Students can Download 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South), Karnataka 1st PUC History Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (South)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
To which country did Herodotus belong?
Herodotus belonged to Greece.
Who wrote the book ‘The city of God’?
St. Augustine wrote the book ‘The City of God’.
What is a Ziggurat?
Ziggurats means temples with tall towers, built by the Mesopotamians.
In which year did the Olympic Games begin?
The Olympic Games began in 776 BC.
Who was the Hannibal?
Hannibal was a Carthagean General who had scored brilliant victories, but could not capture Rome.
Who was the founder of Islam?
Prophet Mohammed founded Islam.
Mention the city in which cotton revolution began first?
The Cotton Revolution first began in Derby.
New Economic Policy.
What according to Nehru is Non Aligned Movement?
As USA and USSR called the neutral countries as inactive, Nehru used Non-Aligned instead of Neutral. He interpreted Non-Alignment as dynamic neutrality protesting peacefully the oppression of the two military blocs.
When was the Belgrade conference held?
Apart from the first one in 1961, the 9th summit conference in 1989 was also hold in Belgrade.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Mention any two theories of origin and evolution of earth.
- The Pulsating theory
- The Big Bang theory
Why is Egypt called the ‘Gift of Nile’?
Because of Nile, plenty of food, fodder and uninterrupted supply of water was possible to Egypt. The food security provided sufficient leisure for the growth of civilization. Nile is born in the thick equatorial forests of Africa. It is in full spate throughout the year. But for Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed. Therefore Egypt is called the gift of Nile.
Where is Parthenon temple? And who built it?
Parthenon temple is in Athens. It was built by Pericles.
Which are the two sects of Christianity?
Christianity is divided into 2 sects:
- Roman Catholics
Name any two trade centres of Medieval Europe.
City – States like Venice and Genoa were two Trade Centres of Medieval Europe.
What is ‘Boston Tea Party’?
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company, which was resented by the colonists. When a ship loaded with tea packets arrived at Boston, the colonists disguised as Red Indians raided the ship and threw all the tea packets into the sea. This incident is called ‘Boston Tea Party’.
Who were the king and queen of France at. the time of French Revolution?
Louis XVI was the King and Marie Antoinette was the Queen.
Mention two works of Karl Marx.
Karl Marx’s famous works were ‘Das Capital’ and ‘Communist Manifesto’.
Who was the chancellor of Victor Emmanuel? What was its policy.
Count de Cavour was the Chancellor of Victor Emmanuel II and he believed in the policy of war and diplomacy to unite Italy. ;
Name any two member countries of NATO.
Name the President of America and Russia who ended the cold war.
George Bush (Sr.) and Boris Yeltsin were the Presidents of America and Russia respectively who ended the cold war.
Write the two principle’s of Non-Aligned movement.
Two Principles of Non-Aligned Movement are:
- Mutual non-Aggression.
- Peaceful Coexistence.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Explain the importance of the study of History.
1. History is the memory of the past events: The study of history gives us information about the biographies of great men and a record of major events of the world. According to Will Durant, “A country’s past is like an individual’s memory. If memory goes, sanity goes with it”. Hayes and Moon wrote “As memory is to man, History is to mankind”.
2. History helps to broaden our outlook: The study of history helps us to get knowledge about the people of different countries, traditions, customs, cultures and civilizations. Thus it broadens the outlook of mankind. The details recorded in history relating to Art, Architecture, Literature and Religion expands one’s horizon of knowledge.
3. History promotes international peace: The world has already witnessed the misgivings of the two World Wars. If another war takes place in the future, it would destroy the whole world. History has pointed out that unawareness of the culture of other countries and narrow nationalism has lead to such wars. Today, there is a great deal of competition among different countries in possessing nuclear weapons and war equipments. For the development of cordial relations between nations, the study of world history is the need of the hour.
4. History has Professional uses: It is a competitive world. History is the main core subject for the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS, etc. Historical knowledge is a matter of necessity for Students, Teachers, Lawyers, Journalists, Administrators and Statesmen. Thousands of historians are working in the Department of Archaeological Survey of India under Central and State Governments.
New job opportunities have opened up for the students of history at Museums, Archives, Tourism development and related fields. Thus, history has professional uses.
How was the earth’s crust formed?
The Earth remained in the molten state for many million years and then began to cool. The volcanic activity got reduced considerably. The gradual cooling of the Earth made the outer side to become solid rock, which is called Earth’s Crust. Further cooling made the Earth’s crust to contract resulting in the formation of mountains and valleys. They are like folds and wrinkles appearing on an apple which is left to dry for a few days.
The gases released by Volcanoes created the primordial atmosphere. The crust was still hot and water was in the form of steam. Further cooling condensed the steam to form clouds and then rains began to pour in torrents. This continuous downpour formed lakes, rivers, oceans and seas. The rains and winds eroded the valleys and mountains. The erosion formed rocks to break and form tiny particles of sand and mud. The continuous erosion formed soil and the ocean floor.
Explain the teachings of prophet Mohammad.
Mohammed was born in 570 C.E. at Mecca in Arabia. Abdullah and Ameena were his parents, He belonged to the Quareshi tribe of Mecca. He lost his parents early in his child hood and was brought up by his uncle Abu-Talib. Due to poverty, he could not receive any formal education, but he was trained to look after sheep and camels. He was known for his honesty and sincerity. As a youth he spent most of his time in travelling with the caravans. The co-merchants called him as Amin – one who is reliable.
He married Khadija, a widow, who was 15years elder to him. They had two sons and two daughters. Daughter Fathima survived and other three died. She was given in marriage to Ali. Mohammed led a normal married life up to the age of forty. He spent most of his time in meditation and fasting. He was also seriously thinking about the social and religious evils of the Arabs. While meditating at the Hira cave, Gabriel a messenger of God preached him the holy Gospels while he was in a trance.
Mohammed realized the impact of Divine message of God. He also realized that, he was the chosen one, and had a great mission to fulfill. His wife, son-in-law, daughter, friend Abu-Bakr and his servant Syed Mohammed were his first disciples. He declared “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet” He started teaching the principles of the new faith to the people of Mecca.
He criticized the meaningless ceremonials like Idol worship, polytheism and superstitions among Arabs. He preached purity of life, truth and faith in Allah. He said Allah is Omnipotent and kind to all. He preached Allah would reward the just and punish the wicked.
Those who surrender themselves to the will of God were Muslims. His followers called him Prophet. Mohammed declared he was the prophet chosen by Allah to reveal his message to mankind. He said, “Allah was all merciful, all wise and all powerful”.
Write about manorial system.
Manorial system was an important institution of the high middle ages. Under this system, the serfs worked in agricultural estates situated around a ‘Manor’ owned by a Lord. The serfs were not slaves. They too owned a piece of land, but were under the control and jurisdiction of a Lord. They worked in the Lord’s fields as well as their own and paid taxes to the Lord.
They undertook activities like grazing, collection of fire wood, fishing and cultivation on a common basis. It was like a closed community living. During the later high middle ages, the condition of the serfs improved. They paid rent instead of giving duties or services to the
What were the causes for Renaissance?
1. Renaissance scholars or rise of new ideas: The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive as the Church controlled all activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles and social standards were all stagnant in this period. There were all round discontentment and the time was ripe for a major upheaval and people started questioning the authority of the Church.
2. The capture of Constantinople in 1453: In 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and forced the Greek and Latin Scholars to flee to Italy. The encouraging and peaceful conditions in Italy helped the study of classical literature and birth of Renaissance.
3. Geographical exploration: Medieval age Europeans came out off religious restrictions and superstitious ideas were shattered. People became bold and adventurous. The geographical discoveries not only brought great wealth but also expanded their knowledge. Coming in contact with other cultures brought them new ideas, thoughts and knowledge. Thinkers began to give importance to Reason, Observation and Experimentation. This prepared the ground for a great cultural revolution.
4. Patronage of Kings, Popes and Nobles: When the Greek and Latin scholars fled to Italy and other European countries along with their books and manuscripts, King, Popes, Nobles and the rich Merchants patronised these scholars. European people got exposed to Classical Art, Architecture and Learning and interest in these grew all over.
5. Nation-State idea: In the age of new learning, emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual. With the dawn of the new spirit, City-States lost their significance and the idea of Nation States took shape. As feudalism collapsed, the Monarchs were interested in the welfare of their subjects and gave importance to Classical literature and Education in general.
6. The invention of Printing Press: This was the chief factor in spreading new ideas and thoughts across the multitude. Printing helped the tremendous development of European civilization and culture. Production of books on varied subjects stimulated a general desire
Describe the various results of the first world war.
1. The horrors and miseries in the aftermath of the war were plenty. The lasting result of the war was the loss of millions of fittest meivand permanent disabling of many more. It has been estimated that about 60 million soldiers took part in the war. Out of them, about 10 million were killed and about 20 million were wounded. Most of them were men below, the age of 40.
Besides, millions of civilians died of starvation, diseases and mindless violence. As a result, women were forced to work in the factories, shops, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. they worked in place of men and thus ended the traditional barrier f between men and women.
2. As a result of the war, four old Empires were overthrown. They were the Hapsburg of Austria, Hohenzollern’s of Germany, Romanov’s of Russia and the Turkish Sultanate. Many new States were setup on the ruins of the old Empires like Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
3. The Treaty of Versailles was an important outcome of the war. By this Treaty, Germany had to give up large number of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.
4. It became common after the war to look to the Government for guidance to solve economic, social and other problems of the people. Government control over many aspects of life increased. Acute shortage of goods led to inflation. Each warring nation imposed heavy taxes to meet the war expenses. World’s production decreased and the cost of living shot up everywhere. The largest creditor-nations of Europe became debtor-nations.
5. The most important constructive result of the First World War as the establishment of an international organization called the League of Nations to preserve the World peace by avoiding future wars. The Paris Peace Conference accepted the proposal of Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations came into existence in 1920 with its headquarters at Geneva in Switzerland.
6. Countries like Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent after the war.
7. The Paris Peace Conference, in 1919 officially ended the First World War.
Explain the causes for cold war.
Causes for Cold War:
During World War II, Soviet Union and the Western powers consisting of U.K. France and USA fought together against Germany and its allies. But just after the War, distrust and suspicion loomed over Soviet Union and the Western powers.
1. Russia’s refusal to evacuate from Iran: After World War II, Britain and USA withdrew their forces from Iran, but the Soviet Union refused to do so. Finally, only after the UN intervention Russia withdrew its forces. It embittered the relations between the Western Powers and Soviet Union.
2. Sovietization of Eastern Europe: Soviet Union was accused of not honouring the pledges of the Yalta and the Balkan agreements. At Yalta, the Western powers recognized the military authority of Russia over Eastern and Central Europe. But it was agreed that, in all the liberated countries of Europe, democratic institutions would be established and free elections be held. But communist supported Governments were established in the entire Balkan region through the intervention of Russia. Western powers resented this and united to check the spread of communism and Russian influence.
3. Soviet influence in Greece: In 1944, Greece secured its independence from the Nazi rule with the support of Britain. When the German forces left Greece, the British entered Greece. According to a treaty concluded between Soviet Union and British, Russia recognized the British sphere of influence in Greece. At the same time there was a clash between the communists and royalists in Greece.
Soviet Union was believed to be instigating a communist revolution in Greece. Both the British and the Greek Governments sought the support of America, and President Truman announced both military and economic assistance to Greece.
4. Soviet influence in Turkey: Just after World War II, Soviet Union exerted pressure on Turkey to cede some of its territories. But Turkey refused to oblige and secured American assistance. USA followed the policy of defending Turkey and Greece against the possible attack of the Soviet Union. U.S .Congress approved to extend economic and military aid to Turkey.
5. Problems relating to Germany: Soviet Union had suffered heavily during World War II. At the Yalta conference Stalin demanded 10,000 million dollars as reparations from Germany. After the war, Soviet Union destroyed German Industries and transferred costly German machines to Russia, because of which the German economy was shattered. Britain and America had to give huge economic aid to reconstruct the German economy.
6. The secrecy of the Atom Bomb: USA kept the technology of the atom bomb a secret from USSR, though Soviet Union was an ally of United States during the war. Stalin considered it as a betrayal of trust and confidence in Russia. Moreover Soviet Union was also concerned about its own security.
7. Communist activities in the USA: Soviet Union began to encourage communist activities and espionage in United States of America. In 1945, it was discovered by the American strategic services that some of the secret documents had been spuriously passed on to the communist Agency.
Write about the relationship between India and N.A.M.
India has played an important role in the formation of Non-Aligned Movement. Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India is called the Architect of Non-Aligned Movement. His ‘Panchasheela’ formed the important principles of Non-Aligned Movement. India has not only coined the word‘Non-Aligned’, but has inspired others about it.
The following facts show the relationship between India and NAM.
1. India has good relations with the other Non-Aligned countries. Nehru’s principles got world recognition in the Bandung conference, which officially declared the Non-Aligned policy.
2. The 7th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi and India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi presided. over the conference. She said we should become a united voice in the international organizations. Disarmament, Economic development, technical help were some of the issues that were discussed in this summit. India insisted Israel to withdraw her troops from Palestine.
3. At the 8th summit of Non-Aligned countries in Harare, the then Indian Prime Minister Rajeev Gandhi demanded the release of Nelson Mandela of South Africa. He also established the ‘African Fund’ to support the blacks who were fighting for their Rights and Freedom.
4. The 9th summit of Non-Aligned countries was held at Belgrade the capital of Yugoslavia. In this summit, Rajeev Gandhi gave a call for establishing ‘Global Protection Fund’ for the protection of the Environment.
5. At the 12th and 13th summits of Non-Aligned countries, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee gave a call to take a firm decision to combat international Terrorism. India also supported nuclear disarmament.
6. At the 14th summit, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spoke about international terrorism and nuclear disarmament. At the 15th summit he brought to the notice of Non- Aligned countries, the Mumbai attacks and terrorism.
At the 16th summit held in Iran, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh advocated the need for international action against the spread of nuclear armaments and terrorism. He also gave a call to find a solution to the Syrian problem acceptable to all.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions. ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(d) Cape of Good Hope
(h) New York
(a) Athens: It is the present capital city of Greece. It was one of the City-States of Ancient Greek Civilization. The city was named after the Goddess Athena. The famous Parthenon Temple is located here. After Greeks, Athens was ruled by the Romans. In 15th century C.E. it was captured by the Ottoman Turks. After the Greek war of Independence in the 19th century, Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly independent Greek state in 1834.
(b) Mecca: It is in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Mohammad, the founder of Islam was born here. It is regarded as the holiest city of Islam.
(c) Constantinople: Presently called as Istanbul is in Turkey. Its original name was Byzantium, which was founded in 7th Century B.C.E. by a Greek King Byzas. Constantine the Great, made it the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 4th century C.E. Then it came to be known as Constantinople which means ‘The City of Constantine’. Ottoman Turks captured it in 1453, which led to the need to discover new sea routes to India.
(d) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco-da- Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.
(e) London: It is the capital of U.K located on the banks of the river Thames. It was the main centre of Industrial Revolution. It is the famous centre of learning. According to one origin, London meant the place belonging to a man called ‘Londinos’. As per another view, it is derived from the word ‘Lowonida’ meaning ‘river too wide to ford’ referring to river Thames, which flows through London.
(f) Moscow: It is the capital city of Russia, located on the banks of river Moskva and named after the river. It was one of the centres of Russian Revolution of 1917 and was made the capital of USSR.
(g) Hiroshima: It is in Japan. Hiroshima means ‘Wide Island’. During World War II, it had large depots of military supplies. As retaliation for the Pearl Harbour attack, on Monday the 6th August 1945 at 8.15 a.m., the first Atomic Bomb called ‘Little Boy’ was dropped on Hiroshima by the US Air force. As a result of this, an estimated 80,000 people were killed.
(h) New York: It is located on the Western coast of USA. It was one of the colonies of British. The Head Quarters of UNO is located here.
Both the State and the City were named after the 17th Century Duke of York, James Stuart of England and Scotland. Originally it was a Dutch Colony. In 17th Century it was called as New Amsterdam. Later on, the English captured it and renamed it as New York.
For Visually Challenged Students only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences. ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
(B) Describe the contributions of Egyptian civilization.
Nile River flowing northward has formed the most fertile plains of 15-20 kms on either side of it. Because of Nile, plenty of food, fodder and uninterrupted supply of water was possible. The food security provided sufficient leisure for the growth of civilization. But for the Nile, Egyptian civilization would not have developed. Therefore Egypt is called ‘The Gift of Nile’.
The early people settled into villages, which developed into cities and later City States were formed. They were ruled by Kings in this pre-dynastic period. The inter City- State quarrels made way to the birth of Kingdoms. About 30 dynasties have ruled Egypt for more than 3000 years but none could survive for more than 6-7 generations.
The rule of dynasties can be divided into 3 parts: The Period of Old Kingdom, the Period of . Middle Kingdom and the Period of New Kingdom. Old Kingdom is also known as the Period of Pyramids. The Pharaohs of this period were very strong. They had a good administrative system. There was a council of elders to advise the King, which was not binding on him. Pharaohs appointed Vizirs, the Prime Ministers who headed the Administration, Justice and Treasury.
The Local officers maintained the records and the accounts. Middle Kingdom is known as the Period of Feudal Lords. During this period, Lords became more powerful than the Pharaohs. It led to many internal wars and Anarchy. During the new Kingdom, the Kings raised powerful armies and built a very strong Empire and conquered new territories and expanded the Empire.
Egypt had a well organised society. There were three strata of people. The Upper class included the Royal family, Priests, Nobles and Military Officers who led a life of comfort and luxury. The Middle class included Physicians, Scribes, Craftsmen, Merchants and Farmers.
Slaves formed the Lower class or the last strata of the society and lived a very hard and toiling life. It was an agrarian economy. They built Canals and Shadoofs for efficient irrigation purpose. They redesigned the hoe and fixed it to the yoke of oxen and transformed the hoe culture into plough culture for better yield.
They developed a variety of crafts and manufacturing. Brass, bronze, gold and iron were the metals used for making tools, utensils, ornaments and weapons. They had developed both internal and external trade. They had perfected the art of ship building to navigate the seas and smaller boats and vessels to sail the rivers. Collection of taxes on agriculturists, traders and craftsmen were introduced to augment the state’s income.
Egyptians developed pictographic writing called Hieroglyphics. These signs represented both sounds and some complete words. Papyrus was used for writing. They had a fair knowledge of Medicine, Geometry, Calendars, Astronomy and Mathematics.
The construction of huge Pyramids and the Sphinx are fine examples of their outstanding technical knowledge and sound administrative ability. They had invented the Shadow clock to mark the time of the day. Their education was controlled by the State.
Describe the causes and results of Geographical Explorations.
The causes of geographical exploration are as follows:
1. Fall of Constantinople: The trade route between the East and the West was through Constantinople and when in 1453 A.D. the Ottoman Turks captured it, they closed the land route to the East and also indulged in looting the merchants. As the Europeans depended entirely upon the East for the supply of spices and other luxury goods, it necessitated them to discover a new trade route, possibly through the Sea.
2. The travelers accounts or romantic writings: The accounts of travelers, who ventured into the East, aroused the curiosity of the Europeans. Italian travelers like Nicola Polo and Marco Polo (1254-1324 A.D) were successful in reaching China. Marco Polo wrote a vivid account of his travels to Mongolia, India and China.
Friar John of Plano Carpini, a Fransiscan Monk reached Mongolia and had written about the Mongols in the Thirteenth century. William Bubruquis and others in their accounts have narrated their thrilling experiences. Since then, the curiosity and spirit of adventure enabled the Europeans to reach far off lands not only by land but also by sea.
3. Demand for commodities: There was a great demand in Europe for Asian commodities like spices – pepper, ginger, clove, cardamom, etc. Muslin, Silk,.Pearls, Ivory and Precious stones were also in demand. It was a lucrative trade. Europeans were eager to improve their standard of living by earning more.
This was possible by enlarging commercial contacts with the Eastern countries. The discovery of new lands and sea routes opened them avenues for earning huge profits. Many adventurous sailors and traders too risked their lives to fulfill their ambitions. .
4. Geographical knowledge: This also led to the discovery of new sea routes and lands. In the 14th century, travelers and sailors had the advantage of access to several books on travel, like ‘A Merchant’s Hand book’ by Francesco Balducci, and ‘Secrets of the Faithful Crusader’ by Marino Sanudo.
Myths like earth being flat, seas filled with terrible monsters, the tropical portion of Africa being blazing hot and surrounded by boiling water etc., were proved false with the new knowledge on Geography. This made people less wary of travelling to these new places.
5. Spread of Christianity: Kings, Nobles and Missionaries were very enthusiastic to spread of Christianity in the new lands. Hence the Kings of Spain and Portugal encouraged explorations and the Missionaries took up the cause to spread Christianity.
6. Efforts of Prince Henry: The training school of Navigation started by Prince Henry of Portugal gave the necessary training to sailors, geographers, map makers, and ship builders.
7. Other causes: The invention of printing press, mariner’s compass, new maps, and Establishment of Banks and Joint Stock Companies also encouraged the navigators. Patronage by Kings also went far in the field of geographical discoveries.
Results of the Geographical discoveries:
The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious f and cultural history of the world. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that, the earth is round.
Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam etc., This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.
The Kings sent missionaries into the explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence newly Christianity entered into Asia, Africa and America and became a world religion. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of Christian religion by converting the natives.
The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France etc.
The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals. Commercial revolution took place by promoting trade and industry.
Commerce underwent a remarkable change as regards to quality, quantity and kind of goods carried, routes, newer markets and methods. Joint Stock Companies and Banks were established and insurance of ships and goods was introduced, to safeguard against losses.
Discovery of new lands encouraged Slave trading, Ship building, Banking and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation. The discoveries increased men’s knowledge about the world and this in turn led to the expansion of their mind. Exposure to the new worlds, interaction with new people and new modes of life, dispelled the funny and blind notions of medieval ignorance. This gave a tremendous impact to the intellectual revolution introduced by Renaissance.
As a result of these discoveries, Europe came in touch with the rest of the world and European culture spread to those lands. This contact helped them to enrich their knowledge. The discovery of new worlds offered good opportunity for the freedom loving people of different countries to migrate and improve their social, economic and political status. It encouraged scientific exploration and research and overall the living standards of people rose.
One of the ugliest effects of geographical discoveries was the birth of imperialism by the European powers. Europeans reached the coasts of the countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia for establishing trade links. Eventually, they stayed there as masters and these countries were turned into colonies.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Describe the contribution of Roman civilization.
It is said that but for the Romans, the Greek culture would not have spread to the Western World. Directly or indirectly, Romans acted as the agents. Rome has made its own distinct contributions such as the formation of Republics and Governments. Laws, Legal procedures and Systems, Principles of Taxation, Citizenship Rights, Setting up of Hospitals and Sanitation Systems and construction of Public Buildings and Baths.
The greatest gift of the Romans was the ‘Pax Romana’ or the Roman Peace. The Roman Empire covered a vast stretch of territory touching three continents, namely Europe, Africa and Asia. By the might of its army, Rome gave peace to the entire Mediterranean World. Prior to that, it was a place of constant wars between the petty Rulers. But for the peaceful atmosphere, the growth of the Roman Civilization would not have been possible.
It was Romans who gave the first practical demonstration of the idea of ‘World State’. They showed the world not only how to build an Empire, but also how to Govern it efficiently. They introduced a uniform system of Administration and common laws throughout the Empire.
The most outstanding intellectual contribution of the Romans was the formation of a body of laws. These laws have made a profound impact on almost all the civilized nations of the World today. Earlier, it was the Priests who were interpreting the laws for the common people.
The first written code came in the form of ‘Twelve Tables’ in 150 B.C. It established ‘Equality before Law’. It was of two parts: Jus Civili applied to the Roman citizens and Jus Gentium applicable to all living on Roman lands that were not given citizenship. Justinian codified them completely.
Romans were the inventors of concrete. They introduced Arches and Cupolas (Domes) in their Architecture and built many fine Public Buildings, Amphitheatres and Temples. The Coliseum built by Vespasian, and the Pantheon are fine examples for that. Romans built miles and miles of very good, well paved highways like Via Appia, Via Latina and Via Valeria.
The roads were for the fast movement of their armies across the Empire and for trade with distant parts. Their system of interlinking roads connecting Rome with all the major parts of their Empire and the importance of Rome gave rise to the saying that “All roads lead to Rome”.
Roman Contributions in science were very limited. Most of the conclusions reached by Roman scientists were philosophical, and not the result of careful experimentation. They were the first to provide free medicine to poor patients. They maintained personal cleanliness, and for the purpose they built baths. They constructed hospitals and patients were treated by qualified physicians.
The greatest physician was Galen (130-200 CE). He wrote on human Anatomy and Physiology. The knowledge of human Anatomy enabled them to conduct operations and to remove goiters and tonsils. Galen was one of the first to discover the circulation of blood. The natural history of Pliny is a large Compendium of all known science. Aretacus was the first to describe the symptoms of diabetes and diphtheria.
The Romans borrowed the Etruscan rotation system, but it was not developed much above the level of arithmetic. Roman numerals like I, X, L, C etc., are used even today. The ancient Romans used numerals for commercial mathematics.
Most of the Roman paintings have disappeared. The best of the surviving murals are found in Pompeii. The art of painting was revived through Christian influence in Church Frescoes in the later period.
Explain causes for the American war of independence.
The main causes for the American Revolution or war of Independence were the following.
- Commercial policy of England
- Seven years War
- Intellectual Causes
- British taxation Policy
- Coercive Act
- Quebec Act
Commercial policy of England: British Parliament thought that the colonies were for the benefit of the motherland. So they levied heavy taxes and to further restrict the trade of the colonies, they introduced the Navigation act.
The main features of this act-were:
- The raw materials produced in America (coffee, cotton, tobacco, etc) should be exported to England only.
- The essential goods like cotton, linen, cloth, glass, sugar, etc. that America needed should be imported from England only.
- Americans should use only the British ships for trade to keep away competition of other European nations.
- Iron, blue, paper, cotton, linen, cloth, etc. that were produced by England should not be produced in America.
- England’s merchant-agents should be kept and be given security.
Seven years War: England could not tolerate the progress of France, and did not want her to establish settlements in their neighborhood. The colonies also wanted British protection against the French. England declared war in 1756, which lasted till 1763. It is called the ‘Seven years war’. England won the war. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, and France had to give away Canada to England. Thus the American colonies were freed from the fear of the French attack.
Intellectual Causes: The colonists set up their own social and political institutions. Their enlightenment was due to their own heritage. John Adams, a philosopher remarked, “The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of Americans and it had started even before the American war of Independence”.
Roger Williams, a symbol of American enlightenment, preached Religious Tolerance and separation of State from the Church. ‘Two Treatises of Government’ by John Locke is considered as the Bible of American war Of Independence. Thus the American enlightened class and philosophers laid the strong foundation for the American Revolution.
British taxation Policy: The seven years war with France was a big financial burden on England. To recover these expenses, England levied taxes on goods imported into the colonies. The Sugar and Molasses Act was passed in 1764 which levied taxes on sugar and molasses. This was a hindrance to the production of wine. It led to the increase of smuggling activities and the colonies faced many problems. The public outcry made the British Parliament to decrease the same.
The stamp Act was passed in 1764, which declared that stamp duties were to be paid on all legal documents. The colonists opposed this Act. They said that the British Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonists when they were not given representation in the Parliament. Their slogan was ‘No Taxation without Representation’. The colonists showed their anger by burning the stamps. British Parliament was forced to withdraw this act.
In 1767, the Townsend Act was passed which imposed heavy taxes on Glass, Paper and Tea. Troops were sent to help the officers in collecting the taxes. When the colonists protested and revolted, troops were sent to put down the same. British troops occupied Boston and in a fight with them, five people lost their lives and many were injured. After this ‘Boston Massacre’, taxes on glass and paper were withdrawn and to show their power and control, tax on tea was retained.
Boston Tea Party: British Parliament passed an Act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia they were forced to go back to England.
But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean marking the ‘Boston Tea Party’.
Write about rise and and conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio in the Island of Corsica on August 15th 1769. His parents were Count Charles Bonaparte and Countess Leticia Romalina. During his childhood he cultivated self confidence, an ability to work hard and immense ambition.
After his education, he joined the Military Academy at Paris and graduated. Because of his keen interest in Military Science and ability, he rose up in the ranks fast an cl proved his talent by suppressing two rebellions against the French Government.
In 1796, the Directory Government appointed Napoleon as the commander of the French Army in Italy. His Italian campaign was a great success. He defeated the Sardinians and then the Austrians. By the Treaty of ‘Campo-Formio’ in 1797, he gained immense success for France.
Napoleon started re-drawing the map of Europe though his conquests. Arbitrary Governments were imposed on Italy and Belgium. His Egyptian campaign was aimed at striking the British Imperialism. In the ‘Battle of the Pyramids’ Napoleon could score a victory over England.
But in the Naval Battle of the Nile or ‘Aboukir Bay’, he was defeated by Admiral Nelson. Napoleon overthrew the Directory Government and became the first Consul of the three member Consulate government and later took over absolute control and declared himself as the Emperor.
By 1802 Napoleon’s control over France was total. He aspired to become Consul for life. On December 2nd, 1804, he was coronated as the Emperor of France. Napoleon had invited the Pope to give his blessings and also to crown him. But at the last moment, he himself placed the crown on his head and later remarked “I found the Crown of France lying on the ground and I picked it up with my sword”.
Wars of Napoleon:
The Napoleonic Empire lasted fourteen years from 1804 to 1814. It was a period of uninterrupted warfare. He had become all-powerful in France. Now he desired to become all-powerful in Europe. He had overthrown the three great military states of Europe: Austria, Russia and Prussia. Only Great Britain and Sweden remained to be defeated.
Continental system: Britain was the chief commercial and industrial nation of the world. But invading Britain was impossible as it was the strongest naval power. So its Commerce and industry must be attacked by preventing the import of British goods into the continent, which was its chief market. Such a move would ruin the British commerce and industry and compel Britain to sue for peace. Toward this end, Napoleon fought an economic war with Great Britain from 1806 to 1814, this economic warfare is known as the ‘Continental System’.
In 1806, Napoleon proclaimed a decree which provided for closure of all ports on the continent to the British manufactured goods. In retaliation the British Government issued ‘Orders in Council’ (1807). The result of this confrontation was that Napoleon would not allow import of British goods into the continent and Britain, in turn, would prevent the sea trade of France and its allies.
For Napoleon it proved physically impossible to enforce the “Continental system” thoroughly. It was difficult to prevent the bribery of customs officials and smuggling. In the course of enforcing the ‘Continental System’, Napoleon was involved in the series of disastrous wars in Europe.
Tsar Alexander violated the Continental System and Napoleon organised a huge army for the invasion of Moscow. It was a disaster and the French army suffered from the biting cold, hunger and thirst and lost more than 3,00,000 soldiers.
Napoleon’s enemies increased and the combined armies of Austria and Prussia with the help of England defeated him in the Battle of Leipzig. He was deported to the island of Elba. He escaped from there and ruled France for 100 days but was completely routed in the battle of Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena where he died.
Describe the political and non-political achievements of the UNO.
Achievements of U.N.O are manifold:
The U.N.O. has carried out several successful programs and operations. The achievements of the U.N. may be grouped under two headings, namely, political and non-political.
Political: In the political field, the U.N.O has notable achievements. The foremost achievement of the U.N.O is that there has not been a global war and the use Of nuclear weapons since 1945.
The first issue that was solved by the U.N.O was the case of Iran. Russian Troops were stationed on the Northern borders of Iran during the Second World War. After the war, Iran complained to the U.N.O. So, U.N.O intervened and made the Russian Troops to withdraw from Iran in 1946.
- In 1947, a quarrel started in Indonesia between Holland and Indonesia. It was settled by the U.N. in 1948.
- In September .1948, France, England and U.S.A. complained to the Security Council about the blockade of Berlin by the U.S.S.R. Later, an agreement was reached due to the efforts of U.N.O.
- U.N.O. was able to stop the fighting between the Israeli Jews and Arabs in Palestine in 1948.
- The U.N.O ordered cease-fire in Kashmir in 1948.
- In the Korean crisis when war broke out between North and South Korea, the U.N.O used armed forces to settle the dispute.
- The Suez Canal and Vietnam problems were solved with the mediation of the U.N.O.
- It also put an end to the fighting between Iraq and Iran in 1989.
- Iraq occupied Kuwait in 1990. Immediately, Kuwait approached U.N.O for help. So, the U.N. made Iraq vacate Kuwait in 1991.
- It has worked to maintain peace in several countries of the world. It has carried out peace keeping missions in Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus, Congo, Cambodia, Korea, Kosovo, etc.,
- South Africa was following the Apartheid policy. U.N.O. set up a special committee and imposed sanctions against South Africa in 1954. Ultimately the Apartheid regime came 40 an end in 1991.
Non-political: A notable achievement of the U.N.O was the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the General Assembly on 10th December 1948. The Declaration included articles like the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedom from slavery, freedom of thought, the right to vote, to work, etc.
- U.N.O has done excellent work through its specialized agencies. The ILO has made the member nations to improve the conditions of the laborers.
- FAO has assisted the nations to increase the food production in farms, forests, fisheries and increase nutrition levels. It has also helped to feed millions of hungry children in the third world countries.
- IMF and IBRD are giving funds for the economic development of different backward countries.
UNESCO has done much work in many backward countries in the social, educational, economic, technological and other fields. U.N.O. helped the refugees of war, earthquake, tsunami etc. It had arranged for food, shelter and rehabilitation of war victims throughout the world. The U.N.O has helped preserve many cultural sites throughout the world as World Heritage Sites like Hampi, Pattadakal, Konark etc.
VI. 36. Match the following ( 05 )
Part – F
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
- IInd world war
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- Treaty of Versailles
- Unification of Germany
- Capture of Constantinople
- Capture of Constantinople – 1453
- Napoleon Bonaparte – 1769
- Unification of Germany – 1817
- Treaty of Versailles – 1919
- IInd world war – 1939