1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Climate, Soil and Forest

Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 10 Climate, Soil and Forest

You can Download Chapter 10 Climate, Soil and Forest Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Geography Climate, Soil and Forest One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What type of climate is found in India? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
India has “Tropical Monsoon” type of climate.

Question 2.
Define Monsoon. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The word ‘Monsoon’ is derived from Arabic word ‘Mousim’ meaning season.

Question 3.
Mention the place which records high range of Temperature. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
In summer the western Rajasthan records more’than 55°C of temperature.

Question 4.
Which is the driest season in India? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The summer or hot weather Season from March to End of May.

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Question 5.
Name the region which receives ‘Monsoon outburst’. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The.Malabar Coast of Kerala receives ‘Monsoon outburst’.

Question 6.
Which is called ‘Mawsynram of South India’? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Agumbe of Karnataka is called ‘Mawsynram of South India.’

Question 7.
Why are cyclones formed during North East Monsoon season? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
In this season due to pressure variation between the Bay of Bengal and main land of India variable winds-cyclones and anti -cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal.

Question 8.
What is mean by ‘Burst of Monsoon’?
Answer:
The sudden violent onset of rainfall during the period of ‘Monsoon’ is called the ‘Burst of Monsoon’.

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Question 9.
Name any two local winds which blow in India in the summer season.
Answer:
‘Loo and Kalabaisakhi are the two local winds which blow in India in the summer season.

Question 10.
Which wind is responsible for the rainfall experienced over the greater part of India?
Answer:
A South-west monsoon winds is responsible for the rainfall experienced over the greater part of India.

Question 11.
What is the average annual rainfall of India?
Answer:
The average annual rainfall is 118 cm.

Question 12.
Name the place in Southern India which receives highest rainfall from the summer monsoon.
Answer:
Mahabaleswar receives the highest rainfall in South India from the summer monsoon.

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Question 13.
What is Kalabaisaki?
Answer:
The local rainfall of summer season in West-Bengal is called ‘Kalabaisaki’.

Question 14.
In which state the South-west monsoon wind enters first.
Answer:
The south west monsoon enters first to the Malabar Coast of Kerala.

Question 15.
Define Pedology. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The scientific study of soil is known as ‘pedology’.

Question 16.
Name the soil which covers vast area of the country. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Alluvial soil

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Question 17.
Why Black soil is called Regur soil? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
This soil derived from the weathered basalt rock. This soil holds water form long period and become hard whenever it is dry.

Question 18.
Where do we see Laterite soil? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Laterite soil found in Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and North eastern hills of India.

Question 19.
What is Humus?
Answer:
Decomposed organic material found in the soil is called Humus.

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Question 20.
State the type of soil that is found in the heavy rainfall regions?
Answer:
The laterite soils re found in the heavy rainfall regions.

Question 21.
Which soil is suitable for cotton cultivation?
Answer:
The black soil is suitable for cotton crop.

Question 22.
Which is highest fertile soil?
Answer:
The mountain soil (Forest soil) is fertile soil

Question 23.
Where is Green Gold? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The forest and their resources are useful to man in various forms. Therefore, they are called ‘Green Gold’.

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Question 24.
Mention the average forest cover of the country. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The average forest cover of the country is 22.50%.

Question 25.
Which forest has high economic value trees? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Monsoon forest has high economic value trees.

Question 26.
Where do we find Dehang Debaqg Biosphere reserve? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Arunachal Pradesh.

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1st PUC Geography Climate, Soil and Forest Two Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Why India is called ‘Meteorological Unit’? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Monsoons are the periodic winds in which there is reversal of wind direction periodically. On account of the variability in climatic conditions, seasonally and regionally, India is called ‘Meteorological Unit’.

Question 2.
Mention any two convectional rainfall of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
They are “Mango Showers” in Kerala, “cherry Blossoms” in Karnataka and “Kalabiashaki” in West Bengal and Assam.

Question 3.
Write the significance of Monsoon. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The climatic conditions of the country are greatly influenced by monsoon winds. The winds blow in a particular direction west monsoon winds blow from south west to north east, while north east, while north east monsoon winds blow from northeast to south west.

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Question 4.
Mention the annual average rainfall of different seasons in India.
Answer:
The season-wise distribution of rain fall is

  • The south-west monsoon seasons – 75%
  • The summer season – 10%
  • The winter season – 2%
  • The retreating monsoon seasons – 13%

Question 5.
Write a short note on Retreating Monsoon?
Answer:
The season of Retreating Monsoon is the period of Transition. During the period of transition low pressure of the north-west shifts to the Bay of Bengal. It results in the formation of cyclones over the Bay. These cyclones cause havoc on the coasts of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Question 6.
Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?
Answer:
India has monsoon climate because there is a seasonal reversal in the wind system in India. During summer winds blow from sea to land and During winter winds blow from land to sea.

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Question 7.
What is meant by the word ‘Monsoon’?
Answer:
The word ‘Monsoon’ is derived form the Arabic word ‘Mausam’ which means season. Hence, the word ‘Monsoon’ implies the seasonal reversal in the wind pattern over the year. It reveals the rhythm of season and changes in direction of winds. There is also ca change in the distribution pattern of rainfall and temperature with the change of seasons. The monsoon winds move six months from sea to land and another six months from land to sea,

Question 8.
Mention major factors affecting the climate of our country.
Answer:

  • Location and Relief.
  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Pressure and winds.

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Question 9.
What are the branches of south-west monsoon winds?
Answer:
The south-west monsoons are divided into two branches. They are:

  1. The Arabian Sea branch and
  2. Bay of Bengal branch.

Question 10.
What is annual range of temperature? Explain it by giving one example.
Answer:
The difference between the maximum average temperature and minimum average temperature of a place over twelve months is known as annual range of temperature.

Ex: The max. average temperature at Jodhpur is 33.9°C and min. Average temperature is 14.9°C. Hence the annual range of temperature at Jodhpur is 19°C.

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Question 11.
Mention the importance of Red soil. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest part of peninsular region is covered with red soil. Tamil Nadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut oil seeds are the main crops cultivated in this soil.

Question 12.
Name any four factors that affect soil erosion. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
High Temperature, Rainfall wind and waves are the natural agents. Deforestation, over grazing, shifting cultivation, unscientific methods of agriculture cause soil erosion.

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Question 13.
State four best measures in the conservation of soil. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Afforestation, control of over grazing, contours ploughing. Terrace farming, Erection of bunds, construction of check dams, crop rotation, and control of shifting Cultivation are the best measures in the soil conservation.

Question 14.
State the characteristics of Laterite soils.
Answer:
The important characteristics of Laterite soils are: Laterite soils are red in colour. They are rich in Iron and Aluminum, but poor in potash, Lime, Nitrogen and Phosphoric Acid. They are less retentive of moisture. They are poor in fertility. But they respond very well to manuring. So, with the help of manuring they can be used for the cultivation of plantation crops, such as Tea, Coffee, Spices, Rubber, etc.

Question 15.
Name the states which have the highest and the lowest forest areas in the country. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Madhya Pradesh (44.8%) is the highest and Haryana state 2.6% is the lowest forest areas in the country.

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Question 16.
Write the salient features of Evergreen forest. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
These forests are found in the regions of heavy rainfall (above 250 cm) and high temperature (above 27° C) Tall umbrella shaped trees with dense assemblage is a prominent feature of this forest. The evergreen forests always look green because, various species of trees are found here and they shed leaves in different seasons.

Question 17.
What is Mangrove forest? Why has it become important in the recent years?
(T.B Qn)
Answer:
Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics in India. The trees in these forests are hard, durable and are used in boat making and as fuel, in the recent years mangrove vegetation is being grown in the coastal areas to control effects of tidal waves and coastal erosion.

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Question 18.
Mention any four measures of conservation of forest. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Protection and preservation of forest is known as conservation. The important measures of conservation of forest are:

  • Forest fires, pests and diseases should be controlled through the scientific methods.
  • Encroachers of forest area should be severely punished.
  • Forest education, research and training should be expanded through programmes like vanamahotsava, social forestry, and reforestation.

Industrial and mining activities in the forest regions should be compensated by reforestation.

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1st PUC Geography Climate, Soil and Forest Five Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
What is Climate? Explain the factors that determine the climate of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The average weather condition of place for a long period like 30-33 years in known in known as climate. India’s climate is said to be “Tropical Monson”.

The main factors are monsoon winds.

(i) Location: The northern part of India lies in sub-tropical and temperate zone and the part lying to the south of the tropic of cancer come under tropical zone. The tropical zone being nearer to the Equator, experiences high temperature throughout the year, with small daily and annual range. Tropic of Caner 23 1/2° N latitude passes through the centre of the country. So India is situated both in the tropical and temperate region.

(ii) Mountain Ranges: The lofty Himalayan Mountains have prevented the cold winds of central Asia, and keep India warm. They are also greatly responsible for the monsoon rains in the country.

(iii) Distribution of Land and Water: India is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and Bay of Bengal in the east, Indian Ocean in the south. These adjoining seas have influenced the climate of the country considerably. They influence the rainfall of the coastal region. Even the cyclones which originate from these seas regularly affect the weather condition.

(iv) The relief features of India also affect the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of wind, the amount and distribution of rainfall. The windward side of Western Ghats and north east received high rainfall from June to September.

(v) Monsoon winds: The climatic conditions of other country are greatly influenced by monsoon winds. The winds blow in a particular direction during one season, but get reversed during the other season.

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Question 2.
Explain the South West Monsoon season with the help of map. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The south-west monsoon winds as starts in June and ends in mid-September. It is also known as advancing monsoon season or rainy season. During this season, India gets more than 75% of its annual rainfall and more than 90% of the country’s area receives downpour. It is the prime season for Kharif crops.

In the middle of June the direct rays of the Sun fall on tropic of caner due to shift in the position of the Sun from Equator towards northern hemisphere. Therefore, there is an increase in temperature from south to north. The temperature in the main land of India and nearby land masses is high compared to water bodies of the Indian Ocean.

a. The Arabian Sea branch: The Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon strikes the western coast of India in Kerala on the 1st June. Arabian sea winds by carrying more moisture blow along the western coast of India and cause heavy rainfall in the western part of Western Ghats due to obstruction. These winds behave like sea breeze and cause continuous rainfall I the wind ward side of the Western Ghats tHl they lose their moisture.

Agumbe of Karnataka receives the highest rainfall during this season. This regions coming under southeast monsoon winds receive good rainfall wherever they get obstruction by hills and plateaus.

b. The Bay of Bengal branch blow from water bodies towards the Indian mainland due to variation in pressure. These winds carry moisture form the Bay of Bengl and blow along eastern coast and finally reach north eastern hills. In its path, whenever this wind receives obstruction, they cause good rainfall. The eastern part of Eastern Ghats and north astern hills receive heavy rainfall. These winds after crossing eastern coast merge the Arabian sea winds.

The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal winds, after merging, blow towards north eastern regions of India. The shape of the Himalayan Mountains and northeastern hills greatly obstruct these winds. Therefore the Meghalaya plateau region, particularly Nokrek areas of Mawsynram and cheerapunji, receive very high rainfall. This place is popularly called Rainiest or wettest place on the Earth.

The southwest monsoon after crossing northeastern region blow towards east. Since the Himalayas obstruct these winds they have to take westerly direction and blow along the foothills of Himalayas. The shift in the direct6 sun rays from Tropic of Cancer towards Equator results in the gradual disappearance of southwest monsoons. Indian economy depends on the Monsoons to a large extent.

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Question 3.
Briefly explain the characteristics features of winter and summer. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The winter season (December to February): It is also called cold weather season. In this season direct rays of the Sun fall on Tropic of Capricorn. The temperature in the country is not uniform from north to south. Regions lying to the north of tropic of cancer record low temperature compared to regions in the south. There is a general decrease in temperature from south to north.

December is the beginning of cold weather season and it extends up to February. The annual average temperature is around 18° C. In the northern parts of the plains temperature falls below 5°C. January is the coldest month in the year. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, UP and parts of Bihar record very low temperature with snow storms. Though the rainfall is small, in some parts on North India it is beneficial for Rabi crops. Annual rainfall in this season is around 2%.

The Summer Season (March to May): The summer season is also known as hot weather season. It begins in March and continues up to May. During this season there is gradual increase n temperature from south north due to shifting of Sun rays from Tropic of Capricorn towards the Equator. In this period south Indian states- Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala record high temperature.

Some part of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka record more than 40° C of temperature. Sri Ganganagar of Rajasthan has recorded the highest temperature of above 52° C. The average temperature of the country will be around 24° C. In this season some parts of India receive convectional rainfall. During this season the country receives 10% of the annual rainfall.

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Question 4.
Give details of North East Monsoon season. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
This season is also called North East Monsoon Season. It starts in the middle of September and extends up to middle of December. On September 23rd the direct rays of the sun falls on Equator. Therefore, there is a change in temperature and pressure in the land and water bodies. In this period the Indian sub-continent. The high pressure formed in the northern part of Bay of Bengal results in movement of wind from northeastern part of India towards southwestern region.

These winds blow along the eastern coast of India and Bay of Bengal. In this season due to pressure variation between the Bay of Bengal and main land of India variable winds cyclones take birth in this season and cause great damage in the eastern coast of India. The coastal areas of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal come under the frequent effect of cyclones. Some cyclones recorded in the last few years are Bola, Nargis, Nisha, Laila, jal, Neelam etc.

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Question 5.
What is Soil? Explain the major types of soils. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Soil is the minute or finer rock particles found on the surface of the Earth. It is formed naturally, due to the weathering of rocks, under the influence of climate.

The main types of soil in India are:

1. Alluvial soil: This soil is formed by depositional work of rivers and they are mainly found in the flood plains and deltas. Alluvial soil covers largest geographical are in the country. They are mainly distributed in the river plains of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under alluvial soil. It is also found in the deltas of east flowing rivers. Alluvial soils are classified into two types.

  • Bhangar: Older alluvium, coarse and pebble like in nature, found at the lower depths of the plain.
  • Khadar: New alluvium, finer in nature, found in the low lying flood plains and rich in fertility

2. Black soil: The black soils covered more area in peninsular plateau. This soil is also called ‘Cotton soil’ or “Regur soil”. It is derived from the weathered basalt rocks. This soil holds water from long period and become hard whenever it is dry. It is light-black to dark-black in colour. Maharashtra and Gujarat Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Black soils are good for Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Pulses, Millets, Citrus fruits, etc.

3. Red soil: This soil is formed by the weathered granite rocks. It is red in colour and rich in ferrous content. Red soil covers the second largest area in the country. Largest parts of peninsular region are covered with red soil. TamilNadu has the largest distribution of this soil in the country. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut, Tobacco, Millets are the major crops cultivated in this soil.

4. Laterite soil: The hot and humid tropical regions of India are rich in laterite soil. This soil is derived from the fragmentation and disintegration of rocks in the mountain ranges. It is mainly found in the Western Ghats, parts of Eastern Ghats and Northeastern hills of India. Plantation crops like Tea, coffee, Rubber, Cashew nut are cultivated in this soil.

5. Desert soil: This soil is also called arid soil. They are mainly found in the desert and semi-desert regions of Western and North western parts of India. This soil has the least water holding capacity and humus content. Generally it is not suitable for cultivation of crops. This soil is mainly found in Rajasthan, parts of Gujarat and Haryana. With water facility crops like Bajra, Pulses and Guar ar cultivated in this soil.

6. Mountain Soil: The Himalayan mountain valleys and hill slopes are covered with Mountain or Forest soil. It is found in the mountain slopes of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Utarkhand regions, Crops like Tea, Almond, saffron are cultivated in this soil.

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Question 6.
Explain soil erosion and conservation of soil. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The removal or wearing away of the top soil by various natural agents and man-made factors is called ‘Soil Erosion’. High temperature, Rainfall wind and waves are the natural agents and deforestation, over grazing, shifting cultivation, improper and unscientific methods of agriculture are human activities cause soil erosion. In the hilly regions rainfall and temperature cause more soil erosion. In coastal area sea waves and in desert winds is the dominant factor s in the soil erosion process.

The prevention of soil erosion as well as the protection and maintenance of the Fertility of the soil. The important measures followed in the Conservation of soil are:

  • Afforestation
  • Control of overgrazing
  • Contour ploughing
  • Terrace Farming
  • Erection of bunds
  • Construction of check dams
  • Crop rotation
  • Strip Farming
  • Mulching
  • Literacy and education programmes on soil conservation.

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Question 7.
Describe the major types of forest in India.(T.B Qn)
Answer:
The peninsular region of India has the largest forest cover with around 57% of the total forest area.

According to geo-climatic conditions, forests are classified into:

a. Evergreen Forests: These forests are found in the regions of heavy rainfall and high temperature. Tall umbrella shaped trees with dense assemblage is a prominent feature of this forest. The eve4rgree forest always looks green because various species of trees are found here and they shed leaves in different seasons.

The hardwood trees, rose wood, white cedar, toon, gurjan, chaplash, ebony, Mahogany, canes, bamboo, shisham etc. These are found in North-east India, Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands, parts of Assam and some areas of Himalayan foot hills.

b. The Deciduous forests: The deciduous forest covers a wide range of rainfall regimes. The trees of these forests seasonally shed their leaves. The Indian deciduous forest is found in a range of landscapes from the plains to the hills. These forests provide shelter to most endangered wild life in the country, such as the Tiger, Asian Elephant, Bison, Gaur etc. The deciduous forest are two types

(i) Moist Deciduous forests: The moist deciduous forests are found in wet regions, receiving annual rainfall between 100cm to 200cam and temperature of 25° C to 30° C. The trees of these forests shed their leaves during spring and early summer. They are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Chota Nagpur Plateau, the siwaliksetc.

(ii) The Dry Deciduous Forests: The dry deciduous forest are found I the areas where annual rainfall is between 50cm to 150 cm and temperature of 25° C to 30° C. Sal is the most significant tree found in this forest. Varieties of acacia and bamboo are also fund here. These forests are found in areas of central Deccan plateau, South-east of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

(iii) The mountain forests: As the name indicates these forests are confined to the Himalayan region, where the temperature is less compared to other parts of the country. The trees in this forest are cone shape with needle like leaves. The important trees are oak, fir, pin e spruce, silver fir, deodhar, devdar, juniper, picea chestnut etc. They provide softwood for making country boats, packing materials and sport articles.

c. The Desert forests: These forests are found in the areas of very low rainfall. Thorny bushes, shrubs, dry grass, acacia, cacti and babul are the important vegetation found in these forests. The Indian wild date known as ‘Khejurs”, is common in the deserts. They have spine leaves, long roots and thick fleshy stems in which they store water to survive during the long drought. These vegetations are found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana.

d. The Mangrove Forests: These forests occur along the river deltas (Ganga, Mahanadi. Godavari and Krishna) of eastern coast and also concentrated in the coastal areas of Katchch, Kathiawar, and Gulf of Khambar. The mangrove forests in the Ganga delta are called Sunder bans because, they have extensive growth of Sundari trees. The trees in these forests are hard, durable and are used in boat making and as fuel. In the recent years mangrove vegetation is being grown I the coastal areas to control effects of tidal waves and coastal erosion.

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Question 8.
Briefly explain the importance of forests. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Forests are the one of the important natural resources. They provide various benefits to mankind and environment.

The important benefits are:

  1. Forests supply fresh air, food and fodder.
  2. Forests are the rain bearers, help in causing good rainfall.
  3. They control soil erosion and desertification.
  4. Forest provides various products like bamboo, timber, resin, lac, gum cane, fuel, wood etc.
  5. They provide medicinal trees and plants used in ayurvedic medicines Eg.Neem tree. Basil, Brahmi etc.
  6. They provide shelter to various birds and animals.
  7. They absorb much of the rainwater and control floods and safeguards against drought.
  8. They act as wind breakers and protect the agricultural crops.
  9. The forest soils are rich in humus and thereby maintain the fertility of the soil.
  10. They provide raw materials to paper, match box, plywood and sports articles industries and they provide pastures for grazing animals.

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Question 9.
Explain the important measures of conservation of forest. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The conservation of forest is concerned with proper utilization of forest, protection from destructive influences, misuses of forests etc.

The important measures of conservation of forest are:

  1. Careless felling of tree, over-grazing and shifting cultivation should be avoided. Afforestation should be practiced.
  2. Forest fires, pests and diseases should be controlled through the scientific methods.
  3. Encroachers of forest area should be severely punished.
  4. Forest education, research and training should be expanded through programmes like vanamahotsava, social forestry, and reforestation.
  5. Industrial and mining activities in the forest regions should be compensated by reforestation.
  6. Development of Green belts in the urban areas.
  7. Plantation of trees along the roads, railway lines, river, canal banks, tanks and ponds.
  8. Use of fuel wood, wood-charcoal by the tribal people must be prohibited.
  9. Government should promote intensive tree planting programmes in urban centers.
  10. Massive awareness about the aesthetic of forests should be created through mass media, workshops, live programmes etc.

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Question 10.
What are Biosphere reserves? Mention the important biosphere reserves of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
A biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas .The regions surrounding the biosphere reserves would be utilized for the research and experimentation in developing forest and other products.

The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) of UNESCO was established in 1971 to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Eight of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the world network of Biosphere reserves, based on the UNESCO man and the Biosphere Programme list.

The objectives of Biosphere reserves:

  • Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem.
  • Association of environment with development.
  • International network for research and monitoring.
Sl.No Name of the Biosphere reserve State Estd.Year
1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka 2000
2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001
3. Sunder bans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal 2001
4. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarkhand 2004
5. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009
6. Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009
7. Simlipal Biosphere reserve Odisha 2008
8. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand 2012

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