1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 9 Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 9 Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism

1st PUC History Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who was the First Consul of France?
Answer:
Napoleon was the First Consul of France.

Question 2.
Who was Admiral Nelson?
Answer:
Vice-Admiral Nelson was the Commander of the Royal British Navy, who defeated the French navy of Napoleon in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805, even though he lost his life in the battle.

Question 3.
In which year did Napoleon Bonaparte crown himself as the Emperor of France?
Answer:
In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself as the Emperor of France.

Question 4.
Who established the Bank of France?
Answer:
Napoleon established the Bank of France.

Question 5.
Which University was founded by Napoleon Bonaparte?
Answer:
The University of France was founded by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Question 6.
Who imposed the Continental System?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte imposed the Continental System, to weaken England’s trade and
commerce.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Where did Napoleon Bonaparte die?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte died on the Island of St. Helena.

Question 8.
Which was the last battle of Napoleon Bonaparte?
Answer:
Waterloo Was the last battle of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Question 9.
Who is called as the second Justinian?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was called as the second Justinian.

Question 10.
In which year was the Battle of Waterloo fought?
Answer:
Battle of Waterloo was fought in 1815.

Question 11.
Who was called the ‘Child of the French Revolution’?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was called the ‘Child of the French Revolution’.

Question 12.
Who destroyed the French Navy in the Battle of Trafalgar?
Answer:
Vice-Admiral Nelson destroyed the French Navy in the Battle of Trafalgar.

Question 13.
“I am the child of the Revolution” and “I destroyed the Revolution”. Whose statements ‘ were these?
Answer:
These were Napoleon Bonaparte’s statements.

Question 14.
Who said that “I was born, when my country was dying”?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
What was Napoleon’s Religious Treaty with the Church known as?
Answer:
The Religious Treaty with the Church was known as Concordat.

Question 16.
Who is called the Father of Italian Unification?
Answer:
Joseph Mazzini is called as the Father of Italian Unification.

Question 17.
What is Carbonari?
Answer:
Carbonari was one of the Secret Societies of Italy in the early nineteenth century, who were active in creating opposition to foreign rule.

Question 18.
Who founded Young Italy?
Answer:
Joseph Mazzini founded Young Italy.

Question 19.
Who said, “Pen is mightier than Sword”?
Answer:
Joseph Mazzini said that “Pen is mightier than Sword”.

Question 20.
Who published the paper ‘Risorgimento’?
Answer:
Count de Cavour published the paper ‘Risorgimento’ (Rebirth).

Question 21.
Who helped Sardinia and Piedmont in their war against Austria?
Answer:
Count de Cavour helped Sardinia and Piedmont in their war against Austria.

Question 22.
Which treaty was concluded after the war between Austria and Sardinia?
Answer:
Treaty of Villa Franca in 1859 was concluded after the war between Austria and Sardinia.

Question 23.
Who established the Red Shirt Army?
Answer:
Garibaldi established the Red Shirt Army.

Question 24.
Who was the first King of United Italy?
Answer:
Victor Emmanuel II was the first King of United Italy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
Name the capital of United Italy.
Answer:
Rome was the first Capital of United Italy.

Question 26.
When was Italy unified?
Answer:
1870 A.D.

Question 27.
What was the Italian movement for unification known as?
Answer:
Risorgimento (Rebirth).

Question 28.
Which secret organization was associated with the early stage of Italian unification?
Answer:
Carbonari.

Question 29.
Which society was founded by Mazzini?
Answer:
Young Italy.

Question 30.
Who was the King of Piedmont during the Italian unification?
Answer:
Victor Emmanuel-II was the King of Piedmont and Sardinia.

Question 31.
Which organization was founded by Garibaldi?
Answer:
Red Shirts organization was founded by Garibaldi.

Question 32.
What was the great belief of Garibaldi?
Answer:
The unification of Italy is only possible by the sword.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 33.
Who liberated Naples and Sicily from the rule of Bourbons?
Answer:
Garibaldi liberated Naples and Sicily from the rule of Bourbons.

Question 34.
What was the famous policy of Bismarck?
Answer:
Bismarck said that ‘The great questions of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions but by ‘iron and blood’. This became popular as the ‘Blood and Iron’ policy of Bismarck.

Question 35.
In which year did Prussia attack Denmark?
Answer:
The combined armies of Prussia and Austria attacked Denmark in 1864.

Question 36.
Which King of Denmark declared the annexation of Schleswig and Holstein?
Answer:
King Christian IX of Denmark declared the annexation of Schleswig and Holstein.

Question 37.
Which treaty ended the Austro-Prussian war?
Answer:
The Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.

Question 38.
Which treaty ended the Franco-Prussian war?
Answer:
The Treaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian war.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
When was Germany unified?
Answer:
In 1871 A.D.

Question 40.
Who was the architect of the unification of Germany?
Answer:
Otto von Bismarck.

Question 41.
Who was the King of Prussia during the Germany unification?
Answer:
‘Kaiser’ William.

1st PUC History Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name the parents of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte’s parents were Count Charles Bonaparte and Countess Leticia Romalina.

Question 2.
Where and in which year was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio on the island of Corsica on August 15th,1769.

Question 3.
Between whom and when was the ‘Titlist Treaty’ concluded?
Answer:
The Titlist Treaty was concluded between Napoleon and the Tsar of Russia in 1807.

Question 4.
What is Concordat?
Answer:
It was the aim of Napoleon to heal up the wounds caused by the French Revolution by its breach with the papacy. He felt that a State without religion was like an empty vessel so he decided to regain the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope. After negotiations with Pope Pius VII, he reached a religious understanding with the Pope in 1802, which came to be known as the ‘Concordat’. With this treaty, Catholicism became the state religion of France.

Question 5.
What is the Continental System?
Answer:
England’s strength was in its Trade and Commerce. Napoleon decided to curb it. He issued two, decrees from Berlin and Milan. British goods were fully excluded from the whole of Europe. This economic warfare on England was called the Continental System. As Europe depended on imports from England, this system harmed France more than England.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
What is Legion of Honour?
Answer:
It was an award constituted by Napoleon to honour those who had rendered distinguished and meritorious service to France in Military and Civil services. It was based on principles of equality without distinction of class and religion. This is called Legion of Honour.

Question 7.
Which and when was the last battle of Napoleon?
Answer:
Battle of Waterloo in 1815 A.D.

Question 8.
To which place and when was Napoleon exiled?
Answer:
After his defeat in the Waterloo battle, Napoleon was exiled, to St. Helena, an island in the Atlantic Ocean on May 5th 1821.

Question 9.
What is meant by ‘The Hundred days’?
Answer:
Napoleon after escaping from the Island of Elba occupied the throne of France and ruled from March to June in 1815 for a period of about a hundred days. This episode is called ‘The Hundred Days’.

Question 10.
Name the architects of Italian Unification.
Answer:
Count De Cavour, Garibaldi, Joseph Mazzini.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What were the aims of young Italy?
Answer:
The aim of young Italy was to train the Italians and make them aware of their great past. It stood for unity and independence and wanted liberty, equality, and humanity.

Question 12.
Who was called the Sword of Italian Unification? Name the army he established.
Answer:
Garibaldi was called the Sword of Italian Unification. He established the Red Shirt Army.

Question 13.
Name any four states of Italy.
Answer:
Lombardy, Tuscany, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Piedmont.

Question 14.
Who was the Chancellor of Victor Emmanuel II? What was his policy?
Answer:
Count de Cavour was the Chancellor of Victor Emmanuel II and he believed in the policy of war and diplomacy to unite Italy.

Question 15.
Who was the founder of Young Italy? When?
Answer:
Joseph Mazzini founded the Young Italy in 1831 A.D.

Question 16.
Who organized the ‘Red Shirts Movement’? When?
Answer:
Garibaldi organized the army of thousand Redshirts in 1860 A.D.

Question 17.
Which were the two states captured by Garibaldi?
Answer:
Sicily and Naples (Italian) were captured by Garibaldi.

Question 18.
Who was the Ruler of Sardinia at the time of the unification of Italy? Who was his Prime Minister?
Answer:
Victor Emmanuel II was the Ruler and Count de Cavour was his Prime Minister or Chancellor.

Question 19.
What was Zollverein?
Answer:
In 1834, Prussia worked for an economic union of the German States, namely the Customs Union called ‘Zollverein’ which allowed free trade amongst the States. The member states agreed to abolish the customs duties in their borders for each other for easy movement of goods. This was the first step towards political unity.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 20.
Why did Fredrick William IV reject the offer of the Frankfurt Parliament?
Answer:
He did not want to accept the crown offered by the elected representatives instead of their Kings. He was also afraid of the military intervention of Austria and Russia and hence rejected the offer.

Question 21.
Who assisted Bismarck in the re-organization of the Prussian military?
Answer:
General Roon and General Moltke assisted Bismarck in the re-organization of the Prussian military.

Question 22.
Who was the architect of German unification? What was his policy?
Answer:
Otto von Bismark- ‘Blood and Iron’ policy.

Question 23.
Name the wars fought by Bismark for the unification of Germany?
Answer:
War with Denmark – 1864, war with Austria – 1868 and war with France – 1870-71.

Question 24.
When did the Austro-Prussian war take place? Which treaty ended it?
Answer:
The war with Austria took place in 1866. It ended with the treaty of Prague.

Question 25.
When did the Danish war take place? Which treaty ended it?
Answer:
The war with Denmark took place in 1864 and it ended with the treaty of Vienna.

Question 26.
When did the Franco -Prussian war take place? Which treaty ended it?
Answer:
The Franco-Prussian war took place in 1870 – 71 and ended with the treaty of Frankfurt.

1st PUC History Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write about the life and rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Ajaccio in the Island of Corsica on August 15th,1769. His parents were Count’Charles Bonaparte and Countess Leticia Romalina. During his childhood, he cultivated self-confidence, an ability to work hard and immense ambition. After his education, he joined the Military Academy in Paris and graduated. Because of his keen interest in Military Science and ability, he rose up in the ranks fast and proved his talent by suppressing two rebellions against the French Government.

In 1796, the Directory Government appointed Napoleon as the commander of the French Army in Italy. His Italian campaign was a great success. He defeated the Sardinians and then the Austrians. By the Treaty of ‘Campo-Formio’ in 1797, he gained immense success for France.

Napoleon started re-drawing the map of Europe though his conquests. Arbitrary Governments were imposed on Italy and Belgium. His Egyptian campaign was aimed at striking the British “. Imperialism. In the ‘Battle of the Pyramids’ Napoleon could score a victory over England. But in the Naval Battle of the Nile or ‘Aboukir Bay’, he was defeated by Admiral Nelson. Napoleon overthrew the Directory Government and became the First Consul of the three-member Consulate government and later took over absolute control and declared himself as the Emperor.

Question 2.
Write about the military expeditions of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
1. Napoleon as Emperor of France(1804-1814):
By 1802 Napoleon’s control over France was total. He aspired to become Consul for life. On December 2, 1804, he was coronated as the Emperor of France. Napoleon had invited the Pope to give his blessings and also to crown him. But at the last moment, he himself placed the crown on his head and later remarked “I found the Crown of France lying on the ground and I picked it up with my sword”.

2. Wars of Napoleon:
The Napoleonic Empire lasted for ten years from 1804 to 1814. It was a period of uninterrupted warfare. He had become all-powerful in France. Now he desired to become all-powerful in Europe. He had overthrown the three great military states of Europe: Austria, Russia and Prussia. Only Great Britain and Sweden remained to be defeated.

3. Continental system:
Britain was the chief commercial and industrial nation of the world. But invading Britain was impossible as it was the strongest naval power. So its Commerce and industry must be attacked by preventing the import of British goods into the continent, which was its chief market. Such a move would ruin the British commerce and industry and compel Britain to sue for peace. Toward this end, Napoleon fought an economic war with Great Britain from 1806 to 1814, this economic warfare is known as the ‘Continental System’.

In 1806, Napoleon proclaimed a decree which provided for closure of all ports on the continent to the British manufactured goods. In retaliation the British Government issued ‘Orders in Council ’ (1807). The result of this confrontation was that Napoleon would not allow import of British goods into the continent and Britain, in turn, would prevent the sea trade of France and its allies.

For Napoleon it proved physically impossible to enforce the “Continental system” thoroughly. It was difficult to prevent the bribery of customs officials and smuggling. In the course of enforcing the ‘Continental System’, Napoleon was involved in the series of disastrous wars in Europe.

Tsar Alexander violated the Continental System and Napoleon organised a huge army for the invasion of Moscow. It was a disaster and the French army suffered from the biting cold, hunger and thirst and lost more than 3,00,000 soldiers. Napoleon’s enemies increased and the combined armies of Austria and Prussia with the help of England defeated him in the Battle of Leipzig. He was deported to the island of Elba. He escaped from there and ruled France for 100 days but was completely routed in the battle of Waterloo and exiled to St. Helena where he died.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Discuss the Continental system of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
England’s strength was in its trade and commerce. Hence Napoleon decided to attack England by destroying its trade. He issued two decrees from Berlin in 1806 and Milan in 1807 as per which, British goods were fully excluded from the whole of Europe. This was called the Continental System. Since Europe was dependent on England and its imports, the application of this system harmed France more than England. The European nations which depended on imports from England suffered a lot.

As a result, Spain and Portugal were attacked for not observing the Continental System. When there was a civil war in Spain, Napoleon installed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne against the wishes of its people. There was a national revolution in Spain and England sent its Army which defeated the French Army.

Question 4.
Explain the causes of the decline of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
Causes for the downfall of Napoleon are manifold. Mainly they were as given below.

1. Though he was a genius, his inordinate ambition, pride and self-centred nature ruined him in the end.

2. Napoleonic Empire depended only on his military strength. His army consisted of soldiers belonging to different nationalities who did not have any attachment to the Empire.

3. The rise of nationalism against the Napoleonic Empire was another factor that led to his fall. This spirit of nationalism which initially worked well in Spain, later on, spread to other countries like Austria, Prussia, and Russia, leading to the War of Liberation.

4. The Continental System was one of the great blunders committed by Napoleon. Due to the heavy losses, the European countries came out of the system.

5. The Russian expedition was ill-fated and the grand army of Napoleon was reduced to pieces due to the bad weather. The opportunity was immediately seized by his enemies who formed the fourth coalition to bring about his downfall.

6. The ill-treatment of the Pope by Napoleon antagonized the. Roman Catholics throughout Europe. In 1809, he had seized the Papal territories and transferred the seat of Papacy to Paris as the Pope had refused to observe the continental system.

7. The continued opposition of England, its undisputed supremacy on the sea and the ability of its commanders like Vice-Admiral Nelson and General Wellesley also contributed much towards the destruction of Napoleonic Empire. The fact was that his navy was very weak.

Question 5.
Napoleon Bonaparte was ‘The Child of Revolution’ and also ‘The Destroyer of Revolution’. Justify this statement.
Answer:
After the Revolution, France became a Republic in 1792. The National convention gave all executive authorities to the ‘Committee of Public Safety’, which let loose a reign of terror internally. It came to an end with the guillotining of Robespierre, the head of the Committee. The Directory government was formed in 1795, which was overthrown by Napoleon in 1799. The revolution had resulted in a series of only temporary solutions in the Governance of France and had paved the way for Napoleon to take over control. The principles of the revolution were given life with his reforms. So, Napoleon was in a way the offshoot or ‘The Child of Revolution’.

The underlying principles of the French Revolution as per J.J. Rousseau were ‘Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity’. Montesquieu advocated the ‘Theory of Separation of Powers’ as per which, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary should function independently to safeguard the liberty, of the people. Napoleon being overambitious wanted to rule over the World. His military campaigns, the continuous war with England, the disastrous invasion of Moscow, his absolute control of power over legislative, executive and Judiciary systems were all against the principles on which the French Revolution was set up. He undermined them and so rightfully called the ‘Destroyer’.

Question 6.
Trace the role of Joseph Mazzini in the Unification of Italy.
Answer:
Joseph Mazzini (1805-1872): Mazzini was one of the architects of Italian unification. He was the prophet of the unification movement. He was born in Genoa in 1805. He was the son of a Professor of Anatomy. He was influenced by nationalist ideas from his boyhood days. The misery of his country had left a deep impression on his mind and as a symbol of mourning he used to dress himself in black. He joined the Carbonari. He had studied law and was greatly influenced by the writings of Dante, Milton, Scott and others. Count Cavour’s Risorgimento was a source of great inspiration to him. His ambition was to drive out the Austrians from the Italian soil.

He founded the organization called ‘Young Italy’ in 1813. The main intention of his organization was to train the Italians and make them aware of their great past. It stood for unity and independence and wanted liberty, equality and humanity. He was basically a democrat and he spread the ideas of unity and independence through his personal, abilities without any external help. He was a staunch believer in “Pen is mightier than sword”. He laid a strong foundation for Italian unification. His efforts created a new spark of nationalism throughout the country.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Describe the role of Count de Cavour in the Unification of Italy.
Answer:
Count de Cavour was born in 1810 at Piedmont, and received military education. He served in military for some time. He had studied history and culture of Italy and had developed a patriotic spirit. He advocated the English Constitutional System. In 1847, he started a newspaper called ‘Risorgimento’ (Rebirth). As the editor of the paper, he mobilized public opinion to unite Italy.

His political career began when he was elected to the Parliament of Piedmont in 1850. He was appointed as the Prime Minister in 1852 by Victor Emmanuel II. He served as Prime Minister from 1852 to 1861. He had the dream of uniting Italy under the leadership of Sardinia. But before taking up that task, he undertook many reforms to make Sardinia strong. Economy was reformed. Commercial taxes were reduced. He encouraged education and industries. He thus developed the State and it became a ‘Model State’.

He relieved in the policy of war and diplomacy to unite Italy. Cavour believed that Italian Unification could be achieved only with the help of other European countries. Hence, he took part in the Crimean war. This war, fought between England and France 1854-1856, on the side of Turkey against Russia had no reason for Cavour to take part. But with a foresight to create an image about his State before England and France, he made this move. He remarked. ‘Out of the mud of Crimea, Italy will be made’. After the war, in the Paris Peace Congress, he put forth the problems of Italy before the leaders.

Napoleon III, the ruler of France was very sympathetic to the cause of Italian Unification. Cavour signed an agreement with Napoleon III at Plombieres in 1858. Napoleon promised to help Cavour against Austria in return for Which Cavour had to give Savoy and Nice. Cavour built his army. Austria was suspicious of the meeting between Cavour and Napoleon and the militarization of Sardinia and ordered Sardinia to disarm. When Sardinia refused, the war began in 1859. This war lasted for two months. The Austrians were defeated at Magenta and Salfereno. But Napoleon stopped the war without giving a clue to Sardinia, concluded the treaty of ‘Villa Franca’ with Austria.

According to this treaty, Austrian troops were evacuated from Lombardy and it was ceded to Victor Emmanuel II. Thus, the first stage of unification was set in. Napoleon received Nice and Savoy. The abrupt end of the war disappointed Cavour. He forced King Victor Emmanuel II not to accept the treaty of Villa Franca. But when Victor Emmanuel refused, he resigned. But soon he was re-elected and took over as the Prime Minister.

In 1860 Modena, Parma, Tuscany, Romagna, Umbria and Marches voted to merge with Sardinia. This led to the second step in the unification. Considered ‘the Brain of Italian Unification’ he died in 1861. He died almost a decade before the Unification of Italy. His last words were “Italy is made, all is safe’. It was indeed an optimistic quote.

Question 8.
Write about the part played by Garibaldi in the Italian Unification.
Answer:
he third stage of Italian Unification was achieved by the great patriot, Garibaldi. He was born in 1807 at Nice. He became a member of ‘Young Italy’ at the age of 24 and took part in the revolutionary activities. He was the most romantic figure of the Italian unification movement. He was a great disciple of Mazzini. His parents wanted him to join the Church, but he joined seafarers and spent many years at sea. He believed in “The Unification of Italy is possible only by the Sword”. He was a revolutionary and was exiled to South America for taking part in plots and insurrections. While in exile, Garibaldi learned the art of guerrilla warfare.

He participated in the revolt organized by Mazzini at Savoy in 1834. But the revolt failed. Because of his nationalistic activities he was given death sentence. He managed to escape to South America and lived in exile for 14 years. He had a large number of followers who were ready for any sacrifice for the sake of their country.

They were transformed into an army called the ‘Red Shirts’. During the 1848 revolution, he returned to Italy and took part in the Italian Nationalist Movement. During the war between Sardinia and Austria, he commanded the Sardinian forces.

In 1860, the people of Sicily sought his help against the Bourbons. Immediately he went with his army of Red Shirts and within two months, Francis II was defeated and Sicily was annexed. Then he went to Naples and defeated Francis II there also. He wanted to proceed to Rome but Cavour did not like his move and prevailed upon Victor Emmanuel II to prevent him from doing so.

So an army of Victor Emmanuel II was sent to Rome and Garibaldi, whose main aim was the Unification of Italy, handed over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II. Garibaldi is called the ‘Sword of Italian Unification’. A true patriot, he refused to accept titles and honours which were offered to him, went back to his village and lived the life of a peasant.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Discuss the role of Bismarck in the unification of Germany?
Answer:
Edward Leopold Otto von Bismarck was born in 1815 in an aristocratic Prussian family. He was well educated and when he was appointed as the Prussian Ambassador to Russia and later to France, he gained first-hand knowledge and experience about the European politics. He was appointed as Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 by King William I.

He made up his mind to unify Germany under the monarchy of Prussia as he believed that Prussia alone had the ability to lead the German States. He also knew that Austria was to be defeated to achieve this goal. So-he began to re-organize the Prussian military with the help of General Roon and General Moltke. Very soon, the Prussian army was among the best in Europe.

German provinces of Scheleswig and Holstein were declared to be part of Denmark by Christian IX of Denmark. In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria, attacked and defeated Denmark and captured these provinces back. Prussia and Austria split the administration of these two. Later, Prussia proposed a National Constitution and a National Diet for the German states for which some of the States were reluctant to be part of.

The Prussian troop movements near the Austrian borders arranged by Bismarck, made Austria declare war on Prussia and, appear as the aggressor. The hitherto reluctant States joined Prussia and the well prepared Prussian army with the support of Italy and the States won over Austria and in 1866 annexed Schleswig and Holstein. The formation of the North German Confederation resulted in a partial Unification of Germany.

Bismarck wanted a war with France, the remaining big power in Europe to complete the German Unification. He diplomatically managed the situation in such a way that Napoleon III of France declared war on Prussia. France was alone and the South German States also joined hands with Prussia and the French forces were defeated at different fronts and even Paris was captured. The Prussian King William was crowned as the Emperor of United Germany with the title ‘Kaiser’. The unification of Germany was complete and Bismarck rightfully was hailed as the ‘Architect of German Unification’.

Question 10.
Write a note on Frankfurt Parliament (1848).
Answer:
Many European nations including the German States witnessed revolutions in 1848. The revolutions in German States aimed at unification and a single German constitution. The revolutionaries hoped that such a constitution would provide a universal male suffrage, a permanent national Parliament and a united Germany under the leadership of the Prussian King. The Frankfurt Parliament consisting of the representatives of all the German states met on 27th March 1849.

It held discussions, passed the resolution and offered the title “Kaiser” to the Prussian King, Fredrick William IV. He refused the offer to become the Emperor of United Germany stating that he could not accept the crown offered by the elected representatives of the states, instead of their Kings. Moreover, he was afraid of the military intervention of Austria and Russia. Thus the attempt at unification failed.

Question 11.
How did the Zollverain system help unify Germany?
Answer:
1. Introduction:
Germany was divided into a number of principalities. The spirit of provincialism was strong which prevented political unity. The French Revolution and Napoleon’s Uniform System of Administration led to a rapid .growth of nationalism and democracy which became a determining factor in the political division of Europe in the 19th century. People sought political unity and a Government which would be the expression of the will of the people. Bismarck led the unification movement in Germany. Vienna Congress was held in 1815, the Congress strengthening Monarchy everywhere by suppressing national revolts.

The hopes of the Germans were thus shattered by the Congress. The diplomats divided Germany and put it under the control of different powers. The German confederation was very weak. It could not achieve any kind of unity. But Unification was achieved in Germany at the initiative taken by the State of Prussia, its King William-I and Chancellor Bismarck.

2. Zollverein system:
Prussia was the largest and the strongest among the 39 States of the confederation of Rhine. As a first step towards unification, Prussia launched an economic movement. Till the beginning of the 19th century, there was no uniformity in custom duties between the German states as each state had its own laws, weights, and measurements system and custom duties with other States. On Prussia’s initiative, an economic union of the German States called the Customs Union – ‘Zollverein’ was formed in 1834. It allowed free trade, reduced the protectionist barriers and eased the transportation of raw materials and finished goods among the German States.

As the custom duties were removed, the products were less costly to buy or sell. Austria did not like to see a unified Germany in any manner. Zollverein subdued the narrow local feeling and replaced it with the wider and stronger feelings of German nationality and unity. This economic unity was the first step towards the political unification of Germany. Thus ‘Zollverein’ was the catalyst for the German Unification.

1st PUC History Napoleon and Rise of Nationalism Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe the Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
Administrative reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte:
Napoleon centralised the entire system of local government in France. The entire country was divided into Provinces, Arrondissements, and Communes. The powers were vested in Prefects and Sub-Prefects who were responsible to only Napoleon. It assured that the decrees of the
Central Government should promptly and uniformly be carried out. He developed and empowered the office of the ‘Secretariat of the State’. His major reforms were as follows.

1. Code Napoleon:
The most durable of Napoleon’s work was the introduction of the legal code which is the base for the French Law. This was known as ‘Code Napoleon’ and came into effect in 1804 A.D. He appointed two committees to draft the legal codes and the committees was presided over by Napoleon. He had a good commonsense and a legislative vision. The 5 codes were

  • French Civil Code,
  • Code of Civil Procedure,
  • Code of Criminal Procedure,
  • Penal Code and,
  • Commercial Code.

The basic demands of the Revolution like Civil equality, religious toleration, the emancipation of land, etc., were taken care of with these codes. He was hailed as the second Justinian.

2. Education:
He introduced a national scheme of education managed by the State which
was organized into four types- Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special Schools. This was to maintain uniformity of standard in Schools and Colleges. He also established the University of France.

3. Religious reforms or the Concordat:
He made a code of laws for the Clergy also and to heal up the mistrust with the Papacy, entered into a religious understanding with Pope Pius-VII in 1802 known as the Concordat. He regained the sympathy of the Catholics by improving his relations with the Pope and with this treaty, Catholicism became the State religion.

4. Public works:
He built new highways connecting Paris with the other major cities and improved the means of communication. Bridges and Canals were constructed. These helped in solving the unemployment problem also to a great extent. He encouraged trade and commerce and Paris and other cities were beautified and transformed into modem cities.

5. Economy:
Bank of France was established. It supervised the entire financial setup and stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes and rigid economic measures were carried out. Revenue boards were set up. The national loan was reduced and the Stock Exchanges were regulated. He took stern measures to root out corruption and gambling.

6. Legion of honour:
To honour those who had rendered meritorious Military and Civil services to the State, Napoleon started an award called ‘Legion of Honour’. It was based on principles of equality, without distinction of class and religion.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Write about life and conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Answer:
In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte ended the rule of the Directory in France and assumed supreme military command. He provided-a stable political system based on personal dictatorship. Her reign lasted for fifteen years, from 1799 to 1814.

1. Early life of Napoleon:
Napoleon was born at Ajaccio on the island of Corsica on 15th August 1769. At sixteen, he joined the French army as an Artillery Officer. He was unquestionably a man of extraordinary force of mind and character. He believed that he was a man of destiny. The outbreak of the French Revolution gave him an opportunity to fulfill his ambitions and also channelize his energy. The Italian campaigns which he led in 1796 made him the most brilliant General of the French Republic. In 1799, he overthrew the corrupt and inefficient Directory Government and established a three-member Consulate Government and became the First Consul. He was the man who presided over the destiny of France for the next 15 years. He was virtually a Sovereign.

2. Napoleon as Emperor of France (1804-1814):
In 1802, Napoleon’s control over France was total. He aspired to become Consul for life. On December 2nd 1804, Napoleon was coronated as the Emperor of France. He had invited the Pope to give his blessings and also to crown him. But at the last moment he himself placed the crown on his head and later remarked “I found the crown of France lying on the ground and I picked it up with my sword”.

3. Wars of Napoleon:
The Napoleonic Empire lasted for ten years from 1804 to 1814. It was a period of uninterrupted warfare. He had become all-powerful in France. Now he desired to become all-powerful in Europe. He had overthrown the three great military states of Europe: Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Only Great Britain and Sweden remained to be defeated.

4. Continental system:
Britain was the chief commercial and industrial nation of the world. But invading Britain was impossible as it was the strongest naval power. So Napoleon planned that its commerce and industry must be attacked, by preventing the import of British goods into the continent, which was its chief market. Such a move would ruin British commerce and industry and compel Britain to sue for peace. Towards this end, Napoleon fought an economic war with Great Britain from 1806 to 1814, this.economic warfare was known as the “Continental System”.

In 1806, Napoleon proclaimed a decree which provided for closure of all ports on the continent to the British manufactured goods. In retaliation, the British Government issued ‘Orders in Council’. The result of this confrontation was that Napoleon would not allow the import of British goods into the continent and Britain, in turn, would prevent the sea trade of France and its allies. For Napoleon, it proved physically impossible to enforce the “Continental System” thoroughly. It was difficult to prevent the bribery of customs officials and smuggling. In the course of enforcing the ‘Continental System’, Napoleon was involved in a series of disastrous wars in Europe.

5. Abdication of Napoleon:
In March 1814, Napoleon’s chief enemies – Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia concluded a treaty with -the sole aim of overthrowing their arch enemy and they declared war against France. The French resistance was broken within a month and Paris was surrounded on March 31, 1814. Napoleon, at last, abdicated his throne. In return, the allies offered him Elba, an island in the Mediterranean. Amid the tears of his soldiers, Napoleon left for Elba. The allies decided to restore the Bourbon dynasty on the throne of France, Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, was offered the crown.

6. The Hundred Days:
For ten months Napoleon was in Elba. On March 1, 1815, he escaped from Elba and landed with 1,100 men on the South Coast of France. Then he advanced towards Paris. Hearing this news, Louis XVIII fled to Belgium. Napoleon occupied the throne of France and ruled as Emperor from March to June 1815. This episode is known as “The Hundred Days”.

The allies once again pledged to fight against Napoleon to the finish. They declared war on France and finally defeated Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo (1815) in Belgium. This was Napoleon’s sixteenth and final battle. The battle destroyed once for all the last army of the French Emperor. Napoleon abdicated for the second time and was exiled to St. Helena.

Question 3.
Describe the stages of Italian Unification.
Answer:
1. Introduction to Italian Unification:
Before the 19th century, Italy was only a ‘geographical expression’. There was no unity among the different States. Hence they became victims of foreign domination. The northern states of Lombardy and Venetia were directly under the Austrians, other small states were under the Hapsburgs, Parma, Modena, and Tuscany were under the Austrian Royal family, Central Italian Duchies were ruled by the Pope and Naples and Sicily in the South were under the Bourbons of France.

By 1820, insurrections began. These insurrections were the work of secret societies. The largest of these was the Carbonari or ‘Charcoal burners’. They were active in creating opposition to foreign rule. There were many revolts during 1820-1831. But the revolts were put down by Austria. Joseph Mazzini called the ‘Soul of Italian unification’ was born at Genoa in 1805. He was a lawyer by Profession. He believed that ‘Pen is mightier than Sword’ and decided to infuse patriotism among the people through his articles. He was a member of the Carbonari. He founded a society called ‘Young Italy’ in 1831.

2. First Stage of Unification:
Young Italy was an organization of the Youth and a secret and underground organization. Mazzini felt that unification has to be achieved only by ItaliAnswer: Men below 40 years of age were given membership to this society. They were able-bodied youth of Italy. The unity of – Italy was preached as a new religion and a holy mission. ‘God, the people and Italy’ were the watchwords of this organization. Because of his activities, Mazzini was banished and lived in exile in France, Switzerland, and England and guided the movement from outside.

Mazzini’s influence was such that in 1848, well organized revolts were seen in Italy. People of Lombardy, Parma, Modena arid Tuscany rose in revolt against their rulers. Since there was no unity among them, they were easily put down by Austria and France. Charles Albert, the King of Italy led the national movement and drove out Austria from Lombardy. But this success was short-lived. The Austrians defeated the Sardinian army. Disappointed with this, Charles Albert abdicated his throne in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II.

Count de Cavour believed that Italian Unification could be achieved only with the help of other European countries. Hence, he took part in the Crimean war. This war fought during 1854-1856 with England and France on the side of Turkey against Russia had no reason for Cavour to take part. But with foresight to create an image about his State before England and France, he made this move. He remarked. ‘Out of the mud of Crimea, Italy will be made’. After the war in the Paris Peace Congress, he put forth the problems of Italy before the leaders.

Napoleon III, the ruler of France was very sympathetic to the cause of Italian Unification. Cavour signed an agreement with Napoleon III at Plombieres in 1858. Napoleon promised to help Cavour against Austria in return for which Cavour had to give Savoy and Nice. Cavour built his army. Austria was suspicious of the meeting between Cavour and Napoleon and the militarization of Sardinia and ordered Sardinia to disarm. When Sardinia refused, the war began in 1859.

This war lasted for two months. The Austrians were defeated at Magenta and Salfereno. But Napoleon stopped the war without giving a clue to Sardinia, concluded the treaty of ‘Villa Franca’ with Austria. According to this treaty, Austrian troops were evacuated from Lombardy and it was ceded to Victor Emmanuel II. Thus, the first stage of unification was set in.

3. Second Stage of Unification:
Napoleon received Nice and Savoy. The abrupt end of the war disappointed Cavour. He forced King Victor Emmanuel II not to accept the treaty of Villa Franca. But when Victor Emmanuel refused he resigned. But soon he was re-elected and took over as the Prime Minister. In 1860, Modena, Parma, Tuscany, Romagna voted to merge with Sardinia. This led to the second step in the unification. Considered ‘the Brain of Italian Unification’ Count de Cavour. died in 1861. He died almost a decade before the total Unification of Italy, His last words were “Italy is made, all is safe’. It was indeed an optimistic quote.

4. Third Stage of Unification:
The third stage of Italian Unification was achieved by the great patriot, Garibaldi. He was born in 1807 at Nice. He became a member of ‘Young Italy’ at the age of 24 and took part in the revolutionary activities.

He participated in a revolt organized by Mazzini at Savoy in 1834. But the revolt failed. Because of his nationalistic activities, he was given a death sentence. He managed to escape to South America and lived in exile for 14 years. He had a large number of loyal followers prepared for any sacrifice for the sake of their country. They were transformed into an army called ‘Red Shirts’. During the 1848 revolution, he returned to Italy and took part in the Italian Nationalist Movement. During the war between Sardinia and Austria, he commanded the Sardinian forces.

In 1860, the people of Sicily sought his help against the Bourbons. Immediately he went with his army of Red Shirts and within two months Francis II was defeated and Sicily was annexed. Then he went to Naples and defeated Francis II there also. He wanted to proceed to Rome, but Cavour did not like his move and prevailed upon Victor Emmanuel II to prevent him from doing so. So an army of Victor Emmanuel II was sent to Rome.

Garibaldi, whose main aim was the Unification of Italy, handed over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II. Garibaldi is called the ‘Sword of Italian Unification’. A true patriot, he refused to accept titles and honours which were offered to him, went back to his village and lived the life of a peasant.

Victor Emmanuel II, the King of Sardinia was a patriot himself and an honest King of Italy. He achieved the unification through peaceful negotiations. He appointed Count Cavour as his prime minister. By 1861, Cavour had united-most of Italy. On 18th February 1861, a new Parliament was convened at Turin and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the King of Italy. But Venetia and Rome were yet to be added. Venetia was under Austria and Rome was under the Pope. In 1866, a war broke out between Austria and Prussia, in which Victor Emmanuel II sided with Prussia. The victory of Prussia over Austria compelled Austria to give Venetia to Italy.

In 1870, when there was a war between Prussia and France. Napoleon III withdraw his forces from Rome which had been kept for the protection of the Pope. Immediately, Victor Emmanuel’s troops occupied Rome. The unification of Italy was completed in 1870. Rome became the capital of United Italy. Thus, the Patriotism of Mazzini, the Wars of Garibaldi, the Diplomacy of Cavour and the Statesmanship of Victor Emmanuel helped the Unification of Italy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Describe the part played by Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi in the Italian Unification.
Answer:
1. Joseph Mazzini (1805-1872):
Joseph Mazzini called the ‘Soul of Italian unification’ was born at Genoa in 1805. He was a lawyer by Profession. He believed that ‘Pen is mightier than Sword’ and decided to infuse patriotism among the people through his articles. He was a member of the Carbonari. He founded a society called ‘Young Italy’ in 1831. It was an organization of the Youth and a secret and underground organization. He felt that unification has to be achieved only by Italians.

Men below 40 years of age were given membership to this society. They were able bodied youth of Italy. The unity of Italy was preached as a new religion and a holy mission. ‘God, the people and Italy’ were the watchwords of this organization. Because of his activities, Mazzini was banished and lived in exile in France, Switzerland, and England and guided the movement from outside.

Mazzini’s influence was such that in 1848, well organized revolts were seen in Italy. People of Lombardy, Parma, Modena, and Tuscany rose in revolt against their rulers. Since there was no unity among them, they were easily put down by Austria and France, Charles Albert, the King of Italy led the national movement and drove put Austria from Lombardy. But this success was short lived. The Austrians defeated the Sardinian army. Disappointed with this, Charles Albert abdicated his throne in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II.

2. Count de Cavour (1810-1861):
He had the dream of uniting Italy under the leadership of Sardinia. But before taking up that task, he undertook many reforms to make Sardinia strong. Economy was reformed. Commercial taxes were reduced. He encouraged education and industries. He thus developed the state and it became a‘Model State’.

He believed in the policy of war and diplomacy to unite Italy. Cavour believed that Italian Unification could be achieved only with the help of other European countries. Hence, he took part in the Crimean war. This war, fought during 1854-1856, with England and France on the side of Turkey against-Russia had no reason for Cavour to take part. But with a foresight to create an image about his State before England and France, he made this move. He remarked ‘Out of the mud of Crimea, Italy will be made’.

After the war in the Paris Peace Congress, he put forth the problems of Italy before the leaders-. Napoleon III, the Ruler of France was very sympathetic to the cause of Italian Unification. Cavour signed an agreement with Napoleon III at Plombieres in 1858. Napoleon promised to help Cavour against Austria in return for which Cavour had to give Savoy and Nice. Cavour built his army. Austria was suspicious of the meeting between Cavour and Napoleon and the militarization of Sardinia and ordered Sardinia to disarm.

When Sardinia refused, the war began in 1859. This war lasted for two months. The Austrians were defeated at Magenta and Salfereno. But Napoleon stopped the war without giving a clue to Sardinia, concluded the treaty of ‘Villa Franca’ with Austria. According to this treaty, Austrian troops were evacuated from Lombardy and it was ceded to Victor Emmanuel II. Thus, the first stage of unification was set in. Napoleon received Nice and Savoy. The abrupt end of the war disappointed Cavour.

He forced King Victor Emmanuel II not to accept the treaty of Villa Franca. But when Victor Emmanuel refused he resigned. But soon he was re-elected and took over as the Prime Minister. In 1860 Modern, Parma, Tuscany, Romagna voted to merge with Sardinia. This led to the second step in the unification. Considered ‘the Brain of Italian Unification’ he died in 1861. He died almost a decade before the Unification of Italy. His last words were “Italy is made, all .is safe’. It was indeed an optimistic quote.

3. Garibaldi (1807-1882):
The third stage of Italian Unification was achieved by the great patriot Garibaldi. He was born in 1807 at Nice. He became a member of ‘Young Italy’ at the age of 24 and took part in the revolutionary activities.

He participated in a revolt organized by Mazzini at Savoy in 1834. But the revolt failed. Because of his nationalistic activities, he was given a death sentence. He managed to escape to South America and lived in exile for 14 years. He had a large number of loyal followers prepared for any sacrifice for the sake of their country. They were transformed into an army called ‘Red Shirts’. During the 1848 revolution, he returned to Italy and took part in the Italian Nationalist Movement. During the war between Sardinia and Austria, he commanded the Sardinian forces.

In 1860, the people of Sicily sought his help against the Bourbons. Immediately he went with his army of Red Shirts and within two months Francis II was defeated and Sicily was annexed. Then he went to Naples and defeated Francis II there also. He wanted to proceed to Rome but Cavour did not like his move and prevailed upon Victor Emmanuel II to prevent him from doing so. So an army of Victor Emmanuel II was sent to Rome.

Garibaldi, whose main aim was the Unification of Italy, handed over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II. Garibaldi is called the ‘Sword of Italian Unification’. A true patriot, he refused to accept titles and honours which were offered to him, went back to his village and lived the life of a peasant.

Question 5.
Discuss in detail the different stages of the German Unification.
Answer:
Edward Leopold Otto von Bismarck was born in 1815 in an aristocratic Prussian family. He was well educated and when he was appointed as the Prussian Ambassador to Russia and later to France, he gained first-hand knowledge and experience about European politics. He was appointed as Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 by King William.

He made up his mind to unify Germany under the monarchy of Prussia as he believed that Prussia alone had the ability to lead the German States. He also knew that Austria was to be defeated to achieve this goal. So he began to re-organize the Prussian military with the help of General Roon and General Moltke. Very soon, the Prussian army was among the best in Europe.

1. War with Denmark:
The King of Denmark was also the Duke of the German provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. They were declared to be part of Denmark by Christian IX of Denmark. The people of these provinces and other German states were unhappy at this move. In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria, attacked and defeated Denmark and captured these provinces back. The Peace Treaty of Vienna was signed in Oct 1864. Later on, Prussia and Austria agreed to administer Schleswig and Holstein respectively according to the Convention of Gastein.

2. Austro – Prussian war (1866):
Bismarck promised compensation to Napoleon III, the Emperor of France for the French neutrality, in case of a war with Austria. Prussia and Italy also came to a secret understanding to militarily help each other. Prussia proposed a National Constitution and a National Diet for the German States for which some of the States were reluctant to be part of. Prussia and Italy started troop movements near the Austrian borders. Austria responded by full-scale mobilization of troops. The troop movements of the Prussian army near the Austrian borders arranged by Bismarck, made Austria declare war on Prussia and appear as the aggressor.

The hitherto reluctant States joined Prussia and the well prepared Prussian army with the support of Italy and the States defeated Austria and in 1866 annexed Schleswig and Holstein. The decisive battle was fought at Koniggratz near Sadowa, in which Austria was completely routed. This war is also called as ‘Seven Weeks War’. The Austro Prussian war of 1866 ended with the Treaty of Prague. The formation of the North German Confederation resulted in a partial Unification of Germany.

3. Franco-Prussian war (1870-71):
Bismarck did not keep up the promise of compensation to France for its neutrality. He desired a war with France to complete his scheme of unification. He knew that a war with France would make the remaining German states join the North German confederation. The dispute for the Spanish throne offered a pretext for war. Bismarck supported the claims of Prince Leopold, a relative of the Prussian King. The French were alarmed at the growth of Prussian power.

The French opposed the claims and were successful in pressurizing Leopold to decline the offer. Bismarck diplomatically managed the situation in such a way that Napoleon III of France declared war on Prussia. France was alone and the South German States also joined hands with Prussia and the French forces were defeated at different fronts and even Paris was captured. The unification of Germany was complete. The Prussian King William was crowned as the Emperor of United Germany with the title ‘Kaiser’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Discuss the statesmanship qualities of Bismarck in achieving the Unification of Germany.
Answer:
Edward Leopold Otto von Bismarck was born in 1815 in an aristocratic Prussian family. He was well educated and when he was appointed as the Prussian Ambassador to Russia and later to France, he gained first-hand knowledge and experience about European politics. He was appointed as Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 by King William.

He made up his mind to unify Germany under the monarchy of Prussia as he believed that Prussia alone had the ability to lead the German States. He also knew that Austria was to be defeated to achieve this goal. So he began to re-organize the Prussian military with the help of General Roon and General Moltke. Very soon, the Prussian army was among the best in Europe.

1. War with Denmark:
The King of Denmark was also the Duke of the German provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. They were declared to be part of Denmark by Christian IX of Denmark. The people of these provinces and other German states were unhappy at this move. In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria, attacked and defeated Denmark and captured these provinces back. The Peace Treaty of Vienna was signed in Oct 1864. Later on, Prussia and Austria agreed to administer Schleswig and Holstein respectively according to the Convention of Gastein.

2. Austro – Prussian war (1866):
Bismarck promised compensation to Napoleon III, the Emperor of France for the French neutrality, in case of a war with Austria. Prussia and Italy also came to a secret understanding to militarily help each other. Prussia proposed a National Constitution and a National Diet for the German States for which some of the States were reluctant to be part of. Prussia and Italy started troop movements near the Austrian borders. Austria responded by full-scale mobilization of troops. The troop movements of the Prussian army near the Austrian borders arranged by Bismarck, made Austria declare war on Prussia and appear as the aggressor.

The hitherto reluctant States joined Prussia and the well prepared Prussian army with the support of Italy and the States defeated Austria and in 1866 annexed Schleswig and Holstein. The decisive battle was fought at Koniggratz near Sadowa, in which Austria was completely routed. This war is also called as ‘Seven Weeks War’. The Austro Prussian war of 1866 ended with the Treaty of Prague. The formation of the North German Confederation resulted in a partial Unification of Germany.

3. Franco-Prussian war (1870-71):
Bismarck did not keep up the promise of compensation to France for its neutrality. He desired a war with France to complete his scheme of unification. He knew that a war with France would make the remaining German states join the North German confederation. The dispute for the Spanish throne offered a pretext for war. Bismarck supported the claims of Prince Leopold, a relative of the Prussian King. The French were alarmed at the growth of Prussian power.

The French opposed the claims and were successful in pressurizing Leopold to decline the offer. Bismarck diplomatically managed the situation in such a way that Napoleon III of France declared war on Prussia. France was alone and the South German States also joined hands with Prussia and the French forces were defeated at different fronts and even Paris was captured. The unification of Germany was complete. The Prussian King William was crowned as the Emperor of United Germany with the title ‘Kaiser’.

4. Conclusion:
Bismarck was a brilliant Statesman, Strategist, and Manipulator. His main aim was the unification of the German States. He realised that Prussia alone was capable of leading the States to Unification. To that end, he first reorganised the Prussian Military into a strong unit. He then made alliances with the different powers to achieve his goal and managed to defeat Denmark, Austria, and France one by one and made United Germany a reality and a powerful nation.