1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 8 World Revolutions

You can Download Chapter 8 World Revolutions Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 8 World Revolutions

1st PUC History World Revolutions One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is meant by ‘revolution’?
Answer:
The Latin word ‘revolution’ means a complete change.

Question 2.
What was the period in which the Industrial Revolution took place?
Answer:
Industrial Revolution took place between 1750 and 1850.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Mention on which particular field the Industrial Revolution had its profound effect.
Answer:
The Industrial Resolution had its profound effect on social, economic and cultural conditions of that time.

Question 4.
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin at first?
Answer:
Industrial Revolution first began in the United Kingdom.

Question 5.
Who invented the Water Frame?
Answer:
Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame.

Question 6.
Who invented the Spinning Jenny?
Answer:
James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Mention the city in which the Cotton Revolution first began.
Answer:
The Cotton Revolution first began in Derby.

Question 8.
Which city is called the ‘Power House of the North’?
Answer:
Derby is called the Power House of the North.

Question 9.
Where did the Coal Mining start first?
Answer:
Coal mining first started in South Wales.

Question 10.
Why is James Watt famous?
Answer:
James Watt is famous for the development of the Steam Engine.

Question 11.
In which year did the American war of Independence take place?
Answer:
American War of Independence began in 1776.

Question 12.
Who was the Commander in Chief of the colonial army?
Answer:
George Washington was the Commander in Chief of the colonial army.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Who was the first President of the USA?
Answer:
George Washington was the first President of USA.

Question 14.
Who was the King of England during the American war of Independence?
Answer:
George III was the King of England during the American war of Independence.

Question 15.
Who drafted the Declaration of American Independence?
Answer:
Thomas Jefferson.

Question 16.
In which year was the American Constitution adopted?
Answer:
In 1787, the American Constitution was adopted.

Question 17.
Who founded the 13 colonies in America?
Answer:
Great Britain.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Which country of Europe supported the colonies?
Answer:
France.

Question 19.
What was the slogan of the colonists against the British taxation policy?
Answer:
“No taxation without representation” was the slogan of the colonists.

Question 20.
Where did Lord Cornwallis surrender to the American Army?
Answer:
Yorktown in 1781.

Question 21.
In which year did the French Revolution begin?
Answer:
The French Revolution began in 1789.

Question 22.
Name the dynasty that ruled France at the time of the French Revolution.
Answer:
The Bourbon Dynasty ruled France at the time of the French Revolution.

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Question 23.
Who was called the ‘Grand Monarch of Europe’?
Answer:
Louis XIV, the King of France was called as the ‘Grand Monarch of Europe’.

Question 24.
Who was the King of France at the time of the French Revolution?
Answer:
Louis XIV was the King of France at the time of the French Revolution.

Question 25.
What was the nickname of Marie Antoinette?
Answer:
Madame Deficit was the nickname of Marie Antoinette.

Question 26.
Which was the famous book of Montesquieu?
Answer:
The ‘Spirit of Laws’ was the famous book of Montesquieu.

Question 27.
Name the book written by Voltaire.
Answer:
‘The Letters on the English’ was the book written by Voltaire.

Question 28.
Name the French Philosopher who supported the benevolent despotism.
Answer:
J. J. Rousseau was the French philosopher who supported the benevolent despotism.

Question 29.
Who is known as “The Father of French Revolution”?
Answer:
Jean Jacques Rousseau was known as ‘The Father of French Revolution’.

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Question 30.
Which book is regarded as the ‘Bible of French Revolution’?
Answer:
‘Social Contract’ by J.J. Rousseau is regarded as the ‘Bible of the French Revolution’.

Question 31.
Who wrote the book called ‘Social Contract’?
Answer:
J. J. Rousseau wrote the book called Social Contract.

Question 32.
In which year did the fall of Bastille take place?
Answer:
Fall of Bastille took place on the 14th of July 1789.

Question 33.
Who was the head of the ‘Committee of Public Safety’?
Answer:
Robespierre was the head of the ‘Committee of Public Safety’.

Question 34.
When did the French Revolution begin and with what actions?
Answer:
In 1789 A.D. On the 20th June, the Third Estate came out of the Parliament and took the famous ‘Tennis Court Oath’ and on the 14th of July, the Bastille Prison was razed to the ground and prisoners were released.

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Question 35.
Which book is considered as a ‘Testament of Modern Democracy’?
Answer:
Rousseau’s ‘Social Contract’ is considered as a ‘Testament of Modem Democracy’.

Question 36.
Which incident was considered to be a triumph of liberty in France?
Answer:
Fall of Bastille on 14thof July 1789 A.D.

Question 37.
“Man is born free, but he is in chains everywhere”. Whose statement was this?
Answer:
J.J. Rousseau.

Question 38.
What is Rousseau’s autobiography called as?
Answer:
Confessions

Question 39.
Which was the principle advocated by the Russian Revolution?
Answer:
Socialistic Principles were advocated by the Russian revolution.

Question 40.
Who was the Tsar ruling Russia at the time of Revolution?
Answer:
Tsar Nicolas II was ruling Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution.

Question 41.
Which was the dynasty ruling Russia at the time of Revolution?
Answer:
The Romanov dynasty was ruling Russia at the time of Revolution.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Name the Queen of Tsar Nicholas-II.
Answer:
Tsarina Alexandra.

Question 43.
Who was the Monk who influenced the administration of Tsar Nicholas-II?
Answer:
Rasputin was the monk who influenced the administration of Tsar Nicholas II.

Question 44.
On what principles were the Tsars ruling Russia?
Answer:
Divine Origin.

Question 45.
Who introduced the principle of Russification?
Answer:
Tsar Alexander III.

Question 46.
Who wrote the literary work ‘Poor Folk’?
Answer:
Fyodor Dostoyevsky wrote it.

Question 47.
Who wrote the book ‘Fathers and sons’?
Answer:
Turgenev wrote it.

Question 48.
When did the bloody Sunday take place?
Answer:
On 22nd January 1905.

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Question 49.
Which nation defeated Russia in 1905?
Answer:
Japan defeated Russia in 1905.

Question 50.
Who was the leader of Mensheviks?
Answer:
Kerensky was the leader of the Mensheviks.

Question 51.
Name the party that was led by Lenin.
Answer:
Bolshevik party was led by Lenin.

Question 52.
Under which leader was the Provisional Government formed in Russia?
Answer:
The Provisional Government was formed in Russia by the Mensheviks under Kerensky.

Question 53.
Expand- N.E.P
Answer:
New Economic Policy.

Question 54.
Expand- USSR.
Answer:
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Question 55.
When did the Russian Revolution take place?
Answer:
In 1917 A D.

Question 56.
Who wrote “Das Capital”?
Answer:
Karl Marx.

Question 57.
Where did the Russian Revolution of 1917 start?
Answer:
At Petrograd city.

Question 58.
Who abolished the serfdom in Russia?
Answer:
Tsar Alexander- II

Question 59.
Who wrote the book “War and Peace”?
Answer:
Leo Tolstoy.

Question 60.
Which book was written by Maxim Gorky?
Answer:
Mother.

Question 61.
What is the modern name of Petrograd?
Answer:
Leningrad.

Question 62.
Who wrote the book “State and Revolution?
Answer:
Lenin.

1st PUC History World Revolutions Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is meant by Revolution?
Answer:
The term Revolution is derived from the Latin word ‘revolution’ which means a complete change. It incorporates fundamental change in governance or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time.

Question 2.
Mention the fields in which changes took place during the Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
Industrial Revolution brought in changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology.

Question 3.
Mention any two chemicals invented during the Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
The two major chemicals invented during the Industrial Revolution were Sodium carbonate and Sulphuric Acid.

Question 4.
Who invented Gaslighting on a large scale? Which was the City where Gas lighting was introduced first?
Answer:
William Sugg introduced Gas Lighting on a large scale. It was introduced in London.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which country started Coal mining and where was it introduced?
Answer.
Britain started Coal mining for the first time in South Wales.

Question 6.
In which century were Clocks and Watches made for the first time?
Ans.
In the 18th Century, Watches and Clocks were made for the first time.

Question 7.
Write a note on the Machine tools from the Industrial Revolution. Period.
Answer:
The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines. They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th Century by the makers of Clocks and Watches and Scientific instruments on a large scale. Machines were built by various craftsmen – carpenters made wooden framings and smiths and turners made the metal parts.

Question 8.
Which Country took the leadership in the Chemical industry during the Industrial Revolution?
Ans.
After 1860, when the focus was in dyestuffs, Germany took world leadership in Chemical Industry.

Question 9.
Name any two colonies of America.
Answer:

  1. Maryland.
  2. Rhode Island.

Question 10.
What was ‘Boston Tea Party’?
Answer:
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company, which was resented by the colonists. When a ship loaded with tea packets arrived at Boston, the colonists disguised as Red Indians raided the ship and threw all the tea packets into the sea. This incident is called‘Boston Tea Party’.

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Question 11.
Mention any two factors of the Navigation Act. (or) Why did the American colonies oppose the Navigation Act?
Answer:
British Parliament to restrict free trade of the Colonies, levied heavy taxes and introduced the Navigation Act. As per this act, the raw materials produced in America should be exported to England only and the essential goods needed by the colonies should be imported from England only. Americans should use only British ships for trade and should not duplicate the British products. These restrictions violated the principles of free trade and the colonies opposed them.

Question 12.
Name any two Philosophers who influenced the American war of Independence.
Answer:

  1. Thomas Jefferson.
  2. Samuel Adams.

Question 13.
Who drafted the Declaration of American Independence? When?
Answer:
Thomas Jefferson drafted the declaration of American Independence on 4th July 1776 A.D.

Question 14.
Name any two taxes imposed by England on the Colonies.
Answer:
Stamp Act and Sugar and Molasses Act.

Question 15.
When was the Stamp Act passed? What was it?
Answer:
British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1764 A.D. The Colonists were compelled to pay Stamp duties on all legal documents.

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Question 16.
Name the leaders of the American War of Independence.
Answer:
George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Adams, John Dickenson.

Question 17.
Where was the first Continental Congress held? When?
Answer:
The First Continental Congress was held in the city of Philadelphia in 1774 A.D.

Question 18.
Why did France support the American Colonists?.
Answer:
France was defeated in the seven years (1756-1763) war by England and had to give up Canada to the English. They were waiting for a chance to take revenge on English. Therefore, when the war broke out between the American colonies and England, France sided with the colonies.

Question 19.
Write the cause for the Boston Tea Party.
Answer:
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company, which was resented by the colonists. Cheaper tea powder was available in the black market. The first shipment was forced to go back to England. When another ship loaded with tea packets arrived at Boston, the colonists disguised as Red Indians raided the ship and threw all the tea packets into the sea making it the ‘Boston Tea Party’.

Question 20.
What was the significance of the First Continental Congress?
Answer:
Representatives of the 12 colonies except Georgia assembled at the first continental Congress of Philadelphia held on 5th September 1774 A.D and formulated the future course of action and drew up a ‘Declaration of Rights’. This confirmed their resolve that the colonists could not be taxed without their consent.

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Question 21.
Name the British General who surrendered to Washington. Where? When?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis surrendered to Washington at Yorktown on 19th October 1781 A.D.

Question 22.
What is the Quebec Act?
Answer:
This act passed in 1774 by the British Parliament, granted most of the Ohio county to the French which was opposed by the colonists as they wanted to expand westwards. It also permitted the French Canadians to Practice Roman Catholicism in America much to the resentment of the colonists. The colonists felt that the British were trying to ‘Divide and Rule’.

Question 23.
What is Boston Massacre?
Answer:
American colonists protested the imposition of new taxes. When they revolted, Britain sent its troops to put down the revolt. British troops occupied Boston and in the clashes between the troops and the colonists in 1770, five Bostonians lost their lives and many were injured. This incidence is known as the ‘Boston Massacre’.

Question 24.
Name any two rulers of France on the Eve of the French Revolution.
Answer:
Louis XIV and Louis XVI.

Question 25.
Who were the King and Queen of France at the time of the French Revolution?
Answer:
Louis XVI was the King and Marie Antoinette was the Queen.

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Question 26.
Mention any two differences between the privileged and unprivileged groups of French society.
Answer:

1. The people of I and II Estates who were the Clergy and the Nobility respectively formed the privileged classes. They were in minority who were less than 2% of the French population. They monopolized all the highest offices in the Army, Church and the Government. They were exempted from paying taxes and free from the authority of the court.

2. The commoners consisting of peasants, workers, teachers, doctors, lawyers, etc., were the III Estate and formed the unprivileged group. They were not eligible for the higher posts. They had to pay all the taxes and were at the mercy of the court for even minor offenses.

Question 27.
Name the three classes of French society.
Answer:
Clergy, Nobility, and Commoners were the three classes of the French Society.

Question 28.
Name any two important Philosophers of France.
Answer:
Montesquieu, J.J.Rousseau.

Question 29.
What were the principles or watchwords of the French Revolution?
Answer:
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity are the watchwords of the French Revolution.

Question 30.
Name any two books of J.J. Rousseau.
Answer:
Social Contract, Confession.

Question 31.
Name any two taxes paid by the French people.
Answer:
Commoners paid taxes like ‘Tailie’ (Property Tax), ‘Gable’ (Salt Tax), ‘Tithe’ (Religious tax) and other cesses.

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Question 32.
Name any two finance ministers of France on the Eve of the French Revolution?
Answer:
Turgot, Neckar, and Colonne were the Finance ministers of France.

Question 33.
What did the Finance Ministers of France suggest to solve the financial crisis?
Answer:
To solve the financial crisis they suggested the reduction in unnecessary expenditures and to impose some taxes on the privileged classes who were till then exempted from paying any kind of tax.

Question 34.
What is the Tennis Court Oath?
Answer:
Louis XVi willed for a meeting of the French Parliament in May 1789, to solve the financial crisis. The third Estate insisted for joint sitting, which was not agreed to by the first two Estates and the King. The Third Estate, which was in majority, came out of the Parliament and assembled at a tennis court on 20th June 1789 and took an oath that they should not disperse until a constitution for France was framed. This is famous as ‘The Tennis Court Oath’.

Question 35.
Name the groups of French Revolutionaries.
Answer:
Girondists (Moderates) and Jacobins (Extremists).

Question 36.
What is ‘September Massacre’?
Answer:
After overthrowing the King, a new Legislative Assembly came into existence, which was later replaced by the ‘National Convention’ headed by the Jacobins, the Extremists. Suspected loyalists were massacred in September 1782, with a machine called Guillotine to behead people. Since thousands of people were massacred in this month, it is called as ‘September Massacre’.

Question 37.
Give an account of the Intellectual causes for the French Revolution.
Answer:
Many great Philosophers during the 18th century in France criticized about the political tyranny, social inequality and economic exploitation in France and also insisted for reforms. Montesquieu, Voltaire, J.J. Rousseau, and Diderot were the important philosophers of France who lived much before the outbreak of the French Revolution. They strongly criticized the Church and social inequality. Rousseau gave the watchword of the revolution ‘Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity’.

Question 38.
Name the two classes of the Russian Society.
Answer:
Privileged Class and Unprivileged Class.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
Which was the slogan of Russification?
Answer:
‘One Nation, One language, One Church and One Tsar’ was the Slogan.

Question 40.
Name any two intellectuals who influenced the Russian revolution.
Answer:
Leo Tolstoy and Turgenev, Karl Marx.

Question 41.
Name any two works of Leo Tolstoy.
Answer:
War and Peace, Anna Karenina.

Question 42.
Who was Maxim Gorky? Mention his works.
Answer:
Maxim Gorky was a famous Philosopher and writer of Russia. His main works are ‘Mother’ and ‘Children of the Sun’.

Question 43.
Name the intellectuals of Russia who were influenced by Karl Marx.
Answer:
Leo Tolstoy and Turgenev.

Question 44.
Who was Karl Marx? Mention two of his works.
Answer:
Karl Marx was a German Philosopher. His famous works were ‘Das Capital’ arid ‘Communist Manifesto’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 45.
What was the call given by Karl Marx to the world Labourers?
Answer:
“Workers of the world unite you have nothing to lose but your chains of Slavery”.

Question 46.
What is ‘Bloody Sunday’?
Answer:
On Sunday the 22nd of January 1905, Father Gapan led a huge rally of workers and wanted to meet the Tsar to express their grievances. Most of them were killed by the army. This is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ and caused great resentment among the Russians about the Tsar.

Question 47.
Name the two parties during the Russian revolution.
Answer:
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.

Question 48.
When did the Russian Revolution take place? Who was the Russian Ruler at that time?
Answer:
In 1917 A-D. Nicholas-II was the Czar of Russia at that time.

Question 49.
Name the Philosophers who influenced the Russian revolution.
Answer:
Maxim Gorky, Leo Tolstoy, Robert Owen, Karl Marx, Simon, Louis Blanc.

Question 50.
Who organized the Social Democratic party? When?
Answer:
Lenin organized the Social Democratic party in 1898 A.D.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 51.
Who introduced the Five years plan in Russia? When?
Answer:
Joseph Stalin introduced the Five Years Plan in 1928 A.D.

Question 52.
Who were the Mensheviks?
Answer:
The Socialist Democratic Party in Russia split in 1903, into Radicals and Moderates. Moderates led by Alexander Kerensky were called Mensheviks which means minority. They wanted to bring about changes by gradual and peaceful means.

Question 53.
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Answer:
The Socialist Democratic Party in Russia split in 1903, into Radicals and Moderates. Radicals led by Lenin came to be known as Bolsheviks which means the majority. They wanted to bring about changes by more radical and violent means.

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Question 54.
What is the New Economic Policy? When did Russia adopt this policy?
Answer:
The new economic policy was an adoption of mixed economy, i.e. both Government and Private property. This was adopted in 1921 A.D by Lenin.

1st PUC History World Revolutions Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What were the main effects of the Industrial Revolution in the fields of Agriculture, Transport, Canals, and Roads?
Answer:
1. Agriculture:
Revolution in Agriculture began centuries before Industrial Revolution. The invention of machinery gave it a big impetus. It lessened the dependence on labour and freed labour from land to work in the new industrial mills. As the revolution in industry progressed, a series of machines became available which increased the food production.

2. Transport:
Industrial Revolution improved Britain’s Transport Infrastructure a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved faster and cheaper than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.

3. Railways:
Wagon ways were used to move coal from mines. The introduction of railways made it highly successful in the transportation of passengers and freight. Many railway projects were undertaken. After completion of the railway projects, the workers did not return to the rural lifestyles.

They remained in the cities adding additional workforce to the factories. Canals: Canals began to be built in the late 18th century to link the major manufacturing centres across the country. These canals helped the growth of commercial activities. The Bridgewater Canal in North West England was the first such successful canal.

4. Roads:
A number of new roads were built by private people and companies who collected tolls from the users. They connected major cities of England which helped the quick transport of men, material, and mails to distant parts.

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Question 2.
What were the main effects of the Industrial Revolution in the fields of Socialism, Capitalism, Factories and Urbanization and Child Labour?
Answer:
1. Effects of Socialism:
Socialism was an economic theory that sprang almost directly from the Industrial Revolution. It was a reaction against the unregulated capitalism of that time. Socialism proposed that society as a whole should control the means of production. It advocated – that the Government exists only to oversee its initial phases and then to become nonexistent, leaving the people to govern themselves cooperatively.

This contradicted the tenets of laissez-faire capitalism, which stated that the best total result for the society was achieved if competition took its natural course. This movement was inspired by the problems that the Industrial Revolution presented for the common worker. Working conditions, long hours, and low pay made the workers to come together and unite for a common socialist system.

2. Effects on Capitalism:
Industrialization depends largely on capital i.e. Wealth available for investment in order to speed up development and make more wealth. Capital investment was one of the leading reasons as to why the British industrial economy prospered.

3. Factories and Urbanization:
Industrialization led to the creation of factories. The Cotton spinning activity was the first to be mechanized. Later, a factory system developed. A large number of workers migrated to cities in search of employment. Many cotton mills were established at Manchester which was the first Industrial City of the World. The factory system speeded up urbanization.

4. Child Labour:
Industrial Revolution led to an increase in population. Infant mortality rates reduced remarkably. Still, there was only a limited scope for education. Children were expected to work at less pay even though their efficiency was comparable with adults. There was no need of strength to operate machines but skilled labourers were needed. Since the required skilled adults were not available, child labour was the preferred choice in some of the manufacturing industries.

Thus, the Industrial Revolution brought drastic changes in the life of people across nations. It gave rise to urban centres requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life. It made the urban worker completely dependent and at the mercy of the employer. Relations between capitalist and labour were getting aggravated, and Marxism was the result of this unrest.

The revolution also brought a need for a new type of state intervention to protect the labourer and to provide necessary services. Industrial Revolution provided the economic base for the rise of newer professions, an increase in population and improvement in the living standards.

Question 3.
Explain why the Industrial Revolution process first began in England.
Answer:
The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) witnessed changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology. It had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. In the second half of the 18th century, a new revolution gripped the world that it was not ready for.

This was neither political nor social or cultural in nature. But it led to many implications later in its existence. It was an economic one. It began in the United Kingdom and then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan and eventually the rest of the world. Industrial revolution marked a major turning point in history.

Almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented growth. After the 18th century, the World’s average per capita income increased over tenfold while the world’s population increased over six times in the next two centuries. The industrial revolution changed the way by how the world produced its goods.

It also changed our society from being mainly an agricultural society to an industrial and manufacturing one. It began in the field of textiles because there was more demand for cloth. Great Britain provided the legal and cultural foundations that enabled entrepreneurs to pioneer the industrial revolution. Britain was the first country in Europe to begin the process of industrialization. It had a lead over the rest of the European nations.

Factors contributing to Britain’s lead were as follows:

  1. It had achieved Political stability after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
  2. National Banking system was the first of its kind in Europe, to invest with low-interest rates.
  3. The availability of Natural resources like coal and iron in Britain.
  4. There was an increase in population due to better health facilities, low mortality rate, better diet, etc. This excess population gave rise to a larger workforce, ready to work at low wages and there was also an increase in the number of consumers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Write a note on agriculture and Transport.
Answer:
1. Agriculture:
Revolution in Agriculture began centuries before Industrial Revolution. But the invention of machinery played a big part in driving forward the Agricultural Revolution. It played a big part in freeing up labour from the land, to work in the new industrial mills of the 18th century. As the revolution in industry progressed a series of machines became available, which increased food production.

2. Transport:
The Industrial Revolution improved Britain’s transport infrastructure with turnpike road network, a canal and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.

Question 5.
Write a note on Steam Power and Chemicals.
Answer:
1. Steam power:
The improved steam engine invented by James Watt was mainly used as power pumps for pumping water out of mines. Later, it was used in other types of machines. For over a hundred years the steam engine was the king of the industries.

2. Chemicals:
The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The inventions of Sulphuric Acid, the production of large scale alkalis and the method of production of Sodium carbonate became the host of other inventions.

They were also cost-effective. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries Early uses for sulphuric acid were for pickling (removing rust) iron and steel and for bleaching cloth. After 1860 when the focus shifted to dyestuffs, Germany took the r lead.

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Question 6.
Describe the results of the American war of Independence.
Answer:
1. Emergence of the USA:
A new nation called the ‘United States of America’ was born. They adopted the republican type of government. In 1787, America adopted a republican form of government with a federal structural. It became the first country in the world to adopt a written constitution. George Washington became the first president of the USA. Loss to England: According to the Paris treaty concluded in 1783, Britain suffered heavily in terms of economy and lost 13 resourceful colonies.

2. Triumph of Democracy:
Victory of the Americans strengthened the democratic ideologies and principles all over the world. It inspired patriots, who fought against imperialism in several other countries.

3. A lesson to England:
After losing the 13 colonies in the war, England changed its attitude towards its other colonies. The belief that the Sun never sets in their Empire received a deathblow. Inspiration for French Revolution: The French soldiers, who participated in the American Revolution, were inspired by the revolutionary slogans of the Americans. This resulted in the outbreak of the French revolution in 1789.

4. End of the monarchy in England :
After being defeated in the American war of independence, the English King Charles III lost his prestige and popularity. He was subjected to come under the rule of the Parliament. This led to the constitutional Kingship.

Question 7.
Describe the part played by George Washington in the American war of Independence.
Answer:
George Washington 1732-1799:
He was born in Virginia on February 22, 1732 A.D. He was the son of a landlord. He gained his military experience during the seven years war in Europe 1 and got a reputation as a capable leader. He was a better soldier than a great leader and a man of determination and courage. He became a symbol to the Americans.

(i) The first battle between the British troops and the Colonies took place around Boston, known as the Battle of Bunker hill in 1775 A.D. Though the Colonies lost that battle, they proved the fighting qualities of their militia. Every defeat filled Washington with fresh enthusiasm for further success.

(ii) He went on recruiting the hardy farmers and foresters and gave them training and adequate equipment. He could enlist the support of Spain, Red Indians and French.

(iii) The Americans tried to capture Canada but failed. Washington secured brilliant victories against the British at Trenton.

(iv) The second Continental (Philadelphia) Congress in 1775 appointed Washington as the commander-in-chief of the Colonial army. In 1776, Americans lost Philadelphia but they gained a decisive victory at Saratoga in 1778 A.D. This was the turning point in the war. The British were compelled to evacuate Philadelphia in 1778 A.D.

(v) In 1781, Cornwallis, the British General established himself in the village of Yorktown and began building fortifications. Washington decided to win an impressive and decisive victory against Cornwallis. The war came to an end by the treaty of Paris in 1783. England recognized the independence of the 13 Colonies. The 4th of July was a great day for Americans.

(vi)Third Philadelphia Congress was held in 1787. The Congress decided that the States should unite together into a Federation and the new Nation was to be called U.S.A. Washington became the first President of America on 30th April 1789. He declined to be the President for the third term.

(vii) He made way for the younger revolutionaries to lead the nation. He passed away on 14th December 1799. He was the father of America. The saying “George Washington was first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countryman” aptly sums up the feelings of the Americans.

Question 8.
Explain the course of the American War of Independence.
Answer:
The punitive and oppressive laws passed by the British Parliament and the heavy taxes were disapproved by the Colonists. Alarmed by the repressive policy of the British, all the Colonies united together in their opposition. On 5th September 1774, delegates of 12 Colonies except Georgia met at Philadelphia to decide the future plan of action. This is known as the First Continental (Philadelphia) Congress.

The Congress drew up a ‘Declaration of rights’ and sent a petition to George III requesting him to intervene and redress their grievances. But George- III turned a deaf ear to their plea and branded the members of the Congress as revolutionaries. Moreover, he ordered his troops to crush them.

This action of the King was not tolerated by the Colonists. The Congress appointed George Washington as the Commander in Chief of the Colonial army to fight the British troops and on 4th July 1776 proclaimed their Independence from the control of England.

A Declaration of Independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson was unanimously adopted by the Colonies. Infuriated with the colonist’s attitude, Britain declared war on America. In the early stages of the war, the British had an upper hand. Americans lost the Bunker Hill battle but won at Trenton and Prinistjne.

Washington crushed the British in the battle of Saratoga and on 17th October 1777, the British Commander-in-Chief surrendered to him. This was the turning point in the war. The war continued and Lord Cornwallis and the British army under him were routed at York Town in 1781. The war came to an end with the. Treaty of Paris in 1783. England recognized the Independence of the 13 Colonies. 4th of July was a great day of Americans and is their Independence day.

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Question 9.
Write a note on Boston Tea Party.
Answer:
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia, they were forced to go back to England.

But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean. This incident is called the ‘Boston Tea Party’.

To retaliate, in 1774 the British Prime Minister Lord North Broke introduced four coercive acts on the colonists putting some restrictions and giving liberal concessions for the British soldiers. These acts were called as Intolerable Acts and helped in uniting the colonists further . in their war of Independence.

Question 10.
Write a note on British taxation Policy.
Answer:
The seven years war with France was a big financial burden on England. To recover these expenses, England levied taxes on goods imported into the colonies. The Sugar and Molasses Act was passed in 1764 which levied taxes on sugar and molasses. The tax on molasses was a hindrance to the production of wine. It led to the increase of smuggling activities and the colonies faced many problems. The public outcry made the British Parliament to decrease the same.

The stamp act was passed in 1764, which declared that stamp duties were to be paid On all legal documents. The colonists opposed this Act. They said that the British Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonists when they were not given representation in the Parliament. Their slogan was ‘No Taxation without Representation’. The colonists showed their anger by burning the stamps. British Parliament was forced to withdraw this act.

In 1767, the Townsend Act was passed which imposed heavy taxes on Glass, Paper, and Tea. Troops were sent to help the officers in collecting the taxes. When the colonists protested and revolted, troops were sent to put down the same. British troops occupied Boston and in a fight with them, five people lost their Have and many were injured. After this ‘Boston Massacre’, taxes on glass and paper were withdrawn and to show their power and control, tax on tea was retained.

Boston Tea Party:
British Parliament passed an Act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia they were forced to go back to England. But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean marking the ‘Boston Tea Party’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Explain the social and economic causes for the French Revolution.
Answer:
1. Social Causes:
Social inequality was one of the main causes for the French revolution. On the top of the social hierarchy was the King and the Royal family, next came the Clergy the I Estate and Nobility the II Estate, and below them the Commoners the III Estate.

The first two Estates were the privileged classes and the Third Estate was the unprivileged one consisting of Peasants, Workers, Teachers, Lawyers, Doctors, and Philosophers, etc. The people of I and II Estates were in minority who were less than 2% of the French population. The first two Estates monopolized all the highest offices in the Army, Church and the Government.

They were also exempted from paying taxes and free from the authority of the court. They were the owners of enormous wealth and exploited the peasants and workers. On the other hand, the conditions of the commoners were deplorable. They had to pay all taxes and were not eligible for any higher government services.

“The Nobles fight, the Clergy pray and the Commons pay”, was a popular statement in France. Thus the majority of the French people were disgusted owing to their social inferiority and discrimination, which paved the way for the outbreak of this revolution.

2. Economic Causes:
The policy of taxation in France was defective and unfair. The burden of tax mostly fell on the Commoners, because the Clergy and Nobles were exempted from all kinds of taxes. Commoners had to pay ‘Tai lie’(Property Tax), ‘Gable’ (Salt Tax), ‘Tithe’ (Religious Tax) and other cesses to the Government. The peasants and workers after paying all these taxes were left with only 18 to 20% of their earnings. Even during the famines they had to pay their taxes and were suffering from untold miseries.

Thousands of people died due to starvation. If 10 people died in France, 9 would have been due to the starvation and the tenth one due to indigestion” was the condition of France on the eve of the French Revolution. This kind of economic exploitation and discontent among the common people made them to revolt against the discriminative taxation policy of the French Government.

Question 12.
Give an account of the Intellectual causes for the French Revolution.
Answer:
Many great Philosophers during the 18th century in France, criticized about the political tyranny, social inequality and economic exploitation in France and also insisted for reforms. Montesquieu, Voltaire, J.J. Rousseau, and Diderot were the important philosophers of France who lived much before the outbreak of the French Revolution.

France was prepared mentally and morally for a revolt against the old regime because of the writings and speeches of these brilliant thinkers of that age. They strongly criticized the Church and social inequality and provided the intellectual justification for the revolution.

Montesquieu advocated the ‘Theory of Separation of Powers’ as per which, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary should function independently to safeguard the liberty of the people. Voltaire asked people to apply ‘Reason’ in every field. Rousseau gave the watchword of the revolution ‘Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity’. Diderot condemned the privileged classes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Write a note on the Political and Immediate Cause for the French Revolution,
Answer:
1. Political causes:
France Was ruled by the ‘Bourbon Dynasty’ for many centuries. The French monarchy was absolute. Louis XIV, the King of France, who was called the ‘Grand Monarch of Europe’ went to the extent of saying “lam the state, I am the Government”. He believed in the ‘Divine Right Theory of Kings’. He neglected the interests of the people and ruled according to his whims and fancies. His successor Louis XV had no ability to rule the nation.

During his reign, France fought many wars viz, the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years War and others. In these wars, it was defeated and it was a great financial burden, The administrative system of France was highly flawed and the Rulers neglected their responsibilities and welfare of the people and were addicted to women, wine and wealth. The officials were highly corrupt and there was no uniform legal system. This type of political anarchy, absolutism, and misrule increased the dissatisfaction of the people and led to the revolution.

2. Immediate cause:
The financial condition of France was deplorable by about 1789. National debt increased owing to the costly wars and lavish lifestyle of the King and his family. There was no difference between the state and the King’s personal expenditures. The unprivileged class was paying all the taxes. The Finance Ministers of France, such as Turgot, Neckar, and Colonne, suggested the reduction in unnecessary expenditures and to impose some taxes on the privileged classes to solve the financial crisis. This was not acceptable to the privileged classes and the deterioration continued.

Question 14.
Analyze the results of the French Revolution.
Answer:
This revolution abolished absolute monarchy and ended the political anarchy and misrule of the French Kings. It paved way for the establishment of a Republican Government in France based on the democratic principles, as propounded by Montesquieu, J.J. Rousseau, and others. The French Revolution ended Feudalism and hereditary aristocracy. It proved that suppressed ones can revolt against the oppressive Government.

It put an end to the special privileges of the Clergy and Nobility and their properties were confiscated. Thus social inequality also ended. The new constitution declared the rights of man, which upheld the ‘Doctrine of popular sovereignty’. This revolution popularized the ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity in other countries of the world.

It spread the feeling of unity and taught the principle of Nationalism among the French people. Hence, it became a source of inspiration to the Unification of Italy and Germany and finally freedom movements in other parts of the world including India. H.A.L Fisher says “If cold attacks France, the entire Europe sneezes”.

This revolution caused heavy bloodshed. During ‘The Reign of Terror’, nearly 17000 people were killed. Even King Louis XVI, his Queen Marie Antoinette, and others were guillotined. The Directory Government, which came to power after the revolution, failed to rule properly. Again there was chaos and confusion in France.

This gave an opportunity for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte as the military Dictator of France. He called himself as the ‘Child of Revolution’. Thus the French Revolution was indeed a great event in the history of France. The political developments after this revolution greatly changed the course of the History of Europe and also the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Explain the social and economic factors for the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
1. Social and Economic Causes:
The Russian Society was divided into two categories as the privileged and the unprivileged. The privileged class included the Royals, the landlords and the capitalists (factory owners). They were rich and also had a high status in the society. Civil, administrative and military posts were reserved for them. The unprivileged class mainly consisted of the peasants and the workers. It formed the majority population. They were living in poverty and also were exploited by the privileged classes. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the condition of the peasants did not change for the better.

The Russian economy before the Revolution was primarily agricultural. The Industrial Revolution created a large working class. These workers worked for long hours for low wages and they worked in dangerous and unhygienic conditions. Accidents and deaths were not adequately compensated. The Russian Industries created wealth for the owners but affected the agriculturists. As most of the industrialists were landlords, they neglected agriculture and forced agricultural workers to work in their industries. As agricultural production decreased, inflation set in. People were pushed to hardships.

Question 16.
Explain the role of intellectuals inf the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
In the Russian Revolution, the role of Intellectuals, that too of writers was immense. The major literary works like Leo Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace’ and’ Anna Karenina’, Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s-1 Poor Folk’, Maxim Gorky’s ‘Mother”, and ‘Children of the sun’, Turgenev’s ‘Fathers and sons’, etc., generated a new sense of awareness among Russians. It made them reflect over questions of human freedom, fate, sufferings and the meaning of life. They began to realise that human beings were not destined to endure the tyranny let loose by a handful of autocrats.

As a result of regular contacts with Germany, many Russian intellectuals were drawn towards Marxism. Prominent among them were Lenin, Kautsky, and Trotsky. The writings of Karl Marx (1818-1882) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) were widely read. Marx’s major works were ‘Communist Manifesto’ (1848) and ‘Das Capital’ (1867). These writings upheld the principles of socialism based on social and economic equality. The call of Karl Marx to the workers was “Workers of the world unite you have nothing to lose but your chains of Slavery”, which inspired thousands of young men and women.

Question 17.
Explain the course of the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
The working classes in Russia were influenced by Marxism. They organized Workmen’s Social Democratic Party. The Party split into two in 1903 on ideological grounds. The radicals, led by Lenin, came to be known as Bolsheviks, while the moderates led by Alexander Kerensky yere called Mensheviks.

After the defeat of Russian in 1915 in the World War-I, revolutionaries insisted on overthrowing the Tsarist regime. Rasputin was killed by the end of 1916. Demand for constitutional reforms in the ‘Duma’ had begun even before the World War I. Tsar dissolved ‘Duma’ and arrested its members. Negligence of administration had an adverse effect on food supply.

On March 8th,1917, women workers organised a protest at Petrograd demanding food. On March 9th a large number of workers joined the protest. They gave a call for a general protest on March 10th. Soldiers were ordered to open fire on these protesters, but they refused to obey and supported the workers. Tsar Nicholas II had to abdicate the throne on March 15th.

After ousting the Tsar, a provisional government was established in Russia headed by Kerensky. This is called as the Menshevik Revolution or theMarch Revolution. The government ensured freedom of speech and association, upheld the freedom of press and religion and encouraged liberal reforms. But the provisional government continued to participate in the First World War and suffered serious setbacks.

The Menshevik Government under Kerensky failed to remain in power, because, the aspirations of the Russians for land, peace, and security were not fulfilled. Finally, the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, challenged the Menshevik government on 15th October 1917, and ultimately overthrew them on 25th October 1917.

This is called as the October Revolution or Bolshevik Revolution. With the help of the ‘Red Army’, Lenin who came to power fulfilled these aspirations by using force. Thus U.S.S.R was established after the October Revolution. Lenin became the head of the Republic and continued in office till his death in 1924.

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Question 18.
Describe the role of Lenin in the Russian Revolution.
Answer:
Lenin was born in Simbirsk on 22nd April 1870. His original name was Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov. His father was a school inspector who died when Lenin was sixteen. After this, his elder brother Alexander was executed for making an attempt to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II. Lenin was influenced by Marxism at an early age and he became a revolutionary. He was arrested in 1895 and later exiled to Siberia, where he wrote a book ‘Development of capitalism in Russia’ in 1899.

Lenin escaped from Siberia and lived in exile in Switzerland. He joined Plekhanov in Geneva in 1900 and planned to launch a newspaper called ‘Iskra’ (Spark). In 1903, he became the leader of an extremist revolutionary group called the Bolshevik party. He continued his fight against the Tsarist regime and supported the revolution of 1905. On 25th October 1917, he overthrew the Menshevik Government of Kerensky. He appealed to soldiers, poor peasants and workers, and promised to provide “Peace, Land, Bread”.

Lenin withdrew from the First World War through the treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917). A new constitution was adopted in 1918. He introduced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in March 1921. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) was formed on 30th December 1922. He successfully redressed the problems of unemployment, food scarcity and retarded industrial growth.

Trade and commerce, communication, industries, and banking were nationalized; England and France who hated this new ideology supported the Counter-Revolution in Russia. Lenin was successful in crushing the foreign and domestic danger with the help of the Red Army and the ‘Cheka’ the Secret Police. Lenin passed away at Gorky on 21st January 1924

1st PUC History World Revolutions Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe the various effects of the Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
1. Effects of Socialism:
Socialism was an economic theory that sprang almost directly from the Industrial Revolution. It was a reaction against the unregulated capitalism of the time. Socialism r proposed that society as a whole should control the means of production. It advocated that the Government exists only to oversee its initial phases and then to become nonexistent, leaving the people to govern themselves cooperatively.

This contradicted the tenets of laissez-faire capitalism, which stated that the best total result for the society was achieved if competition 1 took its natural course. This movement was inspired by the problem that the Industrial Revolution presented for the common workers like unsafe working conditions, long hours, and low pay. This made the workers to come together and unite for a common socialist system.

2. Effects on Capitalism:
Industrialization depends largely on capital-wealth available for investment in order to speed up development and make more wealth. This capita was one of the leading reasons as to why the British industrial economy prospered.

3. Factories and Urbanization:
Industrialization led to the creation of the factories. The Cotton Spinning activity was first to be mechanized. Later factory system developed. A large number of workers migrated to cities in search of employment. Many cotton mills were established at Manchester which is the first Industrial City-of the World. The factory system speeded up urbanization.

4. Child Labour:
Industrial Revolution led to an increase in population. In fact, mortality rates reduced remarkably. Still, there was only a limited scope for education. Children were expected to work at a less pay even though their efficiency was comparable with adults. There was no need of strength to operate machines but skilled labours were needed. Since skilled adults, 5 were not available child labour was the preferred choice in manufacturing industries.

5. Conclusion:
Thus the Industrial Revolution has brought drastic changes in the life of nations. It gives rise to urban centres requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life. It made the urban worker completely dependent and at the mercy of the employer. Relations between capitalist and labour were aggravated, and Marxism was the result of this unrest. The revolution also brought a need for a new type of state intervention to protect the labourer and to provide necessary services.

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Question 2.
Briefly explain the effects of Industrial Revolution in the Technology field.
Answer:
The Industrial Revolution witnessed changes in technology also, along with agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation. It had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.lt marks a major turning point in history. Richard Arkwright invented the water frame. James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny and Samuel Crompton combined both of them and designed a new Spinning Machine. As a result, many cotton mills were established. There was the Cotton revolution in Derby known as the ‘Power House of the North’.

The improved Steam Engine invented by James Watt was mainly used as power pumps for pumping water out of mines. Later it was used in other types of machines. For over a hundred years the steam engine was the King of the industries. It reduced the fuel costs of engines making mining more profitable. The development of mining and metallurgy were complementary to each other.

The major change in the metal industries was the replacement of wood-based organic fuels with the fossil fuels based on coal which could provide higher temperatures. This led to the production of various metals especially Iron and Steel. The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The inventions of Sulphuric Acid, the production of alkalis on a large scale and the method of production of Sodium carbonate became the host of other inventions.

They were also cost-effective. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Dyestuffs became the focus of chemical innovation and Germany took world leadership, building a strong chemical industry. Machine tools, commercial Gaslighting in cities, the cylinder process in glassmaking allowing for larger panes of glass to be created were some other major developments.

Question 3.
Explain the causes for the American war of Independence.
Answer:
The main causes for the American Revolution or War of Independence were the following.

  1. Commercial policy of England
  2. Seven years War
  3. Intellectual Causes
  4. British taxation Policy
  5. Coercive Act
  6. Quebec Act

1. Commercial policy of England:
British Parliament thought that the colonies were for the benefit of the motherland. So they levied heavy taxes and to further restrict the trade of the colonies, they introduced the Navigation act.

The main features of this act were:

  • The raw materials produced in America (coffee, cotton, tobacco, etc) should be exported to England only.
  • The essential goods like cotton, linen, cloth, glass, sugar, etc. that America needed should be imported from England only.
  • Americans should use only the British ships for trade to keep away competition of other European nations.
  • Iron, blue, paper, cotton, linen, cloth, etc. that were produced by England should not be produced in America.
  • England’s merchant-agents should be kept and be given security.

2. Seven years War:
England could not tolerate the progress of France and did not want her to establish settlements in their neighborhood. The colonies also wanted British protection against the French. England declared war in 1756, which lasted till 1763. It is called the ‘Seven years war’. England won the war. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, and France had to give away Canada to England. Thus the American colonies were freed from the fear of the French attack.

3. Intellectual Causes:
The colonists set up their own social and political institutions. Their enlightenment was due to their own heritage. John Adams, a philosopher remarked, “The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of Americans and it had started even before the American war of Independence”.

Roger Williams, a symbol of American enlightenment, preached Religious Tolerance and separation of State from the Church. ‘Two Treatises of Government’ by John Locke is considered as the Bible of American war Of Independence. Thus the American enlightened class and philosophers laid the strong foundation for the American Revolution.

4. British taxation Policy:
The seven years war with France was a big financial burden on England. To recover these expenses, England levied taxes on goods imported into the colonies. The Sugar and Molasses Act was passed in 1764 which levied taxes on sugar and molasses. This was a hindrance to the production of wine. It led to the increase of smuggling activities and the colonies faced many problems. The public outcry made the British Parliament to decrease the same.

The stamp act was passed in 1764, which declared that stamp duties were to be paid on all legal documents. The colonists opposed this Act. They said that the British Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonists when they were not given representation in the Parliament. Their slogan was ‘No Taxation without Representation’. The colonists showed their anger by burning the stamps. British Parliament was forced to withdraw this act.

In 1767, the Townsend Act was passed which imposed heavy taxes on Glass, Paper, and Tea. Troops were sent to help the officers in collecting the taxes. When the colonists protested and revolted, troops were sent to put down the same. British troops occupied Boston and in a fight with them, five people lost their lives and many were injured. After this ‘Boston Massacre’, taxes on glass and paper were withdrawn and to show their power and control, tax on tea was retained.

5. Boston Tea Party:
British Parliament passed an Act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia they were forced to go back to England. But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean marking the ‘Boston Tea Party’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Describe the various causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1789.
Answer:
The various causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1789 are:

1. Political causes:
France was ruled by the ‘Bourbon Dynasty’ for many centuries. The French monarchy was absolute. Louis XIV, the King of France, who was called the ‘Grand Monarch of Europe’ went to the extent of saying “I am the state, I am the Government”. He believed in the ‘Divine Right Theory of Kings’. He neglected the interests of the people and ruled according to his whims and fancies.

His successor Louis XV had no ability to rule the nation. During his reign, France fought many wars viz., the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years War and others. In these wars, it was defeated and it was a great financial burden.

The administrative system of France was highly flawed and the Rulers neglected their responsibilities and welfare of the people and were addicted to women, wine and wealth. The officials were highly corrupt and there was no uniform legal system. This type of political anarchy, absolutism, and misrule increased the dissatisfaction of the people and led to the revolution.

2. Immediate cause:
The financial condition of France was deplorable by about 1789. National debt increased owing to the costly wars and lavish lifestyle of the King and his family. There was no difference between the state and the King’s personal expenditures. Unprivileged class was paying al 1 the taxes. The Finance Ministers of France, such as Turgot, Neckar, and Colonne, suggested the reduction in unnecessary expenditures and to impose some taxes on the privileged classes to solve the financial crisis. This was not acceptable to the privileged classes and the deterioration continued.

3. Social Causes:
Social inequality was one of the main causes for the French revolution. On the top of the social hierarchy was the King and the Royal family, next came the Clergy the I Estate and Nobility the II Estate, and below them the Commoners the III Estate. The first two Estates were the privileged classes and the Third Estate was the unprivileged one consisting of Peasants, Workers, Teachers, Lawyers, Doctors, and Philosophers, etc. The people of I and II Estates were in minority who were less than 2% of the French population. The first two Estates monopolized all the highest offices in the Army, Church and the Government.

They were also exempted from paying taxes and free from the authority of the court. They were the owners of enormous wealth and exploited the peasants and workers. On the other hand, the conditions of the commoners were deplorable. They had to pay all taxes and were not eligible ’for any higher government services.

“The Nobles fight, the Clergy pray and the Commons pay”, was a popular statement in France. Thus the majority of the French people were disgusted owing to their social inferiority and discrimination, which paved the way for the outbreak of this revolution.

4. Economic Causes:
The policy of taxation in France was defective and unfair. The burden of tax mostly fell on the Commoners, because the Clergy and Nobles were exempted from all kinds of taxes. Commoners had to pay ‘Taille’(Property Tax), ‘Gable’ (Salt Tax), ‘Tithe’ (Religious Tax) and other cesses to the Government. The peasants and workers after paying all these taxes were left with only 18 to 20% of their earnings. Even during the famines they had to pay their taxes and were suffering from untold miseries.

Thousands of people died due to starvation. “If 10 people died in France, 9 would have been due to the starvation and the tenth one due to indigestion” was the condition of France on the eve of the French Revolution. This kind of economic exploitation and discontent among the common people made them to revolt against the discriminative taxation policy of the French Government.

5. Intellectual Causes:
Many great Philosophers during the 18th century in France, criticized about the political tyranny, social inequality and economic exploitation in France and also insisted for reforms. Montesquieu, Voltaire, J. J. Rousseau, and Diderot were the important philosophers of France who lived much before the outbreak of the French Revolution. France was prepared mentally and morally for a revolt against the old regime because of the writings and speeches of these brilliant thinkers of that age.

They strongly criticized the Church and social inequality and provided the intellectual justification for the revolution. Montesquieu advocated the ‘Theory of Separation of Powers’ as per which, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary should function independently to safeguard the liberty of the people. Voltaire asked people to apply ‘Reason’ in every field. Rousseau gave the watchword of the revolution ‘Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity’. Diderot condemned the privileged classes.

Question 5.
Briefly write about the causes and results of the French Revolution of 1789.
Answer:
The various causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1789 are:

1. Political causes:
The ‘Bourbon Dynasty’ which ruled France for many centuries neglected the interests of the people and ruled according to their whims and fancies. During Louis XV’s reign, France fought many wars viz., the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years War and others. In these wars, it was defeated and it was a great financial burden. The administrative system of France was highly flawed and the Rulers neglected their responsibilities and welfare of the people and were addicted to women, wine and wealth. The officials were highly corrupt and there was no uniform legal system. This type of political anarchy, absolutism, and misrule increased the dissatisfaction of the people and led to the revolution.

2. Immediate cause:
The financial condition of France was deplorable by about 1789. National. debt increased owing to the costly wars and lavish lifestyle of the King and his family. The unprivileged class was paying all the taxes. The Finance Ministers of France suggested the reduction in unnecessary expenditures and to impose sortie taxes on the privileged classes to solve the financial crisis which was not acceptable to the privileged classes and the deterioration continued.

3. Social Causes:
Social inequality was one of the main causes for the French revolution. The first two Estates monopolized all the highest offices in’ the Army, Church and the Government. They were also exempted from paying taxes and free from the authority of the court. They were the owners of enormous wealth and exploited the peasants and workers. On the other hand, the conditions of the commoners were deplorable.

They had to pay all taxes and were not eligible for any higher government services. “The Nobles fight, the Clergy pray and the Commons pay”, was a popular statement in France. Thus the majority of the French people were disgusted owing to their social inferiority and discrimination, which paved the way for the outbreak of this revolution.

4. Economic Causes:
The policy of taxation in France was defective and unfair. The burden of tax mostly fell on the Commoners, because the Clergy and Nobles were exempted from all kinds of taxes. Commoners had to pay ‘Taille’(Property Tax), ‘Gable’ (Salt Tax), ‘Tithe’ (Religious Tax) and other cesses to the Government. This kind of economic exploitation and discontent among the common people made them to revolt against the discriminative taxation policy of the French Government.

5. Intellectual Causes:
Many great Philosophers during the 18th century in France, criticized about the political tyranny, social inequality and economic exploitation in France and also insisted for reforms. France was prepared mentally and morally for a revolt against the old regime because of the writings and speeches of these brilliant thinkers of that age. They strongly criticized the Church and social inequality and provided the intellectual justification for the revolution.

Montesquieu advocated the ‘Theory of Separation of Powers’ as per which, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary should function independently to safeguard the liberty of the people. Voltaire asked people to apply ‘Reason’ in every field. Rousseau gave the watchword of the revolution ‘Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity’. Diderot condemned the privileged classes.

The results of the French Revolution are:

1. This revolution abolished absolute monarchy and ended the political anarchy and misrule of the French Kings. It paved way for the establishment of a Republican Government in France based on the democratic principles, as propounded by Montesquieu, J.J. Rousseau, and others.

2. The French Revolution ended Feudalism and hereditary aristocracy. It proved that suppressed ones can revolt against the oppressive government.

3. It put an end to the special privileges of the Clergy and Nobility and their properties were confiscated. Thus social inequality also ended.

4. The new constitution declared the rights of man, which upheld the ‘Doctrine of popular sovereignty’.

5. This revolution popularized the ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity in other countries of the world.

6. It spread the feeling of unity and taught the principle of Nationalism among the French people. Hence, it became a source of inspiration to the Unification of Italy and Germany and finally freedom movements in other parts of the world including India. H.A.L Fisher says “If cold attacks France, the entire Europe sneezes”.

7. This revolution caused heavy bloodshed. During ‘The Reign of Terror’ nearly 17000 people were killed. Even King Louis XVI, his Queen Marie Antoinette, and others were guillotined.

The Directory Government, which came to power after the revolution, failed to rule properly. Again there was chaos and confusion in France. This gave an opportunity for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte as the military Dictator of France.

He called himself as the ‘Child of Revolution’.Thus the French Revolution was indeed a great event in the history of France. The political developments after this revolution greatly changed the course of the History of Europe and also the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Explain the Causes and Results of Russian Revolution.
Answer:
The causes of Russian Revolution were as follows.

1. Political causes:
Russia was ruled by the Tsars. The Romanov dynasty ruled over Russia, which was the largest country of the world. The Tsars were autocratic and inefficient. They ruled the Kingdom on the principle of Divine Origin. The administration was centralized and very corrupt, which affected the lives of the people.

Duma (Parliament) was a legislative body, but it was not regularly consulted by the Tsars. It was many a times abolished by the Tsars at different points of time. The administration was also troubled by the constant interference by people like the infamous monk Rasputin and Tsarina (Queen) Alexandra.

2. Social and Economic Causes:
The Russian Society was divided into two categories as the privileged and the unprivileged classes. The privileged class included the Royals, the landlords and the capitalists (factory owners). They were rich and also had a high status in the society.

Civil, administrative and military posts were reserved for them. The unprivileged class mainly consisted of the peasants and the workers. Even though they were the majority population, they lived in poverty and also were exploited by the privileged classes. Serfdom was abolished in 1861 but the condition of the peasants did not change for the better.

The Russian economy before the Revolution was primarily agricultural. The Industrial Revolution created a large working class. These workers worked for long hours for low wages and they worked in dangerous and unhygienic conditions. Accidents and deaths were not adequately compensated. The Russian Industries created wealth for the owners but affected the agriculturists. As most of the industrialists were landlords, they neglected agriculture and forced agricultural workers to work in their industries.

3. Russification: Tsar Alexander III and Nicholas II implemented an oppressive, autocratic and centralized administration. The slogan was ‘One Nation, One language, One Church and One Tsar’ for Russia. The Poles, Finns, Jews, Germans, etc. in Russia were subjugated to this policy.

This was called Russification. The policy was started by Tsar Alexander III and „ continued by Tsar Nicholas II. The autocratic policies of the Tsar were severely opposed by the Nihilists, who killed the officers and agents of the Tsar. The Government ruthlessly hunted them down and summarily murdered them. Russia encouraged the ‘Pan-Slav’ movement in the Balkans. The Balkan states looked up to Russia as ‘the Big Brother’.

4. Role of Intellectuals:
In the Russian Revolution, the role of Intellectuals, that too of writers was immense. The major literary works like Leo Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace’ and ‘Anna Karenina’, Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s ‘Poor Folk’, Maxim Gorky’s ‘Mother”, and ‘Children of the sun’, Turgenev’s ‘Fathers and sons, etc., generated a new sense of awareness among Russians.

It made them reflect over questions of human freedom, fate, sufferings and the meaning of life. They began to realise that human beings were not destined to endure silently, the tyranny let loose by a handful of autocrats. As a result of regular contacts with Germany, many Russian intellectuals were drawn towards Marxism.

Prominent among them were Lenin, Kautsky, and Trotsky. The writing of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were widely read. Marx’s major works were ‘Communist Manifesto’ and ‘Das Capital’. These writings upheld the principles of socialism based on social and economic equality. The call of Karl Marx to the workers which was “Workers of the world unite: you have nothing to lose but your chains of Slavery”, inspired thousands of young men and women.

5. Bloody Sunday incident:
On Sunday the 22nd of January 1905, Father Gapan led a huge rally of workers and wanted to meet the Tsar to express their grievances. Most of them were killed by the army. This is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ and caused great resentment among the Russians about the Tsar.

6. Military Causes:
The defeat of Russia by a small country like Japan in 1905 added to the resentment of Russians against the Tsar. The thought that the Tsars were invincible was shattered. Further, Russia entered into the First World War along with England and France. Even though it had strong artillery, Russia’s military was highly disorganized.

Proper strategies of Warfare could not be evolved to suit the needs of the time, in spite of the rich store of arms and ammunition. It faced another military setback when it was defeated in 1915 in the First World War. These debacles exposed the military weakness of Russia to the world.

Results of the Russian Revolution were as follows:
The autocratic rule of the Tsar came to an end and a constitutional Republic based on socialist ideals was formed in Russia. The USSR was established, which became a counter-force to the USA. This led to the rise of two power-blocs in the world, whose rivalries gave rise to the Cold War after the World War II.

  • The conditions of workers and peasants in Russia improved because of the implementation of the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1921.
  • Russia achieved tremendous progress under new communist Government and emerged as a powerful nation.
  • Communist ideology began to spread to different parts of the World, including Asia, * Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Describe the role of Lenin in the Russian revolution.
Answer:
Lenin was born in Simbirsk on 22nd April 1870. His original name was Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov. His father was a school inspector who died when Lenin was sixteen. After this, his elder brother Alexander was executed for making an attempt to assassinate Tsar Nicholas II. Lenin was influenced by Marxism at an early age and he became a revolutionary. He was arrested in 1895 and later exiled to Siberia, where he wrote a book ‘Development of Capitalism in Russia’ in 1899.

Lenin escaped from Siberia and lived in exile in Switzerland. He joined Plekhanov in Geneva in 1900 and planned to launch a newspaper called ‘Iskra’(spark). In 1903, he became the leader of a extremist revolutionary group called the Bolshevik party. He declared that they did not want a parliamentary type of democracy and proclaimed the Soviet Republic as the workers’ state. In this connection, he wrote several revolutionary articles and advocated the dictatorship of the working class.

He began to build up a new Nation on the basis of the communist programs of Karl Marx. He continued his fight against the Tsarist regime and supported the revolution of 1905. After the March revolution, a Provisional (temporary) Government was set up by the Mensheviks, headed by Alexander Kerensky.

But it failed to satisfy even the least basic general demand of the majority of the people. On 25th October 1917, Lenin overthrew the Menshevik Government of Kerensky and the Bolshevik Government was set up. This is known as the Bolshevik Revolution or October Revolution.

By his brilliant speeches and promises to provide the people ‘Peace, land, bread’, Lenin soon earned the sympathy and support of the workers, peasants, and soldiers. “Peace to the huts and war on the Palace” was another slogan. Lenin forcibly seized the postal, telegraph, railways, banks, military quarters on 7th November 1917.

Lenin withdrew from the First World War through the treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917). A new constitution was adopted in 1918. He introduced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in March 1921. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) was formed on 30th December 1922. He successfully redressed the problems of unemployment, food scarcity and retarded industrial growth.

Trade and commerce, communication, industries, and banking were nationalized; England and France who hated this new ideology supported the Counter-Revolution in Russia. Lenin was successful in crushing the foreign and domestic danger with the help of the Red Army and the ‘Cheka’ the Secret Police. Lenin passed away at Gorky on 21st January 1924.