1st PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North)

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Karnataka1st PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper March 2018 (North)

Time: 3:15 Hours
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in ONE sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Name the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle wrote the book “The Politics”.


Question 2.
According to plato what should be the population of state?
According to Plato, the population of the state is 5040.

Question 3.
Which is the root word of liberty?
The root word of liberty is the Latin word; Liber which means free.

Question 4.
Give the best example for rigid constitution.
America is having rigid constitution.

Question 5.
Which is the lengthiest constitution in the world?
The Constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
When the term of the Lok Sabha can be extended?
During the National emergency, the term of the Lok Sabha can be extended.

Question 7.
What is executive?
The executive is the second important branch of the government. It enforces the laws enacted by the legislature.

Question 8.
Who appoints the chiefs of Defence forces in india?
President appoints the Chiefs of defence forces in India.

Question 9.
Public Interest Litigation.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Who is the guardian of the constitution?

II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 ×2 = 20)

Question 11.
When and where was the international political science conference held?
The International Political Science Conference was held in Paris in 1948 under the UNESCO conference.

Question 12.
Write about Greek city-states.
In the ancient days, the Greeks lived in city-states. In those days, city-states were very small. People were living in small city-states and direct democracy was existing in those city-states.

Question 13.
Name the aspects of sovereignty.

  1. Internal sovereignty.
  2. External sovereignty.

Question 14.
Mention any two kinds of law.
There are different kinds of law the important among them are: National law, International law, constitutional law, common law, ordinary law, and administrative law, etc.,

Question 15.
What is equality?
Facilities are provided to all the persons without any discrimination is called equality.

Question 16.
Write the meaning of federal government.
It is the government which the powers of the state are divided and distributed between central and state government. It is, also known as dual polity. The federal government discharges its power and authority in accordance with constitution. Eg: U.S.A

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Write any two features of parliamentary Government.

  • It ensures harmony between legislative and executive branches.
  • There is no division of responsibility.
  • Opposition keeps government on right path.
  • There will be peaceful change of government.
  • It ensures flexibility and elasticity.

Question 18.
What is Secular State?
The government cannot extend special favour to any particular religion and treats equal is called secular state.

Question 19.
Mention any two qualifications for members of Rajyasabha.

  • Must be a citizen of India.
  • “Should have attained the age of 30 years.
  • Owe allegiance to the constitution.
  • Must not hold any office of profit under the Government – National, Regional or local.
  • Should not be insolvent or man of unsound mind.
  • Must not have acquired the citizenship of a foreign state.

Question 20.
Who elects the Vice-president of India?
The Vice-President of the Indian Union is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both the Houses of Parliament.

Question 21.
What is Revenue court?
The courts which deals with the cases relating to the maintenance of land records its assessment and collection of land revenue are called revenue courts. The revenue courts are organized as below.

  • The boards of revenue
  • The commissioner’s court
  • The collectors court
  • Tahsildar’s court

KSEEB Solutions

Question 22.
Name any two standing committees of Zilla panchayath.

  • General committee.
  • The fiance, Auditing and planning committee.
  • Social justice committee.
  • Education and health committee.
  • Agricultural and Industry committee.

III. Answer any Eight of the following in 15 to 20 sentences each : (8 × 5 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the relevance of the study of Political science in the contemporary world.
Aristotle says that man by nature is a social animal. He born in society, live in society and die in society only. To fulfill his needs, he created society. In society only he can enjoy all the facility’s love and affection. Away from society he maybe God or ghost. Man is a social being at the same time he is a political being also.

He is a selfish, egoist and quarrelsome by nature. The attitudes of selfish, egoist and jealousy of a man lead to anarchy in the society while leading the life. So the order of the society may be disrupted and man cannot lead his life happily and peacefully.

In order to control the bad behavior of such people and establish a peaceful society, there should be rules and regulations. The state has emerged to frame and implement these rules through its agency “The Government”. So the state controls the political activities of the human being and restore peace in the society. The subject which studies about the state, government, the political activities of a human being is regarded as political science.

Question 24.
Distinguish between state and Association.


Voluntary Association

1. Definite territory is essential element of state 1. Associations have no definite territory.
2. Membership is compulsory man cannot Give up the membership. 2. Membership is temporary; man can give up the membership.
3. Individual can get the membership of only a state. 3. Individuals can get the membership of various associations as he pleases.
4. State is permanent and continuous. 4. Associations are temporary. State can control and abolish them at any time.
5. State has sovereignty. 5. Associations have no sovereignty.
6. State’s functions are wider. 6. Functions of associations are narrower.

Question 25.
Describe political Rights.
a. Right to Vote:
All the citizens who have attained the age of 18 are eligible to vote through adult franchise without any discrimination.

b. Right to contest election:
All the citizens of a country who have attained a particular age are given the chance to contest elections and thus respect the aims and aspirations of various sections of society in government.

c. Right to Enter Government Service:
In a democracy, all the citizens are equally entitled to get government jobs on the basis of their qualifications.

d. Right to petition:
It gives an opportunity to all people to bring their problems to the notice of the government and seek remedies.

e. Right to Criticism:
It is one of the biggest boon of democracy. All citizens have the right to criticise the policies of the government.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 26.
Explain the features of Unitary Government.
Features of Unitary Government:
1. Concentration of Power:
A Unitary government is characterized by the presence of a single centre, which is omnipotent and omnipresent all over the territory. All decisions of the state flow from one single centre.

2. No Provincial Autonomy:
The provinces or local units in a unitary system are created by the centre for the sake of administrative convenience. It carries out the orders of the centre without having any powers to make decisions. Thus, the local units only act as subordinate agents of the centre without any authority or autonomy.

3. Single legislature:
In a Unitary system of government there will be only one single supreme legislative assembly which makes laws for the whole country and are faithfully implemented by the local units.

4. Constitution may be written or unwritten:
The constitution, in a unitary government, may be written or unwritten as there is one single central authority wielding power all over the state without any other centres of power.

Question 27.
Discuss the essential elements of an ideal constitution.
The essentials of an ideal constitution are explained as below
1. It should be definite :
An ideal constitution should not be vague but clearly narrate the provisions which relates to the organization of the government. The principles should be precise and clarity.

2. It should be comprehensive:
An ideal constitution must be comprehensive enough to mention the functions of the government and rights, duties of the citizens. The constitution should not be too big but include all the information on the government.

3. Method of amendment:
An ideal constitution should possess the method of amendment. As the social condition of the people is going on change, the constitution must also undergoes change. It should represent the future needs of the future generation.

4. It should correspond to reality :
An ideal constitution should correspond to the real, conditions obtained within the state, otherwise, it cannot work properly.

Question 28.
List out the fundamental duties of Indian citizens.
The 42nd amendment has incorporated a number of fundamental duties.

  • Abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national flag and, national anthem.
  • Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
  • Defend the country and render national service.
  • Promote common brotherhood and harmony.
  • Value and preserve our composite culture.
  • Protect the natural environment.
  • Develop the scientific temper.
  • Strive towards excellence in all sphere.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 29.
Explain the different kinds of writs.
1. Habeas corpus: It is an order issued by the court to produce the person who has wrongly detained within 24 hours.

2. Mandamus: It is a command issued by the court to ask the government official for performing his duties.

3. Prohibition: It is issued by a higher court to lower court to prevent their exceeding jurisdiction.

4. Certiorari: It is issued by a higher court to lower court to transfer a case pending with the later in a case.

5. Quo – warranto: It is issued by a court to enquire into the legality of claim of a person to public office.

Question 30.
What are the powers and functions of the speaker of Loksabha?
The presiding officer of Loksabha is the Speaker who is elected from among the members along with the Deputy Speaker and stays in office till the life of the House i.e., 5 years. His primary task is to protect the dignity and decorum of the House and to see that the proceedings of the House are conducted in an orderly and a focused manner. He is the principal spokesperson of the House and must be impartial and even-handed in dealing as the custodian of the House.

In order to ensure impartiality, the speaker resigns his party membership in the election. The Deputy speaker discharges the duty even the office of the speaker falls vacant due to resignation, death or removal by a 2/3 majority of the total membership of the House or in the absence of the speaker. The salary of the speaker is determined by the parliament from time to time. The Speaker’s position in the House is one of dignity and authority.

  • All orders of the house are executed through the Speaker
  • Communication from the President is made known through the Speaker.
  • It is the power of the speaker to declare whether a bill is a money bill or not.
  • He enjoys the authority of interpreting the Rules of procedure and has the power to vote except in case of a tie.
  • No member can speak in the House without the permission of the speaker and it is the speaker who fixes the time limit for speech.
  • He presides over the Joint sittings of the parliament.
  • During discussions, the members must address the Chair.
  • In case of a tie, the speaker has the right to cast a vote.
  • Speaker’s decisions cannot be questioned in a court of law.

Question 31.
Explain the powers and functions of chief Minister.
The functions of the Chief Minister is so powerful that he is referred to as “the first among equals” (Primus intersperes). Article 164 of the constitution states that “there shall be a Council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister for the state”. The Chief Minister is elected from among the members of the majority party in Vidhana Sabha.

In case no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the Governor to pick the Chief Minister, who in his opinion will prove majority in a stipulated time. Traditionally, the Chief Minister should be from the Vidhana Sabha.

1. Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Chief Minister on assuming office is the formation of the Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy. However, nothing prevents the Chief Minister from picking anyone as minister from any party. The Chief Minister enjoys the authority to pick and choose his ministry because he is responsible for the efficiency and performance of the government.

2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is the allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavyweight portfolios such as Home, Revenue, Finance, Industry, Public works are to be given to key and heavyweights who enjoy clout and following among party worker. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. The Chief Minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.

3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister. The cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions.

The Chief Minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals. Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected. In the era of coalition politics, it is a challenge for the Chief Minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to chair a cabinet meeting full of divergent views, ideologies, and principles.

4. Leader of Vidhana Sabha:
Chief Minister is the leader of Vidhana Sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the state government are made by the Chief Minister. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to ensure that all bills brought before Vidhana Sabha for approval are passed.

And he has to defend the government on the floor of the house. Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Chief Minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Chief Minister has the power to guide and correct him.

5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The opposition parties lose their identity if they do not criticize the government. So to guard against it, the Chief Minister, as leader of the government has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of legislature.

6. Coordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Chief Minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Chief Minister is tested on this count.

A Chief Minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term. Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to mediate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill.The Chief Minister is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration.

Though each minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality. To maintain quality in administration, the Chief Minister will have to supervise it, not only gives him a general feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Chief Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.

7. Bridge between the Governor and the State Legislature:
The Chief Minister acts as a link between the Governor and state legislature in a parliamentary government. As all executive powers are vested in the hands of the Governor, the Chief Minister is duty-bound to keep the Governor informed about the decisions taken by the government.

Also, the Governor himself can call for any information from the government. The Chief Minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the advisor to the President. Whenever necessary the President will look forward for advice. For example, the Governor seeks the advice of the Chief Minister before dissolving Vidhana sabha.

8. Power of Dissolution:
The Vidhana sabha exists as long as the Chief Minister wishes because even before the expiry of 5 years term, Chief Minister may seek the dissolution of Vidhana sabha. The Vidhana sabha may be dissolved if deep differences surface within the government or within the ruling party or the government loses a motion of no confidence.

9. Power of Appointment:
Though civil appointments are made by the Governor, it is based on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 32.
Write about the significance of Judiciary.
It is the third branch of government, which settles disputes. It is there for administration of justice.

1. Regulation of Civic Behavior:
It is the responsibility of the judiciary that if anyone, however big and mighty, does not follow the rules and regulations prescribed by the constitution, he is liable for punishment depending upon the magnitude of crime.

2. Protection of rights and liberties:
The Judicial system is not meant to punish only the individuals and groups but also the government. If the government violates the rights of the people, people can go to a court of law and seek suitable relief. This upholds the principle that all are equal in the eye of law and all are treated alike.

3. Instill confidence of the people:
The people look up to the judiciary as a ‘neutral umpire’ deciding a case purely on merit but not on any other consideration. A common man looks up to judiciary as the ultimate lamp of justice. If the judiciary fails to stand up to the expectations of the people by being partisan to any influence or power, people stop believing not only the judiciary but also in the constitution – the fundamental law of the land. So, it is the responsibility of judiciary to make people trust the judiciary and importantly respect the constitution.

Question 33.
Write about the 74th constitutional amendment act.
The 74th constitutional amendment act which came into effect in 1993 can be explained as its provisions as below.

The state government can conduct the elections.
It ensures a firm relation between state government and urban local bodies with regards to taxation powers and revenue sharing.

  • It provides adequate reservation facilities to SG, ST, Backward class and women.
  • The state government has power to legislate about reservation in urban local bodies.
  • The members should elect directly by the residents who are living in urban area.
  • The tenure of the urban local bodies in 5 years.
  • Elections shall be held within 6 months from the date of dissolution.
  • Members of parliament and assembly are the ex-officio members of urban local bodies.
  • The state government can nominate 5 members to the urban local bodies.
  • The state government has power to prepare plan for economic and social development.
  • State finance commission has been established to review the finances of urban local bodies.

Question 34.
Explain the functions of Taluk panchayath.
The powers and functions of Taluk Panchayats are as below:

  • Preparation of annual plans and submit to Z.P.
  • Preparation of annual budget and report to Z.P.
  • Providing basic felicities to victims of natural calamities.
  • Promotion of agriculture and horticulture.
  • Ensuring overall development of the Taluk.
  • Constrictions and maintenances of roads, bridges, and buildings
  • Promotes poverty alienation programmes, literacy programmes.
  • Development of primary and secondary education.
  • Promoting the welfare of women children and physically handicapped.
  • Providing electric and water felicities.
  • Promoting animal husbandry, poultry and fisheries.
  • Promoting the welfare of SC, ST and backward class.
  • Regulating the markets in rural areas.
  • Conducting health and family welfare programmes.
  • Encouraging small irrigation programmes.

IV. Answer any Two of the following in 30 to 40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 35.
What is Dictatorial Government? Explain its features.
1. Absolute power:
Dictatorship is characterized by absolute power where the dictator controls the constitution. He can make and unmake laws. All the laws must originate from him and there is neither a limit on his tenure nor is he subjected to any other authority.

2. Based on Force:
Dictatorship stands on the twin pillars of force and coercion. The word of the dictator should be honored in letter and spirit. Any violation of the order may result in severe punishment or even death.

3. Totalitarian state:
Dictatorial regimes regulate and control all aspects of human existence. It provides security, basic necessities such as food, shelter and clothing, education and order in society. In totalitarian state’s individual personality is suppressed and all aspects of an individual are regimented and brought under the control of the state. The totalitarian approach is well summarized by Mussolini when he says: “Everything within the state, nothing above the state, nothing outside the State’’. Thus, the State is the central point around which all human activities must revolve.

4. One Nation one party:
In a dictatorship, for the whole state, there is only one constitution and the administration is managed by one single party and that is responsible for the whole state. Any kind of criticism of the party or the leadership is not tolerated. The distinct feature of dictatorship is its intolerance to criticism and new ideas.

5. No individual liberty:
In a dictatorship, individual freedom and liberty do not find place. Freedom of thought and expression is restricted.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 36.
Describe the powers and functions of the Vidhana sabha.
There is a legislative assembly for every state. The number of members depends upon the population of the state. But it can not have less than 60 and more than 500 members. The members are chosen by direct election by people of the state. The governor has been given the power to nominate one or two members of the Anglo Indian community legislative assembly is five years.The powers and functions of Vidhanasabha are as follows:

1. Legislative Functions:
The Legislative Assembly is entitled to pass laws on all subjects that fall under the state list such as police, public health, education, local-self governments, etc. Without the consent of the Vidhanasabha, no bill can become a law.

Though the Vidhanasabha is competent enough to make laws on subjects listed in the concurrent list along with the central legislature, if parliament passes a law contained in the concurrent list, the legislative assembly is not competent to pass a law on the same subject.However, some bills require the previous permission of the President before they are introduced in the state legislature.

In case of breakdown of constitutional machinery’ in a state or when the proclamation of emergency is in operation, parliament has the power of making laws on matters falling under the state list. In case of a conflict between state law and the law of the parliament, the law of the parliament shall supreme.

2. Financial Functions:
The Vidhanasabha enjoys total control over the finance of the state. No new tax can be levied or collected without the consent of the Vidhanasabha. The authority of the Vidhanasabha over Vidhanaparishad is strengthened by the fact that a Money bill or Financial bill can only originate in the Vidhanasabha and the Vidhanaparishad can at the most delay it by 14 days but cannot reject or amend the Bill.

The annual income-expenditure statement of the year the Budget must get the approval of the Vidhanasabha. Even year during March-April, the beginning of the financial year, it is the responsibility of the government to place the budget before the house and seek its approval.

3. Control over the Executive (Administration):
The Vidhanasabha enjoys direct control over the administration, as the executive is directly, collectively, responsible to the Vidhanasabha and remains in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the house. The members of the house can seek information from the government through questions and supplementary questions.

It is the responsibility of the ministers to clarify points raised by members and give a satisfactory explanation.Any attempt to lie or mislead the house is considered an offence against the house punishable under Contempt of the House.

The debating occasions such as the Question Hour, Adjournment motion, the Emergency Adjournment motion, the Zero Hour, the Cut motion, the Call-attention motion keeps the executive under constant check and the executive must be alert and ready with answers. However, ministers can ask for time to answer questions. The most effective weapon in the hands of the Vidhanasabha is the No-confidence motion, which can bring down a government.

4. Electoral Functions:
The members of the Vidhanasabha along with the members of the parliament constitute an electoral college to elect the President of India. They also take part in electing the members of Rajyasabha and also of the members of Legislative council.

5. Constituent Functions:
The state legislative assembly takes part in amending a few constitutional provisions. The Assembly does not initiate any amendment to constitution neither does it has such powers. But ratification of at least not less than half of the State legislative assemblies is necessary for amending certain provisions of the constitution. For instance, if there has to be an amendment made to electoral procedure of electing president of India then it has to be ratified by 1/2 of the states, which in turn is done by state legislative assemblies.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Explain the powers and functions of the president of India.
In the Parliamentary government, the position of the President is that of a respectful figure-head, representing the honor and dignity of the people of India. It has become a fashion to label the President as ‘a rubber stamp’, the impression is that he does nothing but signing bills brought before him. But there are occasions that offer scope for independent decisions. When no party enjoys a majority, the power to appoint Prime minister rests with the President (Article 75).

In case of sudden demise of Prime minister, if the party fails to elect its leader, at the earliest, President may appoint a person of his choice as the Prime minister. Importantly, if a government loses majority and recommends for the dissolution of the house (Lok sabha), it is purely power of the President to dissolve the parliament or not (Article 85).The powers and functions of the President are as follows:

1. Legislative Functions:
The legislative functions are detailed below:

a. To summon, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament.

b. The President enjoys the power to address the Parliament. It is normally done after general elections or the first session of the year. It is generally called Presidential speech. This inaugural speech outlines the objectives and priorities of the government.

c. In passing the bills, if a dead lock arises due to non-agreement between two houses . of the parliament, the President may call for joint session of both the houses.

d. The President may address Lok sabha or Rajya sabha or both any time and also may send a message to both the houses of parliament to look into a bill.

e. In the considered view of the President, if he is satisfied that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented, he may nominate 12 members to Rajva Sabha and 2 members to Lok sabha.

f. Prior permission of the President is essential while dealing with bills relating to formation of new states, alteration of boundaries and some special bills like the finance bills.

g. No bill can become a law without the assent of the President. He enjoys the power to withhold a bill. This power is called ‘Veto power”. However he cannot refuse his assent for finance bills. But he can withhold assent for a nonmoney bill. But if the same is resubmitted for signature even without changes, he cannot refuse to sign it.

h. The President enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the parliament is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the Parliament provided the same is ratified by the Parliament within 6 weeks of its passage. Otherwise it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void or zero.

KSEEB Solutions

2. Executive Functions:
The President is the administrative Head of the State and orders are executed in his name. Article 53 clearly states that the executive powers of the State must be vested in ‘the hands of the President’.

  • All accords and agreements carried out on behalf of the Government of India is done in the name of the President.
  • The President has the power to call for any information from the government.
  • The President appoints the Prime minister and the Council of minister on recommendation of the Prime minister.
  • The highest constitutional functionaries such as Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), Chief Election Commissioner (CEC), ChiefVigilance Commissioner (CVC) are appointed by the President.
  • The member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), National Human Right Commission (NHRC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and National Commission for Women (NCW) are appointed by the President.
  • The President enjoys the power of removing highest constitutional functionaries.The President can call for reports from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission, Linguistic Minorities Commission (LMC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and other commissions.

3. Financial powers:

  • It is the constitutional obligation of the President to see that the annual income expenditure statement. The budget is placed before the Parliament for approval.
  • Financial bills cannot be presented in the Parliament without the consent of the President.
  • The recommendation of the Finance Commissions and the Planning Commission are placed before the Parliament on orders of the President.
  • The members of the Finance Commission and Planning Commission are appointed by the President.

4. Judicial Powers:
a. The President enjoys the power of pardoning the sentence of a person declared an offender by the Supreme Court. He is so powerful that he can reduce change or altogether cancel the punishment. This power is called Presidential Pardon. This is provided to ensure any miscarriage of justice (Article 72).

b. The Judges of the Supreme Court and High court are appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

c. The President is entitled to legal advice on matters relating to the constitutional clarity of bills. However, it is not binding on the President to accept it.

5.Military Powers:
President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. President has the power to declare war or peace, but parliamentary approval is essential for such a decision. The President can raise funds for training and preservation of armed forces with prior approval of the Parliament. The Chiefs of Army, Navy, and Air force are appointed by the President.

6. Diplomatic Powers:
a. The diplomatic powers of the President are purely symbolic in nature. The President represents the country in international affairs. His visits are of courtesy nature aimed at strengthening bilateral relations; he does not sign any treaties or agreements.

b. The ambassadors representing the country abroad are appointed by the President.

c. The foreign ambassadors are received by the President. No person can be considered an ambassador unless he is given the ‘Letter of Accreditation’ by the president.

7. Emergency Powers:
The emergency powers of the President are enumerated in the constitution from Article 352 to Article 360. The President may declare emergency under three circumstances:

a. The President may declare internal emergency under Article 352, if, in his opinion, there is a threat to India’s security due to war or external aggression.

b. The President may impose ‘President’s Rule’ under Article 356 if he is convinced that in that particular state the law and order has completely deteriorated and it cannot be governed as per the constitution. Though the President’s rule is imposed on the recommendation of the governor of the concerned state, it is not compulsory.

c. If the President is convinced that the financial stability and prestige of the nation is at risk, he may impose financial emergency under Article 360.

However, the imposition of internal and financial emergency should be placed before Parliament and its consent taken within 2 months of the declaration of emergency, otherwise, it is considered invalid.

Question 38.
How is independence of the judiciary ensured? Explain the measures.
In order to ensure independence of judicial system in India, the following steps have been taken so that the judicial officers are not under pressure in discharging their duties.

a. The Constitution has made it obligatory on the part of the President to consult the Chief Justice of India in appointing a judge of Supreme Court. This not only makes the appointment non-political but also saves judiciary from the influence of the executive (the council of ministers).

b. A judge of the Supreme Court cannot be removed from office by the President at his will, but on a motion passed by a two-third majority of the total membership of either house addressed to him. Thus, the legislative control over the executive ensures judicial independence.

c. A judge of the Supreme Court, though appointed by the President on the advice of the council of ministers, does not hold office during the pleasure of the President, but based on good behavior. He can be removed only on charges of proven misbehavior or incapacity by a motion addressed to the President by the Parliament.

d. The salaries and allowances of the judges of the Supreme Court are determined by a law of parliament and is not subject to discussion. The salary and allowances of the judges cannot be reduced or varied to his disadvantage during his term of office. This means that he will not be in any way affected by any law made by the parliament since the day of his appointment.

e. The administrative expenses of the Supreme court, the salaries, and allowances of the judges and staff are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI), a corpus fund of Rs. 50 crore which may be enhanced from time to time, and it can not be voted in parliament. Discussion of the conduct of the judges of the Supreme Court is not allowed in parliament except during removal of a judge This gives immunity from criticism.

f. A judge of the Supreme Court is not permitted to practice in any court in India after retirement. This prevents him from falling prey to temptations. To boost accountability in the judicial system, the Central Information Commission (CIC) has brought the office of the Chief Justice under the purview of the Right to Information Act (RTI).

IV. Answer any Two of the following in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 39
Explain the standing committees of purasabha.
The Standing committees of Pura Sabha are

  • Taxation, Finance and Appeal committee.
  • Basic health, Education and Social justice committee.
  • Tour planning and Improvement committee.
  • Accounts and Audit committee.

Financial Sources

  • Taxes on assets, water, professions, and advertisements.
  • Rents from markets, complexes, and other properties.
  • Grants and contributions from the State government.
  • Income collected for providing drainage and sanitary facilities.
  • Loans raised from the public with government approval.


KSEEB Solutions

Write about the life and achievements of a local politician.
One of the most popular and familiar leader of a state which is also called as local politician is siddaramaiah. He is a leader of Backward class and Ahinda organisation. Mr. Siddaramaiah after assuming the power as chief Minister of Karnataka implemented so many plans and programmes for the welfare of depressed class and backward class. His main programmes are Anna Bhagya.

Ksheera Bhagya, Shaadi Bhagya, Arogya Bhagya, Anila Bhagya, Maatru Pooma Scheme, manaswini scheme, mythri scheme, All these schemes are relatede to below poverty line, farmers, minorities, farmers and sexual minorities. Siddaramaiah has taken drastic decision to uplift the Ahinda community expecially minorities in the society. He waived the crops loans of farmers recently.

Question 40.
Write a note on Economic liberty.
Economic liberty means security and the Opportunity to find the earning of one’s daily bread. Individual should be free from constant fear of unemployment, underemployment, and starvation.

State has to provide all its citizens adequate means of livelihood. It implies democracy in industry that is in the absence of this liberty worker has to work at the behest of others. This is secured through economic liberty.


Write about the independence Day celebration in your college.
Write about the independence day celebration in your college. Independence day is an important national festival in all over India. Previous day all the students cleaned and decorated the college campus by the guidance of lecturers. They tied buntings and colour papers with colourful rangoli. On the independence day, guests are invited by the students with flowers. Our college principal presided over the function.

Firstly national flag was hoisted by the chief guest with national anthem. One of the lecturers proposes welcome speech. Guests highlighted the values of the great ideal of our freedom fighters, cultural programmes attracted the students. Our principal delivers presidential address. One of the leaders of student proposes vote of thanks. Finally. sweets are distributed.