, lying beneath the crust and above the core is known as mantle. It is largely made up of basic silicates, rich in iron and magnesium. It extends from 60 to 2,900km. The density of this layer from 3.3 to 5.7gm. The mantle has two parts.

a. Upper Mantle: This is the outer layer of the Mantle known as Asthenosphre. Most of the earthquakes and volcanoes take birth due to disorder in this layer.

b. Lower Mantle: This is the lower layer of the Mantle known as Mesosphere and it is in solid form. Repetti discontinuity between Asthenosphere and Mesosphere and Gutenberg discontinuity between Mantle and Core are the major discontinues in the mantle

3. The core: The core is the central part of the earth’s interior. It extends from the lower boundary of the mantle to the centre of the earth for about 6,400 kms. The most important materials of core are nickel and ferrous (Nife). The core consists of two layers, namely.

a. Outer core: It is the outer layer of the Core consisting hard molten rocks. Most of the materials are in molten form. It extends from 2900km to 4980km.

b. Inner core: It is the lower layer of the Core with very high temperature and pressure. Most of the materials are in solid form therefore, it is called solid core. The average temperature of this layer is around 2900° C. Transition discontinuity is found between Outer. Core and Inner Core.

Question 26.
What is mineral? Explain the types of minerals.
Mineral is a natural inorganic substance which has certain chemical and physical properties. The scientific study of minerals is called Mineralogy. Minerals are used by man for various human activities. Understanding them minerals their types and uses is very important as natural resources of the earth.

Types: Minerals are classified into different types on the basis of nature, texture, and sues. Important among them are,

1. Metallic Minerals: These minerals are not in metallic form and they do not contain metal. A few non-metallic minerals are Mica, Asbestos, Sulphur, lead, Zinc, Phosphate etc.
2. Non-Metallic Minerals: These minerals are not in metallic form and they do not contain metal. A few non-metallic minerals are Mica, Asbestos, Sulphur, Lead, Zinc, Phosphate etc.

Minerals are also classified into other types.
Ferrous minerals which contain Iron e.g. Iron Ore. Non-ferrous minerals – these minerals do not contain ferrous e.g. Bauxite, Mica. – A few minerals are used for making decorative, commercial and precious ornaments are called Precious minerals. E.g. Platinum, Diamond, Gold and Silver. Some minerals are use for the generation of energy. They are Nuclear or atomic minerals e.g. Uranium, Thorium etc.

Question 27.
Briefly explain the types of tides
The regular and periodic fall and rise of the ocean water is called tides. The rising of water level is known as high tide or flood tide. The falling of water level is known as low tide or ebb tide. The difference between the high tide and low tide is called tidal range or range of tide.

Types of Tides:

There are different types of tides. The important types of tides are as follows:

1. Spring tides: Spring tides occur when the earth, sun and moon are more or less in a straight line. This happens on a full moon day. When the earth is between the sun and the moon or on a new moon day, when the moon is between the sun and the earth. The combined pull of the sun and moon on the earth is very great, and it produces very high tides and very low tides. Such tides are called spring tides.

2. Neap Tides: When the earth, sun and moon are not in a straight line, the sun and the moon are not exerting combined force.

3. So, the gravitational pull is much less. At half moon, the force exerted is the minimum. On the ocean water. Consequently the high tides are not very high and the low tides are not very low. They are called “Neap tides”.

Question 28.
Waht is Biomes? Breifly explain the types of Biomes.
A distinct group of life forms and the environment in which they are found is called ‘Biomes’. In other words, Biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. On the basis of the dominant life form, six major biomes are identified.

a. Forest biomes: Trees are the dominant life form of forest biome. High temperature, humid climate and soil moisture help for thick tree cover. Equatorial region is dominant with forest biome.

b. Savanna biome: It is the transitional biome between the forest biome and grassland biome. Savanna biome comprises of trees with grasses and herbs. It occupies areas of low and seasonal rainfall.

c. Grassland biome: in this biome grasses constitute the dominant vegetation. It is dominant in the moderate soil water deficit regions, semi-arid areas of dry tropical, sub-tropical and mid-latitude regions.

d. Desert biome: It includes organisms capable of surviving in moderate to severe water deficit for most of the year. In this region temperature may range from hot to cool. Most common plants found in this belt are xerophytes.

e. Tundra biome: It includes small plants that can grow quickly during a short warm to cool summer season, in the low temperature and high latitudinal areas.

f. Aquatic biome: Aquatic regions house numerous species of plants and animals, both large and small. This is where life began billions of years ago. Without water, most life forms would be unable to sustain themselves and the Earth would be a barren, desert-like place. Ponds, lakes, rivers, wetlands and oceans are sources of aquatic biomes.

Question 29.
Explain the location size and frontiers of India.
Location: The main land oflndia extends between 8°4’ N to 37°6’N latitude and 68° 7’ Eto 97°23 E longitude. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent oflndia is around 30° The country stretches to 3214 km from North to South and 2933 km from West to East. The northern tip of India is recognized as ‘Indira Col’ in Jammu & Kashmir while, the southern tip (main land) is ‘Kanyakumari’ or ‘Cape Camorin’ in Tamilnadu. In the same way the western and eastern tips of the country are ‘Rann of Kutch’ in Gujarat and ‘Luhit’ in Arunachal Pradesh respectively.

The territorial limit oflndia extends up to 6° 45’ N latitude. ‘Indira point’ situated at this latitude in Great Nicobar Islands. As a peninsular country India has both land and water frontiers. The total length of land frontier of the country is 15,200 km. The mainland of the country has a coast line of 6,100km including the islands. The total length of the coast line of the country is about 7516km. The territorial water extends into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (22.2km) from the coastal baseline.

India is a peninsula, located at the north tip of the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea in the west, Indian Ocean in the south and Bay of Bengal in the east and covered by land in the north – China, Nepal, Bhutan etc.

The Tropic of Caner 23 1/2° N latitude passes through the middle of lndia and divides the country into almost two equal halves. Indian Standard Time – 82 1/2° E longitude passes through the middle of India (through Allahabad) is recognized as standard longitude of the country two keep standard time.

Size: India is the 7th largest country in the world next to Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia. It has a total geographical area of 32, 87,263 sq.km. This constitutes about 2.4% of the total land area of the Earth. India is the second most populous country in the world next to China. According to 2011 census the total population of the country was 121.6 crore which accounts for about 17.45% of the total world’s population. India has 28 states, 6 union territories and one national capital region (New Delhi).

Frontiers: India has 15,200km long land frontier extending from west to east running from Gujarat in the west to West Bengal in the east. The Himalayas for a natural boundary in the north, between India and China. Similarly, Thar Desert in the west & northwest and eastern hills acts as boundary between India & Pakistan and India & Myanmar respectively. India share land frontier with seven countries, they are Pakistan and Afghanistan to the northwest, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the-East.

The important international boundary lines demarcated between India and neighbouring countries are:

The Durand line- India and Afghanistan (80Km) by Mortimer Durand The Me Mahon line- India and China (PRC) (3488Km) by Henry Me Mahon.
The Radcliff line – India and Pakistan (2910km) by Sir Cyril Radcliff.
Sri Lanka, an island country, situated to the southeast, is separated by Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.

Question 30.
Briefly explain the Regional divisions of the Himalayas.
The Himalayas are also classified into Regional and Longitudinal divisions. They are:
The Kashmir Himalayas The Himachal Himalayas The Kumaun Himalayas The Central or Sikkim Himalayas The Eastern Himalayas.

a. The Kashmir Himalayas: They are spread over in Jammu and Kashmir for about 700sqkm. The important parallel ranges in the Kashmir Himalaya are Karakoram, Ladak, Zaskar and Pirpanjal. They are characterized by high snow covered peaks, largest number of glaciers, deep valleys and High Mountain passes. The north-eastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a cold region and it lies between the Grater Himalayas and the Karakorum ranges. A special feature of the Kashmir valley is the Karewas. The important mountain passes are Banihal, zoji-la, Chang-la, Khardung-la etc.

b. The Himachal Himalayas: It is found in Himachal Pradesh and parts of Punjab, comprising of all the three ranges. The beautiful valleys of Kullu, Kangra, Lahul and Spiti known for orchards and scenic beauty are found here. Shipkila, Rohtang, bara- lacha la are the famous mountain passes and Kullu manali, shimla, Dalhousie, Chama etc.

c. The Kumaun Himalayas: This section extends from Sutlej to kali river valleys and has distance of320kms. The pilgrimage centers like Badrinath and Gangothri are located in this section of Himalayas.

d. The Central or Sikkim Himalayas: This section extends from kali to Tista and has a distance of about 800kms. It is also called as Nepal Himalaya. Mount Everest is located in this 3sectino of Himalaya. This section is further divided for the study into Sikkim, Darjeeling and Bhutan Himalayas.

e. The Eastern Himalayas: This range extends from Tista to Brahmaputra valley covering the states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The width is about 730 kms Naga and Patkaibhum hills are located in this section. This region is very important for tea cultivation.

Question 31.
Briefly explain the coastal plains of India.
This is the region all along the Indian coastline, lying between the coast and the mountain ranges of the peninsular plateau. India has 6100 km from Gujarat in the west to West Bengal in the east. The average width is 10-25 kms. The coastal plain of India is divided into two parts.

The West Coastal plains: It is extends between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. It is narrower than the east coastal plains, stretching to a length of about 1400km and width of 10 to 80km from the Rann of katchchh to Kanyakumari. The west coastal plains have Gujarat, Konkan, Karnataka and Malabar Coasts.

The Gujarat Coast comprises of Rann of Kachchh and Cambay coasts. It is formed by the alluvial deposits of Sabarmati, Mahi, Luni and other small streams. Gujarat has the longest coastline in India Kandla and okha are famous sea ports and along is the biggest ship breaking center. It produces highest salt in the country.

Konkan Coast lies to the south of Gujarat coast and extends line which provides suitable site for natural seaports. Eg: Mumbai, Navasheva, Marmagoa, Karwar, New Mangalore etc., this coast records highest coastal erosion. It is very rich in Petroleum and natural gas. Karnataka coast: it is a part of Konkan coast.

It extends from karwar in the north to Mangalore in the south. It is the narrowest part of west coastal plains. Karwar and New Mangalore are important ports in this belt. Sea Bird, the naval base near Karwar is the largest naval base in India.

The Malabar Coast extends from Mangalore to Kanyakumari, Sand dunes, lagoons and backwaters are the important features of this coast. Cochin or Kochi is the biggest seaport in this coast. Backwaters of Kerala facilitate navigation and tourists enjoy traveling though small country boats. The first south west monsoon rainfall is received in this coast.

East coastal Plains: It lies between the Ea’stern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal stretching from the delta of Hooghly in the North to Kanyakumari in the south. Compared to the west coastal plains the east coastal plains are broader.

The Tatkal Coast: It is the coastal plain of Orissa state. It extend for about 400kmms, north from Subarnarekha river to south of the Rushikulya river. It has a chilka lake, which is the largest salt water lake in India, Para deep is the important horbour located here.

Coromandel Coast: The southern part of east coast is known as the Coromandel Coast. It gets more rainfall from the north east monsoons and it is highly affected by cyclones. The oldest harbor Chennai located here.

Question 32.
What is soil? Explain the major types of soil in india.
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the surface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.

The main types of soil in India are:

1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.

• Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
• Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility

2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.

3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.

4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.

5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar ar cultivated in this soil.

6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.

Question 33.
Briefly explain the importance of forests.
Forests are the one of the important natural resources. They provide various benefits to mankind and environment.

The important benefits are:

1. Forests supply fresh air, food and fodder.
2. Forests are the rain bearers, help in causing good rainfall.
3. They control soil erosion and desertification.
4. Forest provides various products like bamboo, timber, resin, lac, gum cane, fuel, wood etc.
5. They provide medicinal trees and plants used in ayurvedic medicines Eg.Neem tree. Basil, Brahmi etc.
6. They provide shelter to various birds and animals.
7. They absorb much of the rainwater and control floods and safeguards against drought.
8. They act as wind breakers and protect the agricultural crops.
9. The forest soils are rich in humus and thereby maintain the fertility of the soil.
10. They provide raw materials to paper, match box, plywood and sports articles industries and they provide pastures for grazing animals.

Question 34.
Explain the Major seismic zones of India.
Zone V: This is the most severe seismic (intensity above 7 in Richter scale) seismic zone and is referred as Very High Damage risk zone. The areas are. Northeastern states, parts of Jammu Kashmir, Uttarkhand, and Bihar and Kutch region.

Zone IV: This zone is second in severity (intensity between 5 and 7 in R.S) to zone VG. This is referred to as High Damage Risk zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal lie in this region zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal.

Zone III: This is termed as Moderate Damage (very strong) Risk zone (intensity between 3 and 5 in R.S). The areas are Gujarat, Madya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West coastal region etc.

Zone II: This zone is referred to as low Damage (strong) Risk Zone (intensity 2 to 3 R.S). The areas are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha etc.

Zone I: This zone is termed as Very Low Damage (Slight-tremor) Risk Zone. The left out parts of India and Deccan Plateau region.

IV. Answer any One of the follow ing: ( 10 x 1 = 10 )

Question 35.
What is chemical weathering? Explain the chemical weathering with examples.
Disintegration and Decomposition of rocks by chemical processes is called “Chemical weathering”.
In this process secondary or new minerals are developed from the original minerals of the rocks. The rain water and atmospheric gases are the main agents of chemical weathering. It is vey common in humid regions.

There are four types of chemical weathering process. They are:

a. Oxidation: The rain water with oxygen reacts on rocks containing iron and produce oxides. This chemical reaction is known as “oxidation”. The common process of rusting of iron is an example of oxidation. .

b. Carbonation: The rain water with carbon-di-oxide becomes a weak carbonic acid and it reacts with calcium carbonate or limestone to form calcium bicarbonate, which dissolves easily. This process is called “Carbonation”. It is very active in limestone regions.

c. Hydration: The rock minerals take up water the increased volume creates physical stress within the rock. As a result certain minerals like feldspar and gypsum are reduced into powder. This process is called “Hydration”.

d. Solution: The rain water is able to dissolve some of the soluble minerals, such as rock- salt, gypsum, potash. This process is called “Solution”.

Question 36.
Explain the structure of the Atmosphere.
The distribution of temperature is not uniform at different height of the atmosphere. Along with the variation of temperature, there are unique features at different heights. Based on these characteristics atmosphere is divided into four parallel zones.

1. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and less closer to the earth. The word ‘Tropos’ means ‘turn’ It extends up to 18km at the equator and 8km at poles. Thus the average height is about 10-12km. The important feature of the troposphere are:

Hydrological cycle: It is confined to troposphere. The water evaporates and raised up, formation of clouds takes place. Later it is precipitated in various forms like rain, snow and hailstone. These processes are known as evaporation, condensation and precipitation.

Lapse rate: In this layer the temperature decreases at the rate of 6,5’ Celsius per every 1000 meters of height which is known as ‘lapse rate’.

Clouds: It is characterized with formation of clouds, thunder storms and lighting.
Gaseous Mass: The troposphere has about 75 percent of the total gaseous mass, The upper part of troposphere is known ‘Tropopause’.

2. Stratosphere: It lies above the tropo-sphere and extends up to 50km from the earth. The temperature is also most uniformly distributed. Hence it also known as isothermal zone. At a height of 22kms. There is a thin layer of ozone which absorbs ultraviolet rays of the sun. So it is called as ozOnosphre. The name staratopause is given to the upper part of the stratosphere.

3. Mesosphere: It extends from 50 to 80kms. It is an intermediary zone between the lower and upper layers of the atmosphere. A thin layer of air separating mesosphere from the other upper layers in named as‘Mesopause’.

4. Ionosphere: It extends from 90 to 500km. It consists of atoms of air ionized due to intensive temperature. So it is also known as‘Ionosphere’or Thermosphere. The radio waves of different length are reflected back from this layer.

5. Exosphere: The region beyond the Thermosphere is called Exosphere. It extends to about 1,000 km and the gravity of the Earth s too weak in this layer. Magnetosphere is found above this layer. Atmospheric layer in between 500-700kms is known as Exosphere and the atmosphere lying beyond is called‘Magnetosphere’.

V. A. Answer any five of the following questions in a word or a sentence each: ( 1 x 5 = 5 )

Question 37.
What is Cartography?
The science and art of making maps, charts, globes and rile models is known as Cartography.

Question 38.
Name any two essential features of a map.
Title, Scale, Direction are essential features of a Map.

Question 39.
Map reading means getting the correct visual image of the features shown on a map.

Question 40.
Give an example for large scale maps.
(a) Large Scale Maps: The Maps drawn on the scale of lcm=lkm or 1:1, 00,000 and 1 inch = 1 mile or 1:63,360 eg. Cadastral maps (Village, Town and City maps).

Question 41.
What is scale?
A scale is the ratio of the distance between two points on the map and their corresponding distance on the ground.

Question 42.
Mention any two uses of maps.
The distribution maps, where the dot method is applied to show the distribution of economic phenomena e.g. population, agricultural crops, industries etc. Dots of uniform size are used where each dot represents a certain number or quantity.

B. Identified the Latitudes and Longitudes for the given places in supplying Karnataka

Question 43.
Mysore

Question 44.
Tumkur

Question 45.

Question 46.
Bellary

Question 47.
Belgaum

C. Draw a diagram to the following:

Question 48.
Bottom relief of the ocean floor.
On the basis of the depth, the ocean floor can be divided into four zones, parts or relief
features. They are,
1. The continental Shelf: The gently sloping portion of the continent or land that lies submerged below other sea is called the continental shelf. The continental shelf has a very gentle slope. It extends form the shore line to depths between 1 80 and 200 meters.
Average width of the continental shelves is about 48km. The extent of the continental shelf depends on the relief of the broadening land masses. If the coastal area is a plateau area, the continental shelf will be very broad. On the other hand, if the coastal region is hilly or mountainous, the continental shelf will be very narrow or even absent for example the Atlantic Ocean has 2.3%, the Pacific Ocean has 5.7% and the India Ocean has 4.2%.

2. The continental slope: The zone of steep slope that descends from the edge of the continental sheifto the deep sea plains is called ‘continental slope”. It is the transitional zone lying between the continental shelf and the deep sea plains. The continental slope is very steep. It extends from 182 meters to 3,600 meters. The angle of the continental slope is 2 to 5 degre3es or even more. It occupies only 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. But it varies from ocean to ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has broader continental slopes and accounts for 12.4%. But it is 7% of the Pacific Ocean and 6.5% of the Indian Ocean.

3. The deep sea plaitis: The level and rolling areas of the ocean floor are generally called deep sea plains or abyssal plains or the ocean plains. They lie between 3.000 and 6.000 meters below other surface of the ocean. They occupy vast area of the ocean floor and account for about 82.7% of the total sea floor. They cover about 90% in the Indian Ocean. Their depth ranges from 5.000 to 6,000 meters. They are covered by oozes, which are the remains of deep sea creatures and plants, and of red volcanic dust,

4. The Ocean Deeps: The long narrow and deep troughs on the ocean floor are known as ‘ocean deep’ or trough’. They cover only 1% of the ocean floor. They are most common neat the coasts where young fold mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes abound. Some they are tectonic in origin. They are the deepest portions of the ocean. Deeps may be caused due to tectonic forces, i.e. faulting earthquakes etc.-There are 57known deeps. Of these 32 are found in Pacific Ocean, 19m the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean. The deepest trench in the world is Challenger deep located in Mariana Trench to the west of Philippines in the North Pacific Ocean.

Question 49.
Ox-bow lakes

Question 50.
Volcano

D. Draw the outline Map of India, mark and name the following: ( 2 x 3 = 6 )

Question 51.
Outline map of India

Question 52.
23$$\frac{ 1 }{ 2 }$$° North latitude and 82$$\frac{ 1 }{ 2 }$$° East lingitude

Question 53.

Blind Candidates only

Answer any three of the following: ( 5 x 3 = 15 )

Question 54.
Explain the process of heating and cooling of Atmosphere. 5
Atmospheres do not get its temperature directly by the short waves of the sun but through the long waves of the earth. The atmosphere is transparent to the solar radiation which is in the form of short waves. It allows them to reach the earth.
The four processes of heating and cooling of atmosphere are radiation, conduction, convection and advection.

Radiation: Radiation is the process of heating an object by the transmission of heat waves. The earth surface gets temperature through solar radiation. It radiates energy in the form of long waves which is absorbed by the atmosphere.

Conduction: Transfer of heat by molecular activity is known as Conduction. The atmospheric layer closer to the surface gets heat in this process with contact.

Convection: Transfer of heat through the movement of mass is called Convection. The lower layer of the atmosphere gets temperature and become lighter. So it moves upwards. The dense air in the upper layer being dense descends downwards. With this cyclic movement temperature is distributed in the lower layers of the atmosphere.
Advection: Temperature is also transferred by large scale movement of air. When warm air moves of cold regions temperature of the air increases and is contrast cold reduces heat. This phenomena is called advection.

Question 55.
expalain the types of maps. (5)
Maps may be broadly divided into two types.
A. On the basis of Scale Maps are classified into three types.

(a) Large Scale Maps: The Maps drawn on the scale of 1 cm= 1 km or 1:1, 00,000 and 1 inch=1 mile or 1:63,360 eg. Cadastral maps (Village, Town and City maps).

(b) Medium Scale Maps: the Maps drawn on the scale of 1 cnm=1 Km to 1 cm=10 km or 1:1,00,000 and 1:10,00,000 eg. Topographical Maps (Mountains, Plateaus, plains).

(c) Small Scale maps: The Maps drawn on the scale below 1 cm: 15Km or 1:15,00,000 eg. Atlas and Wall Maps. These maps show broad physical and cultural features.

B. On the basis of purpose various types of Maps are prepared.

(i) Topographical maps: To show relief features, forests, land use, river system, roads, railways, pipelines, distribution of rural and urban settlements etc.

(ii) Cadastral maps: The Cadastral maps are drawn to register the ownership of field, farm, building, firm etc.

(iii) Economic Maps: These maps provide information about human economic activities eg. Agriculture, mining, industry, marketing, trade etc.

(iv) Population Maps: These maps show the information about distribution, growth, density, migration, age and sex composition of population. These maps are also drawn to show the distribution of occupational structure, language, social groups of people etc.

(v) Weather Maps: These are useful to analyzed weather condition and distribution of temperature, pressure, humidity, winds, rainfall etc.

Question 56.
Expain the majar drought prone areas of India. (5)