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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 (South)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
From which language is the term History derived?
The term ‘History’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘Historia’, which means ‘Enquiry’ or ‘Investigation’.
Who built The Hanging Garden?
King Nebuchadnezzar got the The Hanging Garden built at Babylon.
What is the modern name for Constantinople?
Where was Jesus born?
Jesus was born at Bethlehem in Judea.
Who wrote the book ‘Divine Comedy’?
Dante wrote the book ‘Divine Comedy’.
Who founded the society of Jesus?
Ignatius Loyola founded the society of Jesus in 1534.
In which year was the Battle of Waterloo fought?
Battle of Waterloo fought in 1815.
Where is the headquarters of UNO?
The headquarters of UNO is located in New York (U.S.A).
NATO North American Treaty Organization.
Who was the first to use the word ‘Non-Aligned’?
V.K. Krishna Menon, India’s External Affairs Minister was the first to use the word ‘Non- Aligned’.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Which were the two chemicals responsible for the begin of life.
Hydrogen and Carbon which were present in the atmosphere were responsible for that.
Where is Parthenon temple? And who built it?
Parthenon temple is in Athens. It was built by Pericles.
Who were the parents of Mohammad?
Abdullah and Ameena were Mohammed’s parents.
Write two features of Romanesque style?
The main features of the Romanesque style were the rounded arches, small windows, massive walls of stone and the predominance of horizontal lines.
Name the groups of French Revolutionaries?
Girondists (Moderates) and Jacobins (Extremists).
Where and in which year was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio in the island of Corsica on August 15th 1769.
Name the Allied powers of Second World War?
England, France, U.S.S.R and U.S.A
Name any two official languages of the U.N.O?
English and French are two of the official languages of U.N.O.
What is Veto Power?
Any permanent member can ‘Veto’ any decision of the Security Council. ‘Veto’ is a special power given to the five permanent members to negate any resolution of the United Nations.
Name the the Presidents of America and Russia who ended the cold War.
George Bush (Sr.) and Boris Yeltsin were the Presidents of America and Russia respectively who ended the cold war.
Name of the two leaders of Bandung Conference.
Nehru and Josip Broz Tito were two of the World leaders at the Bandung Conference.
Where and when was the 7th summit of Non-Aligned countries held?
The 7th summit of the Non-Aligned countries was held at Delhi, India’s Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi president over the conference.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Explain the importance of study of History.
(a) History is the memory of the past events: The study of history gives us information about the biographies of great men and a record of major events of the world. According to Will Durant, “A country’s past is like an individual’s memory. If memory goes, sanity goes with it”. Hayes and Moon wrote “As memory is to man, History is to mankind”.
(b) History helps to broaden our outlook: The study of history helps us to get knowledge about the people of different countries, traditions, customs, cultures and civilizations. Thus it broadens the outlook of mankind. The details recorded in history relating to Art, Architecture, Literature and Religion expands one’s horizon of knowledge.
(c) History promotes international peace: The world has already witnessed the misgivings of the two World Wars. If another war takes place in the future, it would destroy the whole world. History has pointed out that unawareness of the culture of other countries and narrow nationalism has lead to such wars. Today, there is a great deal of competition among different countries in possessing nuclear weapons and war equipments. For the development of cordial relations between nations, the study of world history is the need of the hour.
(d) History has Professional uses: It is a competitive world. History is the main core subject for the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS, etc. Historical knowledge is a matter of necessity for Students, Teachers, Lawyers, Journalists, Administrators and Statesmen. Thousands of historians are working in the Department of Archaeological Survey of India under Central and State Governments. New job opportunities have opened up for the students of history at Museums, Archives, Tourism development and related fields. Thus, history has professional uses.
What was the role of domestication of animals and agriculture Human Evolution?
Domestication of animals was followed by the commencement of agriculture. Humans who were food gatherers and hunters till then, now became food growers or food producers. They were prepared to overcome the effects of the climate changes like the ice age by adapting to domestication of animals and agriculture. Dogs are believed to be the first animals to be domesticated as they were continuously hanging around the hunters’ camps to pick up bones and scrapes of meat.
They developed a bond and dogs were domesticated. This was followed by sheep, goat, cow, cat, camel, and horse. Dogs helped humans in hunting and guarding their shelters. The rearing of animals made humans, nomads. Commencement of agriculture is considered as a revolutionary change in the history of human evolution. This was an important aspect of the Neolithic age. Humans began to grow various crops like wheat, rice, millets etc.
The practice of agriculture is not more than 13,000 years old. It made them lead a settled life. This resulted in the formation of human settlements termed villages and later towns. Villages and towns were the foundations of civilizations.
What are the contributions of Romans to languages and literature?
Latin was the language of the ancient Roman Empire. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages. The native sons of Latium saw the superiority of the Greek languages and proceeded to use its style, formulating their own. Before the fall of Rome, Latin became the accepted language of much of the civilized world. Latin remained the language of the Church, science, medicine, law and education. It was used for most of the written transactions in Europe, throughout the middle ages.
In the field of literature, the Romans tried to imitate the Greeks. The ‘Golden Age’ of Latin literature was heralded in the Prose works of Cicero and the Poetry of Catullus and Lucretius. Julius Caesar wrote ‘Gallic Wars’ and ‘Civil wars’. The dawn of Augustinian age, saw writings of Virgil, Horace, Livy and Ovid, Virgil has been given the title, the most splendid ‘Voice of Rome’. He wrote ‘Aeneid’. Augustinian age saw the Lyrics of Horace and the ‘Natural History’ of Livy.
Livy’s another great work was ‘History ”of Rome’. The ‘Silver Age’ (198 BCE- 138 CE) saw the Tragedies of Seneca, the Satire of Juvenal and the sceptical Histories of Tacitus. Tacitus also wrote ‘Annals’ and,‘Histories’. Pliny, the Elder wrote ‘Natural History’. The other well known Historians were Sallust and Plutarch. Marcus Aurelius wrote ‘Meditation’ and was a great orator on philosophy.
Explain the Teachings of Prophet Mohammad.
Prophet Mohammad declared “There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his Prophet”. He criticized the meaningless ceremonials like Idol worship, polytheism and superstitions among Arabs. He preached purity of life, truth and faith in Allah. He preached that Allah would reward the just and punish the wicked. He said “Allah is all merciful, all wise and all powerful”.
The new faith that Mohammad preached was called ‘Islam’ which means “Submission to God Allah’. Islam preaches to be truthful, be faithful and to have good conduct. It preaches equality and condemns slavery. Mohammad advocated the following five pillars or Principles of Islam to be followed by all Muslims.
Kalima: It means faith. Every Muslim should profess his faith in Allah and Mohammad. Namaz, It means prayer. Every Muslim has to pray five times a day. Prayer is the best method to please God and get one’s sins pardoned.
Zaqqat: It means alms giving. Muslims should be honest and sincere. They should give 2.5 % of what they earn in charity. The purpose is to bring economic equality between the rich and the poor.
Roza: It means fasting. Every Muslim should fast in the month of Ramzan, from morning to dusk. Fasting brings purity of heart. It balances the desires, controls one’s habits and creates confidence towards deliverance. It is a proper training to acquire good character.
Hajj: It is the holy pilgrimage to Mecca. True Muslims should undertake Hajj at least once in their life time.
There were other moral codes advocated by the prophet.
He prohibited gambling, drinking, adultery and use of pork. He preached the democratic principles of equality and universal brotherhood. He also advocated important moral values like respect for women, parents, and kindness to slaves and animals.
What were the causes for the decline of feudalism?
There were several reasons for the decline of feudalism. The major ones are given here under.
1. Rise of strong Monarchies: Europe saw the growth of many strong monarchies, where the Kings suppressed the feudal Lords which led to the decline of feudalism.
2. Shifting of loyalty: Common people and serfs were unhappy as they were heavily taxed and felt neglected. They shifted their faith and loyalty to the Kings, which further weakened the hold of the feudal Lords.
3. Growth of commerce and industry: With the growth in commerce arid industry, people found new ways for livelihood and left their lands. The rise of the independent middle class took place, which was a lethal blow to the feudal Lords.
4. Dominance of money economy: Payment in the form of services was replaced by money. Commoners and serfs stopped giving military services to Lords, which further depleted their power and dominance.
5. Building of strong armies by the Kings: The use of gun powder and well organised armies resulted in the weakening of feudalism. Commoners and serfs under the protection of Kings felt more secure.
6. Scarcity of labourers: The growth of industries and commerce provided alternate employment and depleted the labour strength. Spread of epidemics like plague reduced the number of workers. Demand for workers and their increased wages brought down the importance of the feudal Lords.
7. Struggle between the feudal Lords: The feudal Lords were troublesome to the serfs and commoners and fighting among themselves for control. These internal wars further decreased their number and the Church also put many restrictions on their functioning.
Write about counter reformation.
The religious upheaval in the 16th century gave rise to Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism and the radical sects. The rapid spread of Protestantism alarmed the Catholics and they felt the urgency to check further damage to the Catholic Church. They demanded Reformation from within and the movement came to be known as Counter Reformation.
The attitude of the Popes changed. They took firm steps to check the spread of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic Church made efforts to win back the Protestant dominated countries, to the Roman obedience.
A concerted Counter Reformation Movement was launched with the four-fold purpose of punishing, reforming, converting and rendering social service. The inquisition was to punish, the Council of Trent was to introduce reforms and the Society of Jesus was to render service to God and Society.
The inquisition was a Roman Catholic Court formed for conducting inquiry into cases of heresy and meting out punishments to those who were found guilty. The guilty were excommunicated and given over to the civil arm for punishment, which included torturing and execution by burning. They issued a strict code of conduct to be followed by the Church officials. The inquisition was first established in Spain and they were set up to deal with the , non-Catholics and to put down heresy.
The Council of Trent: (1545 – 1563 A.D). The Catholic Church held a General Council at Trent in north Italy, convened by Charles V in 1545 A.D. Its main purpose as clearly defined by the doctrines of the Church, was to remove some of the abuses and to restore unity in the Catholic Church. The Council condemned the sale of Church offices and bade the clergy to strictly adhere to clerical duties. It also banned the sale of indulgences.
Society of Jesus in 1540: The Counter Reformation Movement was bolstered by the formation of several new religious orders. The most popular of these was the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish knight of Noble descent. He inspired a large team of selfless, educated and disciplined priests to serve God and Christianity. They were known as Jesuits. They took the vows of simplicity, chastity, obedience, service and spreading Catholicism.
What were the effects of cold war?
The effects of the Cold War are:
- Both the United States of America and the Soviet Union built up huge arsenals of atomic weapons and ballistic missiles.
- The military blocs NATO and the Warsaw Pact were formed.
- It led to destructive conflicts like the Vietnam War and the Korean War.
- Soviet Union collapsed due to economic weaknesses.
- The Warsaw Pact was dissolved.
- The Baltic States and some former Soviet Republics achieved independence.
- America became the sole super power of the world.
- Communism received a setback worldwide.
Describe the achievements of non-Aligned movement.
Achievements of NAM are manifold. Along with the United Nations Organization, NAM is trying to solve international problems peacefully. It has its role in the achievements of U.N.O. The major Achievements of Non-Aligned Movement are as follows.
- It has helped to decrease the intensity of Cold War.
- Helped U.N.O. in resolving the issues pertaining to Korea, Vietnam, Cuba and Kuwait.
- Worked hard to end Apartheid in South Africa.
- Inspired treaties to reduce Atomic weapons.
- Worked to resist the dominance of power blocs.
- Popularized democratic principles.
- It is working hard to establish international peace.
- It is trying to find solutions to the problems faced by member nations.
- It is fighting for the self reliance of member countries.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(f) Cape of Good Hope
(a) Rome: It is the capital of Italy. It was also the capital of the Roman Empire. Vatican City in Rome is the centre of Pope, who is the religious head of the Catholics. According to a Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 8th century B.C.E. According to another version the name is derived from the Greek word Rome which means ‘strength’.
(b) Paris: It is the capital of France. The Bourbon family ruled over France from here, till the French Revolution of 1789. In modern times, many historical treaties have been signed here. The name Paris is derived from that of its earliest inhabitants, known as the ‘Parissi’ meaning ‘The working People’ or ‘The Craftsmen’. Paris is also known as ‘The City of Light’, due to its fame as a centre of education and ‘Paradise of Traveller’s. The famous Eiffel Tower is here.
(c) Nagasaki: It is in Japan. Nagasaki means ‘Long Cape’. On 9th August 1945, US Air force dropped the second Atomic bomb called ‘Fat Man’ on Nagasaki. As a result of this, more than 70,000 people died. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in 16th Century.
(d) Babylonia: It is in present Iraq. It was the capital of Mesopotamian Civilization. The famous law-giver Hammurabi ruled from here. Nebuchadnezzar built the ‘Hanging Gardens’. which was one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.
(e) Alexandria: It is in northern Egypt. It was founded by Alexander the Great. It was intended to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile Valley. An Egyptian City, Rhakotis already existed on the shores and was later given the name Alexandria. In Egyptian, it means “That which is built up”. In the ancient times it had a Light house which was one of the Wonders of the World.
(f) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco-da-Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.
(g) Geneva: It is in Switzerland. It was one of the centres of Protestant movement. International organizations like ILO, WHO, WTO and GATT are located here.
(h) Moscow: It is the capital city of Russia, located on the banks of river Moskva and named after the river. It was one of the centres of Russian Revolution of 1917 and was made the capital of USSR.
B. (For Visually Challenged Students only) ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Describe the contributions of Chinese civilization.
Art of painting:- Chinese had developed wonderful painting. They painted on silk cloth, tomb walls, pots and papers. They believed that tomb painting were means to protect the dead and help their souls to go to heaven.
Sculpture:- Chinese developed the art of casting bronze statues of animals and monsters. This art developed during Shangs and Chous. Buddhism influenced their sculpture and the statues of Bodhisatwa carved in stone are found in large numbers. The Terracotta army assembled in the tomb of the first Kin Emperor consists of life size images of more than 8000 – warriors and horses.
Chinese were massive builders. The Great Wall of China is one of their most impressive and everlasting architectural accomplishment. It was purely built for the ’ utilitarian purpose of protecting the country from Mongolian invasions. They also built Buddhist temples called Pagodas, important among them are the ‘Giant Wild Goose Pagoda’, ‘Jade Pagoda’, ‘Flask Pagoda’ and the ‘Temple of Sleeping Buddha’ outside Peking, the present Beijing.
Writing and Literature:- Chinese had developed the art of writing during Shang period. Chinese script was standardized during Chin Rulers. They have no alphabets and parts of speech. It consists of only characters which are more than 40,000. It started as pictograph and later they developed Characters or Logograms. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used systems of writing in the world. Their writing played an important role in cultural unification. Chinese script also influenced Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts.
It is written from top to bottom.
The invention of paper, silk and ink for writing helped the growth of writing and literature. The practice of writing history was also popular in China. The Chinese literature comprised of prose, poetry, philosophy and history. During Han and Tong dynasties, Chinese poetry reached great heights. Chinese had developed Geography, Geometry, Arithmetic, Calendars, Astronomy and they could predict eclipses accurately.
The important inventions of the Chinese are the following. Silk, Tea, Ink, Brushes for painting and writing, Abacus, Acupuncture, Rudder, Gun powder, Glass, Pottery, Porcelain, Rockets, Umbrella, Seismograph and Mariner Compass.
Philosophy and Religion:- Lao tse, Confucius and Mencius were three great Philosophers who influenced the religious ideas of Chinese to a great extent. Lao tse’s philosophy is known . as Taoism. He preached non violence, not to be conservative, to respect the wise, do one’s duty with sincerity and honesty etc., The philosophy of Confucius is known as ‘Confucianism’. The principles of Confucius had basis in common Chinese traditions and beliefs. He taught loyalty towards family, worship of ancestors, respect to elders and unity among the people of China.
Describe the administration of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralized the entire system of local Government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondisments and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’.
His major reforms were as follows.
1. Code Napoleon: The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees were presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision.
The 5 codes were:
- French Civil Code
- Code of Civil Procedure
- Code of Criminal Procedure
- Penal Code
- Commercial Code
The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.
2. Education: He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.
3. Religious reforms or the Concordat: He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.
4. Public works: He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in sofving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He. encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed to modem cities.
5. Economy: Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern-measures to root out corruption and gambling.
6. Legion of honour: To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 x 10 = 20 )
Explain the life and achievement of Augusts Caesar.
He was a great Ruler and a wise Statesman. After several years of political turmoil, Rome enjoyed more than three decades of peace. He not only built an Empire but also was a great patron of Art and Literature. His reign is called as the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. Julius Caesar’s assassination by the Brutus led Liberators, caused great political and social turmoil in Rome. The power passed into the hands of Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian who formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’.
The conspirators were defeated in the battle of Philippi and Brutus and Cassius were killed. The Triumvirate divided the Empire amongst themselves- Lepidus was in charge of Africa, Antony ruled in the Eastern Province and Octavian remained in Italy and controlled Gaul (France and Belgium). However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony deteriorated. Lepidus was forced to retire (after betraying Octavian in Sicily). Antony was living in Egypt and in the battle of ‘Actium’ was defeated by Octavian.
With the conquest of Egypt, a new Era began for Romans. By 27 BCE, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. His leadership brought the Zenith to Roman civilization that lasted for two centuries. He ruled the Roman Empire for 44 years with the titles ‘Augustus’, ‘Imperator’ and ‘Princeps’. The Government established by him was known as the ‘Principate’- ‘Government by the Princeps – The first citizen.
Augustus introduced many reforms which had far reaching consequences in Rome. He gave, ‘A centre to the System, a Chief to the Civil service, a Head to the Army, a Sovereign to the Subjects, a Protector to the Provinces and Peace to the Empire’.
He recognized the Governments of the conquered territories, stopped plunder and corruption and strengthened law and order. New Courts, and Postal Services were established. Augustus continued the calendar promoted by Julius Caesar and the month ‘August’ is named after him. The Emperor kept the poor people happy by supplying food grains.
He spent money lavishly on the construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, amphitheatres and fountains. The most important Amphitheatre was the Coliseum built at Rome. This could accommodate about 50000 people. Due to the construction of well paved inter linking system of roads, Rome became the nerve centre of trade and commerce in the Mediterranean world.
He maintained diplomatic and commercial contacts with a number of countries including India and China. There were the Generals Agrippa and Maecenas, and Writers, Poets and Historians like Livy, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Pliny and Tacitus in his time. Jesus Christ was born during his reign..
Augustan age is popularly called as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. It was known for peace and prosperity. This period is known as ‘Pax Romana’ or Roman peace. He gave the idea of the ‘World State’. His imperial system lasted for nearly 500 years and saved the great treasures of Greco-Roman civilization.
Describe the causes and results of Geographical Explorations.
The causes of geographical exploration are as follows:
1. Fall of Constantinople: The trade route between the East and the West was through Constantinople and when in 1453 A.D. the Ottoman Turks captured it, they closed the land route to the East and also indulged in looting the merchants. As the Europeans depended entirely upon the East for the supply of spices and other luxury goods, it necessitated them to discover a new trade route, possibly through the Sea.
2. The traveller’s accounts or romantic writings: The accounts of travellers, who ventured into the East, aroused the curiosity of the Europeans. Italian travellers like Nicola Polo and Marco Polo (1254-1324 A.D) were successful in reaching China. Marco Polo wrote a vivid account of his travels to Mongolia, India and China. Friar John of Plano Carpini, a Fransiscan Monk reached Mongolia and had written about the Mongols in the Thirteenth century. William Bubruquis and others in their accounts have narrated their thrilling experiences. Since then, the curiosity and spirit of adventure enabled the Europeans to reach far off lands not only by land but also by sea.
3. Demand for commodities: There was a great demand in Europe for Asian commodities like spices pepper, ginger, clove, cardamom, etc. Muslin, Silk,.Pearls, Ivory and Precious stones were also in demand. It was a lucrative trade. Europeans were eager to improve their standard of living by earning more. This was possible by enlarging commercial contacts with the Eastern countries. The discovery of new lands and sea routes opened them avenues for earning huge profits. Many adventurous sailors and traders too risked their lives to fulfill their ambitions.
4. Geographical knowledge: This also led to the discovery of new sea routes and lands. In the 14th century, travellers and sailors had the advantage of access to several books on travel, like ‘A Merchant’s Hand book’ by Francesco Balducci, and ‘Secrets of the Faithful Crusader’ by Marino Sanudo. Myths like earth being flat, seas filled with terrible monsters, the tropical portion of Africa being blazing hot and surrounded by boiling water etc., were proved false with the new knowledge on Geography. This made people less wary of travelling to these new places.
5. Spread of Christianity: Kings, Nobles and Missionaries were very enthusiastic to spread Christianity in the new lands. Hence the Kings of Spain and Portugal encouraged explorations and the Missionaries took up the cause to spread Christianity.
6. Efforts of Prince Henry: The training school of Navigation started by Prince Henry of Portugal gave the necessary training to sailors, geographers, map makers, and ship builders.
7. Other causes: The invention of printing press, mariner’s compass, new maps, and Establishment of Banks and Joint Stock Companies also encouraged the navigators. Patronage by Kings also went far in the field of geographical discoveries.
Results of the Geographical discoveries:
The geographical discoveries had a great impact on the political, economic, social, religious and cultural history of the world. The circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan proved that, the earth is round.
Venice, Genoa, Florence, etc were important trading centres of Europe. But now, they lost their importance because of the emergence of new cities like London, Lisbon, Amsterdam etc., This was mainly due to the discovery of new trade routes.
The Kings sent missionaries into the explored territories to spread Christianity. Hence newly Christianity entered into Asia, Africa and America and became a world religion. The Geographical discoveries gave a large scope for the spread of Christian religion by converting the natives.
The explorations brought the support of the rich merchants and the middle classes to monarchy. This support enabled stable monarchies at England, Spain, France etc.
The Geographical discoveries ensured competition among the European nations. The competition was mainly to have trade contacts with the newly discovered lands and subsequently have trade Monopoly. They became aggressive and ruthless to realize these goals. Commercial revolution took place by promoting trade and industry. Commerce underwent a remarkable
change as regards to quality, quantity and kind of goods carried, routes, newer markets and methods. Joint Stock Companies and Banks were established and insurance of ships and goods was introduced, to safeguard against losses.
Discovery of new lands encouraged Slave trading, Ship building, Banking and Commerce. It also helped Renaissance and Reformation. The discoveries increased men’s knowledge about the world and this in turn led to the expansion of their mind. Exposure to the new worlds, interaction with new people and new modes of life, dispelled the funny and blind notions of medieval ignorance. This gave a tremendous impact to the intellectual revolution introduced by Renaissance. .
As a result of these discoveries, Europe came in touch with the rest of the world and European culture spread to those lands. This contact helped them to enrich their knowledge. The discovery of new worlds offered good opportunity for the freedom loving people of different countries to migrate and improve their social, economic and political status. It encouraged scientific exploration and research and overall the living standards of people rose.
One of the ugliest effects of geographical discoveries was the birth of imperialism by the European powers. Europeans reached the coasts of the countries of Asia, Africa, America and Australia for establishing trade links. Eventually, they stayed there as masters and these countries were turned into colonies.
Explain causes for the American war of Independence.
The punitive and oppressive laws passed by the British Parliament and the heavy taxes were disapproved by the Colonists. Alarmed by the repressive policy of the British, all the Colonies united together in their opposition. On 5th September 1774, delegates of 12 Colonies except Georgia met at Philadelphia to decide the future plan of action. This is known as the First Continental (Philadelphia) Congress.
The Congress drew up a ‘Declaration of rights’ and sent a petition to George III requesting him to intervene and redress their grievances. But George- III turned a deaf ear to their plea and branded the members of the Congress as revolutionaries. Moreover, he ordered his troops to crush them.
This action of the King was not tolerated by the Colonists. The Congress appointed George Washington as the Commander in Chief of the Colonial army to fight the British troops and on 4*h July 1776 proclaimed their Independence from the control of England. A Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson was unanimously adopted by the Colonies. Infuriated with the colonist’s attitude, Britain declared war on America. In the early stages of the war, the British had an upper hand. Americans lost the Bunker Hill battle but won at Trenton and Prinistine.
Washington crushed the British in the battle of Saratoga and on 17th October 1777 the British Commander-in-Chief surrendered to him. This was the turning point in the war. The war continued and Lord Cornwallis and the British army under him were routed at York Town in 1781. The war came to an end with the. Treaty of Paris in 1783. England recognized the Independence of the 13 Colonies. 4th of July was a great day of Americans and is their Independence day.
Explain the causes and results of the First World War.
Introduction: World War I was one of the greatest, largest and most destructive events in the history of the modern world. It was the first time when such a large number of countries from Europe and other parts of the world were involved in conflict and affected either directly or indirectly. It destroyed more human lives and material than ever before. It broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. Nearly 30 countries participated in this conflict between highly organised and well armed countries with modem weaponry.
Causes of world war:
1. Aggressive Nationalism: Nationalistic aspirations have always led to political rivalries. The narrow nationalism which always meant love of their own people, their own nation and culture became a predominant feature. As a result, there began to develop among the Europeans a kind of negligence towards other countries e.g., William-II the King of Germany declared that “Germany should either rule the world or perish”. Even England was not free from this self- exaltation. This competitive patriotism forced them to jump into military and naval competitions.
2. Economic and Military imperialism: The European powers competed with each other for commercial and colonial expansion in the non-European world. The launching of industrial schemes on a large scale needed raw material and also a ready market for their finished goods. This led to colonial competition among the European countries, which was carried on to other fields as well. Commercial competition led to mutual jealousy and tension.
3. Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente: Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany in 1871 A.D. He fought many wars with the neighbouring countries. He sought to give the Empire stability and security and to achieve that end, formed a Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy. In 1907 A.D, alarmed by the formation of this Triple Alliance, Russia, France and England came together and formed an alliance called the Triple Entente. Thus Europe came to be divided into two hostile blocks.
4. The Arms Race: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente led to a keen competition of manufacturing war materials. Germany had made tremendous progress in the military to produce tanks, machine guns, and submarines etc., Greater number of soldiers Were recruited and equipped with modern weapons. Kaiser William-II of Germany glorified war. He wished to make Germany a world power. His belief that “The German race alone should rule the world” greatly alarmed England.
5. England also began to invest more on Navy and greater effort was undertaken to preserve the title “Queen of Seas” and that “Sun never sets on British Empire”. The militaristic attitude of Germany roused the fear in France which began to strengthen her military. Many European nations introduced compulsory military training. Further, the arms race created fear, suspicion tension and distrust between each other. All the nations of Europe were preparing for war.
6. Attitude of France: France had never forgotten her defeat at the hands of Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871. After the war, she had also ceded the Alsace and Lorraine provinces to Germany. France was eagerly waiting for an opportunity to take revenge against Germany besides getting back those provinces.
7. Immediate cause: The Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on 28th June 1914. So Austria felt that the Serbian Government was responsible for that and sent an ultimatum
to Serbia demanding to handover the perpetrators within 48 hours. Serbia rejected the ultimatum. Austria backed by Germany, declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914. Russia coming to the help of Serbia, entered the fray and other countries followed suit.
Results of the First World War:
1. Loss of life: The horrors and miseries of the war were plentiful. The total loss of life of all nations put together was some 10 million killed in action, more than lcrore people wounded and millions permanently disabled. As they were incapable of self support, they remained a burden on their family and their nations.
2. Economic dislocation: A large number of people lost their property (186 billion dollars), millions of civilians died of diseases and starvation. The national loan of the participants in the war was enormous. This financial disorder and widespread suffering led to violent social and political changes.
3. The First World War ended with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The prominent delegates who represented the different nations in the Peace Conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of U.S.A., Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy.
4. The victors sought to brand Germany as responsible for the war and all the consequences of the war. It had to give up a lot of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.
5. The war created a demand for an international organization to protect world peace. As a result, the League of Nations came into existence on 1st of January 1929.
6. France reoccupied Alsace and Lorraine, the two provisions from Germany. Besides, France gained the Saar coal basin.
7. The great Empires of Austria, Hungary, Russia, Germany and Ottoman Turkey came to an end. These were replaced by republics. Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent.
8. The great depression of 1929 was a result of First World War.
VI. 36. Match the following : ( 05 )
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
- The Russian Revolution
- Roman republic established
- Treaty of Versailles
- Milan Edict
- Discovery of sea route to India
- Discovery of sea route to India
- Origin of Earth
- Roman republic established
- The Russian Revolution
- Treaty of Versailles