1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 11 Natural hazards and disasters

Karnataka 1st PUC Geography Question Bank Chapter 11 Natural hazards and disasters

You can Download Chapter 11 Natural hazards and disasters Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Geography Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Geography Natural hazards and disasters One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is Natural Hazard? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
It is a threat of naturally occurring event that will have a negative effect on people or the environment.
Ex: Earthquake, Landslide, Volcanic eruption.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Natural Disaster? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth e.g. Earthquakes, floods, drought and famine, cyclones, landslides, coastal erosion.

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Question 3.
Mention any two types of disasters. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Major types of Disaster are Tectonic, Meteorological, and Topographical disasters.

Question 4.
What are floods? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Floods are temporary inundation of large regions as a result of heavy rainfall, prolonged rain cyclones, storm surge along coast.

Question 5.
Name the most important flood prone area of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The Ganga basin is the most important flood prone area of India.

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Question 6.
Why are cyclones are caused in the Bay of Bengal? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The Bay of Bengal is subject to intense heating, giving rise to humid and unstable air masses that produce cyclones.

Question 7.
What is drought? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The term drought is applied to an extended period when there is a shortage of water availability due to inadequate precipitation, excessive rate of evaporation and over utilization of water from the reservoirs other storages, including the groundwater.

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Question 8.
Which region of India is in the extreme drought prone area? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The regions are western parts of Rajasthan, Kutch regions of Gujarat and semi-arid and arid regions of Western and North western parts of India.

Question 9.
Why does landslide occur? (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Landslides are occur by severe marine erosion of sea coast, Seismic activity, Heavy rainfall, construction of roads, railway lines, canal construction, mining and quarrying, over grazing deforestation.

Question 10.
Mention the most important avalanche prone area of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The most important avalanche prone area of India are mainly Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal radish, uttarkhand, Sikkim, parts of Arunchal Pradesh etc.

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Question 11.
What is an Earthquake?
Answer:
An earthquake is a sudden movement, trembling of the earth’s crust.

Question 12.
Which is the highest earthquake intensity region of India?
Answer:
Himalayan region.

Question 13.
Which is the only one active volcano in India?
Answer:
Barren Volcanic Island in the Andaman Island

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Question 14.
When national flood control programme was launched?
Answer:
In 1954.

Question 15.
What is coastal erosion?
Answer:
Coastal erosion means eroding down the coastline by sea waves.

Question 16.
What is mean by avalanche?
Answer:
Avalanches are a hurtling mass of snow, ice and rock debris descending a mountain side.

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1st PUC Geography Natural hazards and disasters Two Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Name the two most important seismic zones of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Zone V: This is the most severe seismic zone and is referred as very high damage Risk zone. The areas are Northeastern states, parts of Jammu Kashmir, Uttarkhand, and Bihar and Kutch region.

Zone IV: This zone is second in severity zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal.

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Question 2.
Mention any four factors that cause floods. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Floods are caused by both natural and man-made factors. They are:
(a) Natural factors

  • Continuous rainfall for a long period
  • Cyclones
  • Obstruction on flow of river water.

(b) Man made factors:

  • Deforestation
  • Unscientific Agricultural practice
  • Urbanization

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Question 3.
State two important flood prone areas of the country. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The Ganga Basin: The badly affected states of the Ganga basin area Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
The Brahmaputra basin: the Brahmaputra along with its tributaries floods the areas of Assam and North West Bengal regions.

Question 4.
Name any four factors that cause drought and famine. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The main causes for the occurrence of drought and famine are reduction in annual rainfall, long period scarcity of surface and underground water, scarcity of stored water, excess utilization of freshwater. Overgrazing, deforestation. Improper agricultural practice, mining.

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Question 5.
Mention any four consequences of natural hazard and disasters. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
The most important consequences of natural disasters are los of human life and property, animal wealth, destruction of vegetation etc. Natural disasters create fear, anguish and trauma in the human beings leading to various physical, biological and psychological changes. Natural disasters affect population, its distribution and density. It affects on agriculture, cropping pattern, industries, transport and communication, public health, water supply.

Question 6.
What is an earthquake? What are the main causes of an earthquake?
Answer:
An earthquake is a sudden release of energy accumulated in rocks causing the ground to . tremble or shake.
The main causes of earthquake are natural and man – made factors.

  1. Tectonic forces
  2. Volcanic activity
  3. Landslides and Landslips
  4. Collapse of underground cave roofs

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Question 7.
How can drought prevented in India?
Answer:
We can reduce the intensity and impact of drought through individual and collective actions:

  • Community based rainwater harvesting structures should b constructed.
  • Watershed programmes should be increased
  • Through plantation programmes, forest cover should be increased.
  • Encouraging farmers to grow drought-resistant crops.

Question 8.
Mention the important regions of land slides in India.
Answer:
There are three important region.

  1. Himalayan zone
  2. Western Ghats
  3. Southern Plateau.

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Question 9.
Mention the different types of drought in India.
Answer:
Drought is a weather hazard, uncertainty of monsoon rainfall, deficient rainfall. So India is more frequently affected by droughts.

India droughts are classified into four types:

  1. Meteorological Drought
  2. Hydrological Drought
  3. Agricultural Drought
  4. Ecological Drought

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1st PUC Geography Natural hazards and disasters Five Marks Questions And Answers

Question 1.
Explain the major seismic zones of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
Zone V: This is the most severe seismic (intensity above 7 in Richter scale) seismic zone and is referred as Very High Damage risk zone. The areas are. Northeastern states, parts of Jammu Kashmir, Uttarkhand, and Bihar and Kutch region.

Zone IV: This zone is second in severity (intensity between 5 and 7 in R.S) to zone VG. This is referred to as High Damage Risk zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal lie in this region zone. Northern regions of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, parts of Bihar, UP, Gujarat, West Bengal.

Zone III: This is termed as Moderate Damage (very strong) Risk zone (intensity between 3 and 5 in R.S). The areas are Gujarat, Madya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, West coastal region etc.

Zone II: This zone is referred to as low Damage (strong) Risk Zone (intensity 2 to 3 R.S). The areas are Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha etc.

Zone I: This zone is termed as Very Low Damage (Slight-tremor) Risk Zone. The left out parts of India and Deccan Plateau region.

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Question 2.
Briefly explain the distribution of flood prone areas of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
a. The Ganga basin: The badly affected states of the Ganga basin are U.P, Bihar and West Bengal. Besides the Ganga River, Sarada, Gandak and Ghagra cause flood in Eastern part of U.P. The Yamuna is famous for flooding Haryana, U.P and Delhi. Bihar experiences massive and dangerous flood every year by the Kosi. Rivers like the Mahanadi, Bhagirathi and Damodar also cause floods.

b. The Brahmaputra basin: The Brahmaputra along with its tributaries floods the areas of Assam and North West Bengal regions.

c. The Central India and Peninsular river basin: In odisha spilling over of river banks by the Mahanadi, Baitarnika and Brahmani causes havoc. Southern and central India experiences floods caused by the Narmada, Godavari, Tapti and Krishna during heavy rainfall. Cyclonic storms in the deltaic regions of the Godavari, Mahanadi and the Krishna flood the coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh.

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Question 3.
Explain the major drought prone areas of India. (T.B Qn)
Answer:
On the basis of severity of droughts, India can be divided into three drought prone areas.

a. The Extreme drought prone areas: This is the most important drought prone areas of the country which has been recording continuous drought for many years. The regions are western parts of Rajasthan, Kutch regions of Gujarat and semi-arid regions of Western and North western parts of India.

b. The Severe drought prone areas: This is the second important drought prone areas of the county. The eastern parts of Rajasthan, western parts of Madhya Pradesh, Parts of Maharashtra, interior parts of Andhra Pradesh. North and northeastern parts of Karnataka and Tamil nadu.

c. The Moderate drought prone areas: This region is mainly found in regions of U.P, parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and interior parts of Karnataka.

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