1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 7 Executive

You can Download Chapter 7 Executive Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 1st PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 7 Executive

1st PUC Political Science Executive One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is executive?
Answer:
The executive is the second important branch of the government. It enforces the laws enacted by the legislature.

Question 2.
What is the term of office of the President?
Answer:
5 years.

Question 3.
Who appoints the Prime Minister of India?
Answer:
The President of India.

Question 4.
Who is Ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The vice president is an Ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha.

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Question 5.
What are the terms of office of the Governor?
Answer:
5 years.

Question 6.
Who appoints Chief Minister of a state?
Answer:
Governor appoints Chief Minister of a state.

Question 7.
Who appoints the Governor?
Answer:
President.

Question 8.
Who appoints the Chief Justice of India?
Answer:
President appoints the Chief Justice of India.

Question 9.
What is the term of Vice President of India?
Answer:
The term of the Vice President of India is 5 years.

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Question 10.
Who appoints the Chiefs of defence forces in India?
Answer:
President appoints the Chiefs of defence forces in India.

Question 11.
What is the primary function of the executive?
Answer:
Execution of laws is the primary function of executive.

Question 12.
Define parliamentary executive.
Answer:
In a parliamentary executive, executive is the part of legislature.

Question 13.
Define Presidential Executive.
Answer:
It is not chosen by legislature. The people directly elect him and he is not responsible to the legislatue. Best example: President of USA.

Question 14.
What is collective responsibility?
Answer:
It means in Parliamentary executive, executive is responsible to the legislative. The Prime Minister and Council Ministers are collectively responsible and answerable to the legislature.

Question 15.
What is no-confidence motion?
Answer:
The Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers remain in power so long as they continue to enjoy the confidence of majority members of the Parliament.
The power of the legislature to remove the ministers is called the power of no-confidence motion.

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Question 16.
What is veto power?
Answer:
The power of the President to send back the bill passed by the legislature when it is sent to President’s approval.

Question 17.
What is ordinance?
Answer:
The power of the President to pass laws when the Parliament is not in session is called ordinance.

Question 18.
What is impeachment?
Answer:
The President can be removed from office for grave misconduct by a special trial conducted by Parliament is called impeachment.

Question 19.
Who appoints the Central/State Ministers?
Answer:
The President appoints the Council of Ministers with the advice of the Prime Minister. Governor appoints the Council of Ministers in a state with the advice of the Chief Minister.

Question 20.
Who is the nominal executive in India?
Answer:
President is the nominal executive in India.

Question 21.
Who is the real executive in India?
Answer:
Prime Minister.

Question 22.
Who is the leader of the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
Prime Minister.

Question 23.
What is meant by Permanent Executive?
Answer:
It implies Civil Service, Government officials in Civil Service.

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Question 24.
Who appoints the Prime Minister?
Answer:
President.

Question 25.
Who acts as a bridge between President and Parliament?
Answer:
Prime Minister.

Question 26.
Who is the Head of the State Executive?
Answer:
Governor.

Question 27.
Which state has the right to draft its own constitution?
Answer:
Jammu and Kashmir.

Question 28.
Who is the leader of the government?
Answer:
Prime Minister.

Question 29.
Who acts as a bridge between Governor and legislature?
Answer:
Chief Minister.

1st PUC Political Science Executive Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Give the meaning of Executive.
Answer:
As organ which enforce the laws and implement the policies of the government is called executive. It is a 2nd organ of the government.

Question 2.
What are the qualifications required for the President of India?
Answer:
Qualifications:

  • Must be a citizen of India
  • Must have attained the age of 35 years
  • Must have attained all qualifications that of a member of Lok sabha.
  • Should not hold an office of profit – national, state or local.
  • Should not be of unsound mind or an insolvent or bankrupt
  • Should abide by the constitution.

Question 3.
Write a note on the Vice-President of India.
Answer:
The Constitution of India provides for a Vice-President of India. The term of his office is five years. The Vice-President is ex-officio chairman of Rajya Sabha. He officiates as President in the absence of President.

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Question 4.
What are the qualifications necessary for Governor?
Answer:
Qualifications:
A Citizen to become a Governor must have the following qualifications:

  • Must be a citizen of India.
  • Should have attained the age of 35 years.
  • Must not be a member of either house of the state legislature.
  • Should not hold an office of profit – national, regional, or local.
  • Must not be insolvent or bankrupt.
  • Should be loyal to the constitution.

Question 5.
Name the three types of emergencies which the president can promulgate.
Answer:

  1. National emergency (Art, 352)
  2. Presidential rule (Art, 356)
  3. Financial emergency (Art, 360)

Question 6.
What are the qualifications required to become Vice President of India?
Answer:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. Should have completed 35 years of age.
  3. Should be qualified to contest an election of Rajyasabha.
  4. Should not hold office of profit under the Union/State Government.

Question 7.
Who participates in the election of the president of India?
Answer:
Elected members of both the houses of parliament and elected members of all the state assemblies in the country participate in the election of the president of India.

Question 8.
What should be the strength of the council of Minister in Loksabha?
Answer:
The total member of ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Loksabha.

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Question 9.
What should be the strength of the council of Ministers in the State Assembly?
Answer:
The total member of ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the State Assembly.

Question 10.
What are the financial function of the Governor?
Answer:
Governor supervises in the introduction of budget. He can give assent to the demand for grants.

Question 11.
How is the Vice-President of India elected?
Answer:
The Vice-President of the Indian Union is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both the Houses of Parliament.

Question 12.
How many types of executives are there?
Answer:
There are 4 types :

  1. Nominal and Real Executive
  2. Single and Plural Executive.
  3. Political and Permanent.
  4. Parliamentary and Non-parliamentary Executive.

Question 13.
Who are permanent executives?
Answer:
Government or Civil Servants are permanent executives. They are appointed On the basis of merit. They don’t belong to any political party. They continue in office till their age of retirement.

Question 14.
Write the importance of executive.
Answer:
The executive is the most important organ of Government No state can exist without the executive. It occupies a pivotal position in a governmental organisation.

Question 15.
Distinguish between political and administrative executives.
Answer:
Political executive is an elected executive. It changes from time to time. They come and go whereas, administrative or permanent executive are appointed by the government.

Question 16.
Distinguish between single and plural executives.
Answer:
In single, the power will be in the hands of one individual, e.g. President of the USA. In a plural executive, the final authority rests in the body of individuals, e.g. Collegiate executive in the USSR.

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Question 17.
What is the cabinet?
Answer:
It consists of senior ministers holding cabinet rank. It is a small group, which meets regularly.

Question 18.
Write a note on Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is executive head of State. He is appointed by President of India. He is constitutional head of State and hence exercises his powers on advice of his Council of Ministers.

Question 19.
Write a note on Chief Minister.
Answer:
He is the leader of the majority party and Chairman of the State Council of Ministers. He occupies a position in the state very similar to that of the Prime Minister.

Question 20.
What is Veto Power?
Answer:
President has the power to withhold a bill, by refusing to give his assent. This power is called ‘Veto power’.

Question 21.
What do you mean by Coalition Government?
Answer:
When there is a hung parliament, two or more parties join together to get the working majority and form the government.

Question 22.
What is an Ordinance?
Answer:
The power of the executive to issue orders when the parliament is not in session is called as Ordinance. In India the President enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the parliament is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the Parliament provided the same is ratified by the Parliament within 6 weeks from the date of the ordinance. Otherwise, it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void or zero.

Question 23.
What is Impeachment?
Answer:
The President can be removed from office by the process called ‘Impeachment’ on grounds Qf proven misbehavior and inefficiency. The motion for impeachment can be initiated in either house of parliament. However, before impeaching the President 14 days advance notice must be given of the said cause. If the motion of impeachment is taken up by Loksabha, Rajyasabha will sit in judgement and vice versa. If the motion is sustained by a 2/3 majority of members present and voting, the President stands impeached and shall leave office.

1st PUC Political Science Executive Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Briefly explain the significance of Executive.
Answer:
1. Rule implementation:
Rulemaking and rule implementation are two faces of the same coin. Good the laws, if not properly implemented has no relevance. The executive plays an important role in reaching the laws to the people.

2. Concept of welfare state:
Modem states are welfare states involving in every sphere of human activity. With ever widening scope of the government activity, the role of the executive has also increased many-fold.

3. Symbol of national prestige:
The executive reflects the prestige of a nation. A resourceful and visionary executive can work wonders for people and the country.

Question 2.
Explain the method of election to the office of the president of India.
Answer:
The president of India is elected by the electoral college which consists of the elected member of the both houses of parliament and elected members of the state assemblies and the union territories.

The candidature for the election of president is to propose by atleast 50 members. Rs. 15,000 has to be deposited by the presidential candidate in the Reserve Bank, the election of the president is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. The voting takes place by secret ballet system. In the presidential election, the total number of votes cast of member of parliament equals the total member of votes cast by state legislators.

The voters voting in this election should suggest their preferences by writing the members before the name of the candidates in their preferential order. The candidate who secures the required quoto will be elected as a president and shall take oath of office before the chief justice of the Supreme Court.

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Question 3.
Describe the Legislative powers of the President.
Answer:
Powers and functions of the president of India are as follows:
In the Parliamentary government, the position of the President is that of a respectful figurehead, representing the honor and dignity of the people of India. It has become a fashion to label the President as “a rubber stamp’, the impression is that he does nothing but signing bills brought before him. But there are occasions that offer scope for independent decisions. When no party enjoys a majority, the power to appoint Prime minister rests with the President (Ar- tide 75).

In case of sudden demise of Prime minister, if the party fails to elect its leader, at the earliest, President may appoint a person of his choice as the Prime minister. Importantly, if a government loses majority and recommends for the dissolution of the house (Lok sabha), it is purely power of the President to dissolve the parliament or not (Article 85).

The powers and functions of the President are as follows:
1.Legislative Functions: The legislative functions are detailed below

  1. To summon, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament.
  2. The President enjoys the power to address the Parliament. It is normally done after general elections or the first session of the year. It is generally called Presidential speech. This inaugural speech outlines the objectives and priorities of the government.
  3.  In passing the bills, if a deadlock arises due to non-agreement between two houses of the parliament, the President may call for a joint session of both the houses.
  4. The President may address Lok sabha or Rajya sabha or both any time and also may send a message to both the houses of parliament to look into a bill.
  5. In the considered view of the President, if he is satisfied that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented, he may nominate 12 members to Rajya Sabha and 2 members to Lok sabha.
  6. Prior permission of the President is essential while dealing with bills relating to the formation of new states, alteration of boundaries and some special bills like the finance bills.
  7. No bill can become a law without the assent of the President. He enjoys the power to withhold a bill. This power is called ‘Veto power’. However, he cannot refuse his assent for finance bills. But he can withhold assent for a nonmoney bill. But if the same is resubmitted for signature even without changes, he cannot refuse to sign it.
  8. The President enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the parliament is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the Parliament provided the same is ratified by the Parliament within 6 weeks of its passage. Otherwise, it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void or zero.

Question 4.
Explain the executive powers of the President.
Answer:
The President is die administrative Head of the State and orders are executed in his name. Article 53 clearly states that ‘the executive powers of the State must be vested in the hands of the President’.

  1. All accords and agreements carried out on behalf of the Government of India is done in the name of the President.
  2. The President has the power to call for any information from the government.
  3. The President appoints the Prime minister and the Council of the minister on the recommendation of the Prime minister.
  4. The highest constitutional functionaries such as Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), Chief Election Commissioner (CEC), Chief Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) are appointed by the President.
  5. The member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and National Commission for Women (NCW) are appointed by the President.
  6. The President enjoys the power of removing the highest constitutional functionaries.
  7. The President can call for reports from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission, Linguistic Minorities Commission (EMC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and other commissions.

Question 5.
Explain the emergency powers of President.
Answer:

  1. The President may declare internal emergency under Article 352, if, in his opinion, there is a threat to India’s security due to war or external aggression.
  2. The President may impose ‘President’s Rule’ under Article 356 if he is convinced that in that particular state the law and order have completely deteriorated and it cannot be governed as per the constitution. Though the President’s rule is imposed on the recommendation of the governor of the concerned state, it is not compulsory.
  3. If the President is convinced that the financial stability and prestige of the nation are at risk, he may impose a financial emergency under Article 360. However, the imposition of internal and financial emergency should be placed before Parliament and its consent was taken within 2 months of the declaration of emergency, otherwise, it is considered invalid.

Question 6.
Explain the functions of the vice president of India.
Answer:
The functions of the vice president are explained as below.
1. Ex – Officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha :
The vice president of India performs as an ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He is empowered to preside over the meetings of Rajya Sabha. He can adjourn the house or suspend its sitting in the event of the absence of a quorum.

2. Acting President of India:
The vice president is permitted to work as an acting president when the office of the president is vacant by reason of death, resignation, removal. At that time the vice president can claim all the benefits of the office of the president. He will be in that office until a new president is elected:

Question 7.
Explain the role of Prime Minister in India.
Answer:
The power and position of Prime minister is so powerful that he is referred to as The first among equals (primus intersperes). Lord Morley regards Prime minister as “the keystone of the cabinet arch.” Former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson considered Prime Minister as “a person who conducts an orchestra without using any instrument”. The greatest ever British Prime minister R.A.Butler once said, “A Prime minister must be a good butcher, and know all the joints.”

  • Article 74 of the constitution states that “there shall be a Council of ministers headed by the Prime Minister for the Union of India”. The Prime minister is elected from among the members of the majority party in Lok sabha. In case no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the President to pick the Prime minister, who in his opinion will prove majority in a stipulated time. Traditionally, the Prime minister should be from Loksabha. Some scholars compare the Prime minister to the Sun because complete administration revolves around him. B. R. Ambedkar compares the powers of Prime minister to that of the President of U.S.A,

The success or failure of a Prime minister largely depends upon the personality besides administrative knowledge and experience. For example, Nehru was known for his magnetic personality, Shastri for his soft-spoken, but firm nature, Mrs. Gandhi for ‘never forget or forgive enemies’ attitude and Rajiv Gandhi was progressive but parasitic. P. V Narasimha Rao always regarded not making any decision as to the best decision, whereas Vajpayee was emotional.

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Question 8.
Briefly explain the powers and functions of the Prime minister of India.
Answer:
The powers and function of the Prime minister are detailed below:
1. Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Prime minister on assuming office is the formation of the Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy. However, nothing prevents Prime minister from picking anyone as minister.

2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is the allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavyweight portfolios such as Home, Defence, Finance, Commerce and Industry, External affairs, etc., are to be given to party heavyweights who enjoy a good clout and following among the party workers. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. Prime minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.

3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Prime minister. The Cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of the Prime minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions. The Prime minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals. Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected.

In the era of coalition politics, it is a challenge for the Prime minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to chair a Cabinet full of divergent views, ideologies, and principles. For example, for the last fifteen years, we are a witness to pulls and pressures exerted on the Prime minister from different alliance partners.

4. Leader of Lok Sabha:
Prime minister is the leader of Lok sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the government are made by the Prime minister. It is the responsibility of the Prime minister to ensure that all bills brought before Lok sabha for approval are passed. And he has to defend the government on the floor of the house.

Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Prime minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Prime minister has the power to guide and correct him.

5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The Prime minister, as leader of the government, has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of parliament.

6. Coordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Prime minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances, it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Prime minister is tested on this count. A Prime minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term.

Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to mediate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill. The Prime minster is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration. Though each Minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality.

To maintain quality in administration, the Prime minister will have to supervise. It not only gives him a general feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Prime Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.

7.Bridge between the President and the Parliament:
The Prime minister acts as a link between President and Parliament In a parliamentary government. As all executives powers are vested in the hands of the President, the Prime minister is duty-bound to keep the President informed about the decisions taken by the government. Also, the President himself can call for any information from the government.

The Prime minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the advisor to the President. Whenever necessary the President will look forward for advice. For example, the President seeks the advice of Prime minister before dissolving Lok sabha.

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Question 9.
Explain the powers and functions of Union Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The powers and functions of the cabinet is as follows:
1. Formulation of Policy:
The primary responsibility of Cabinet is formulating the policy of the government. The decisions arrived at the Cabinet reflects the national and international outlook of the government. Before the start of the parliament session, the cabinet makes a list of bills to be placed before the house for consideration and approval. No minister can place any bill in the parliament without the approval of the cabinet.

The bills so placed before the parliament for approval must be strongly defended by the – cabinet. The members of parliament can comment, criticize, and seek clarifications, from
the government on any bill. Thus, from shaping the policy to defending it, cabinet plays a key role.

2. Control over the Executive:
All the ministers who are a part of the government belong to the executive. Each minister having assumed responsibility of a ministry is wholly responsible for any happening in that particular ministry. Hence all ministers must strive hard to implement the cabinet decisions. If any minister violates the cabinet decisions he may be fired for violating the party unity. The cabinet apart from the ministers also directs and supervises the activities of the civil service.

3. Control over the Finance:
The cabinet is responsible to the income and expenditure incurred by the state, though the responsibility of the preparing the annual income expenditure statement the budget lies with the Finance minister. In order to ensure secrecy,
the cabinet does not discuss the budget proposal.

Generally, the Prime minister also plays an important part in budget making, so the budget proposal are discussed between the Prime minister and the finance minister. The content of the budget are not made known to cabinet till the Finance minister’s budget speech. Once the budget is placed before the parliament, the cabinet can discuss and seek changes if necessary. Though the cabinet has the authority to reject the budget in its entirety, it is hardly done. Because it amounts to an insult to the government.

4. Co-ordination:
To co-ordinate the activities of different ministries or departments and guide them is the responsibility of the cabinet. Generally, working of one department will have its effect on the other. For example if two ministries work out an ambitious project calling for huge investment, the feasibility of its has to be decided by the finance ministry which holds the purse. Under these circumstances the cabinet has to strike a balance between the two and release money on priority basis. To co-ordinate governmental activities there are Secretarial Committees at the ministerial level headed by the Cabinet Secretary. Under his chairmanship these committees suggest means of coordination.

5. Control over appointments:
Generally, appointments do not come before the cabinet. But all major appointments such as the Governor, the Chiefs of Staff (army, navy, air force), Chief Election Commissioner, etc., are brought to notice of the cabinet before made public. The consent of the cabinet to these appointments is only a formality.

Question 10.
Explain the powers and functions of the council of ministers of a State.
Answer:
The Cabinet referred to as the ‘Wheel within a wheel’, ‘the magnet of policy’ is the most powerful decision making organ of the government. The Cabinet normally meets once in a week though it can meet whenever necessary, under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister. All decisions are taken based on debate and dialogue. The Cabinet being the highest decision making body, all ministers must abide by its decisions. In case of difference of opinion on a Cabinet decision, a minister must quit his post, as he is not allowed to criticize the cabinet decisions being a party to it.

The Cabinet makes decisions for the whole state. So, obviously, its work load and responsibilities are varied and diverse. In order to make things convenient Cabinet committees are formed. The committees such as Political Affairs Committee, Economic Affairs Committee, will look in to the respective departments and gather necessary’ information, which help in decisionmaking. These committees may be temporary or permanent depending upon the task on hand.

1. Formulation of policy:
The primary responsibility of cabinet is formulating the policy of the government. The decisions arrived at cabinet reflects the state’s outlook of the government. Before the start of Legislative assembly session, the cabinet makes a list of bills to be placed before the house for consideration and approval. No minister can place any bill in the assembly without the approval of cabinet. The bills so placed before the legislature for approval must be strongly defended by the cabinet; the members of legislature can comment, criticize and seek clarifications from the government on any bill. Thus from shaping the policy to defending it, cabinet plays a key role.

2. Control over the executive:
All the ministers who are a part of the government belong to the executive. Each minister having assumed responsibility of a ministry is wholly responsible for any happening in that particular ministry. Hence all ministers must strive hard to implement the Cabinet decisions. If any Minister violates the Cabinet decisions, he may be fired for violating the party unity. The cabinet apart from the ministers also directs and supervises the activities of the civil service.

3. Control over the finance:
The cabinet is responsible to the income and expenditure incurred by the state, though the responsibility of the preparing the annual income expenditure statement the budget lies with the Finance minister. In order to ensure secrecy, the cabinet does not discuss the budget proposal.

Generally, the Chief Minister also plays an important part in budget making, so the budget proposals are discussed between the Chief Minister and the finance minister. The content of the budget are not made known to cabinet till the Finance minister’s budget speech. Once the budget is placed before the state legislature, the cabinet can discuss and seek changes if necessary’. Though cabinet has the authority to reject the budget in its entirety, it is hardly done. Because, it amounts to an insult to the government.

4. Co-ordination:
To co-ordinate the activities of different ministries or departments and guide them is the responsibility of the cabinet. Generally, working of one department will have its effect on the other. For example, if two ministries work out an ambitious project calling for huge investment, the Feasibility of it has to be decided by the finance ministry, which holds the purse. Under these circumstances, the cabinet has to strike a balance between the two and release money on priority basis.

To co-ordinate governmental activities there are Secretarial Committees at the ministerial level headed by the Cabinet Secretary. Under his chairmanship these committees suggest means cc co-ordination. 5. Control over appointments: Generally, appointments do not come before the cabinet. But all major appointments such as the Governor are brought to notice of the cabinet before made public. The consent of the cabinet to these appointments is only a formality.

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Question 11.
Explain the discretionary powers of Governor.
Answer:
The discretionary powers of the Governor are as follows:

  1. In appointing the Chief Minister if no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the Governor to call any person to form the government and prove his majority.
  2. On the recommendation of the Chief Minister, Governor can sack any minister (Article 1 64).
  3. If the Governor believes that the government has lost majority or if the Chief Minister having lost majority does not resign or if the government is using unethical means for political gains, under these circumstances he can dissolve the Council of ministers. (‘Article 174).
  4. The Governor can return a bill back to legislature for reconsideration.
  5. The Governor can reserve certain bills passed by the state legislature for consideration of the President (Article 200).
  6. Before issuing an ordinance, the Governor can receive directions from the President.
  7. If the Governor is satisfied that a situation-has arisen in which the government cannot be run according to provision of the constitution he may request the President to take over the state administration under Article 356. This is called President’s rule’. The report sent by the Governor to President must be kept confidential from the Council of ministers.

Question 12.
Explain the functions of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
The functions of the Chief Minister is so powerful that he is referred to as “the first among equals” (Primus intersperes). Article 164 of the constitution states that “there shall be a Council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister for the state”. The Chief Minister is elected from among the members of the majority party in Vidhana Sabha. In case no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the Governor to pick the Chief Minister, who in his opinion will prove majority in a stipulated time. Traditionally, the Chief Minister should be from the Vidhana Sabha.

1. Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Chief Minister on assuming office is the formation of the Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy. However, nothing prevents the Chief Minister from picking anyone as minister from any party. The Chief Minister enjoys the authority to pick and choose his ministry because he is responsible for the efficiency and performance of the government.

2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is the allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavyweight portfolios such as Home, Revenue, Finance, Industry, Public works are to be given to key and heavyweights who enjoy clout and following among party worker. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. The Chief Minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.

3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister. The cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions. The Chief Minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals. Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected. In the era of coalition politics, it is a challenge for the Chief Minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to chair a cabinet meeting full of divergent views, ideologies and principles.

4. Leader of Vidhana Sabha:
Chief Minister is the leader of Vidhana Sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the state government are made by the Chief Minister. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to ensure that all bills brought before Vidhana sabha for approval are passed. And he has to defend the government on the floor of the house. Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Chief Minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Chief Minister has the power to guide and correct him.

5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The opposition parties lose their identity if they do not criticize the government. So to guard against it, the Chief Minister, as leader of the government has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of legislature.

6. Coordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Chief Minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Chief Minister is tested on this count. A Chief Minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term. Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to mediate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill.

The Chief Minister is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration. Though each minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality. To maintain quality in administration, the Chief Minister will have to supervise it, not only gives him a general feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Chief Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.

7. Bridge between the Governor and the State Legislature:
The Chief Minister acts as a link between the Governor and state legislature in a parliamentary government. As all executive powers are vested in the hands of the Governor, the Chief Minister is duty-bound to keep the Governor informed about the decisions taken by the government.

Also, the Governor himself can call for any information from the government. The Chief Minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the advisor to the President. Whenever necessary the President will look forward for advice. For example, the Governor seeks the advice of the Chief Minister before dissolving Vidhana sabha.

8. Power of Dissolution:
The Vidhana sabha exists as long as the Chief Minister wishes because even before the expiry of 5 years term, Chief Minister may seek the dissolution of Vidhana sabha. The Vidhana sabha may be dissolved if deep differences surface within the government or within the ruling party or the government loses a motion of no confidence.

9. Power of Appointment:
Though civil appointments are made by the Governor, it is based on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Write a short note on Cabinet.
Answer:
The Cabinet is referred to as the ‘wheel within a wheel’, ‘the magnet of policy’ and the most powerful decision making organ of the government. The Cabinet normally meets once in a week though it can meet whenever necessary, under, the chairmanship of the Prime minister. All decisions are taken based on debate and dialogue. The Cabinet makes decisions for the whole nation. Its workload and responsibilities are varied and diverse.

In order to make things, convenient cabinet committees are formed. The committees such as, Foreign Affairs Committee, Defense Committee, Political Affairs Committee, Economic Affairs Committee, will look into the respective departments and gather necessary information, which helps in decisionmaking. These committees may be temporary or permanent depending upon the task on hand.

1st PUC Political Science Executive Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is executive? Explain its significance.
Answer:
The President is the administrative head of the State and orders are executed in his name.
Article 53 clearly states that ‘the executive powers of the State must be vested in the hands of the President’.

  1. All accords and agreements carried out on behalf of the Government of India is done in the name of the President.
  2. The President has the power to call for any information from the government.
  3. The President appoints the Prime minister and the Council of the minister on the recommendation of the Prime minister.
  4. The highest constitutional functionaries such as Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), Chief Election Commissioner (CEC), Chief Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) are appointed by the President.
  5. The member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). National Human Right Commission (NHRG), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and National Commission for Women (NCW) are appointed by the President.
  6. The President enjoys the power of removing highest constitutional functionaries.
  7. The President can call for reports from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission, Linguistic Minorities Commission (LMC), Backward Class Commis¬sion (BCC) and other commissions.

Question 2.
Explain the powers and functions of the President of India.
Answer:
In the Parliamentary government, the position of the President is that of a respectful figure-head, representing the honor and dignity of the people of India. It has become a fashion to label the President as ‘a rubber stamp’, the impression is that he does nothing but signing bills brought before him. But there are occasions that offer scope for independent decisions. When no party enjoys a majority, the power to appoint Prime minister rests with the President (Article 75).

In case of sudden demise of Prime minister, if the party fails to elect its leader, at the earliest, President may appoint a person of his choice as the Prime minister. Importantly, if a government loses majority and recommends for the dissolution of the house (Lok sabha), it is purely power of the President to dissolve the parliament or not (Article 85).
The powers and functions of the President are as follows:

1. Legislative Functions: The legislative functions are detailed below:

  1. To summon, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament.
  2. The President enjoys the power to address the Parliament. It is normally done after general elections or the first session of the year. It is generally called Presidential speech. This inaugural speech outlines the objectives and priorities of the government.
  3. In passing the bills, if a dead lock arises due to non-agreement between two houses . of the parliament, the President may call for joint session of both the houses.
  4. The President may address Lok sabha or Rajya sabha or both any time and also may send a message to both the houses of parliament to look into a bill.
  5. In the considered view of the President, if he is satisfied that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented, he may nominate 12 members to Rajva Sabha and 2 members to Lok sabha.
  6. Prior permission of the President is essential while dealing with bills relating to formation of new states, alteration of boundaries and some special bills like the finance bills.
  7. No bill can become a law without the assent of the President. He enjoys the power to withhold a bill. This power is called ‘Veto power”. However he cannot refuse his assent for finance bills. But he can withhold assent for a non money bill. But if the same is resubmitted for signature even without changes, he cannot refuse to sign it.
  8. The President enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the parliament is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the Parliament provided the same is ratified by the Parliament within 6 weeks of its passage. Otherwise it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void or zero.

2. Executive Functions:
The President is the administrative Head of the State and orders are executed in his name. Article 53 clearly states that the executive powers of the State must be vested in ‘the hands of the President’.

  1. All accords and agreements carried out on behalf of the Government of India is done in the name of the President.
  2. The President has the power to call for any information from the government.
  3. The President appoints the Prime minister and the Council of minister on recommendation of the Prime minister.
  4. The highest constitutional functionaries such as Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), Chief Election Commissioner (CEC), ChiefVigilance Commissioner (CVC) are appointed by the President.
  5. The member of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), National Human Right Commission (NHRC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and National Commission for Women (NCW) are appointed by the President.
  6. The President enjoys the power of removing highest constitutional functionaries.
  7. The President can call for reports from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission, Linguistic Minorities Commission (LMC), Backward Class Commission (BCC) and other commissions.

3. Financial powers:

  1. It is the constitutional obligation of the President to see that the annual income expenditure statement. The budget is placed before the Parliament for approval.
  2. Financial bills cannot be presented in the Parliament without the consent of the President.
  3. The recommendation of the Finance Commissions and the Planning Commission are placed before the Parliament on orders of the President.
  4. The members of the Finance Commission and Planning Commission are appointed by the President.

4. Judicial Powers:

  1. The President enjoys the power of pardoning the sentence of a person declared an offender by the Supreme Court. He is so powerful that he can reduce change or altogether cancel the punishment. This power is called Presidential Pardon. This is provided to ensure against any miscarriage of justice (Article 72).
  2. The Judges of the Supreme Court and High court are appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India.
  3. The President is entitled to legal advice on matters relating to the constitutional clarity of bills. However, it is not binding on the President to accept it.

5.Military Powers:

  1. President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
  2. President has the power to declare war or peace, but parliamentary approval is essential for such a decision.
  3. The President can raise funds for training and preservation of armed forces with prior approval of the Parliament.
  4. The Chiefs of Army, Navy, and Air force are appointed by the President.

6. Diplomatic Powers:
The diplomatic powers of the President are purely symbolic in nature.

  1. The President represents the country in international affairs. His visits are of courtesy nature aimed at strengthening bilateral relations; he does not sign any treaties or agreements.
  2. The ambassadors representing the country abroad are appointed by the President.
  3. The foreign ambassadors are received by the President. No person can be considered an ambassador unless he is given the ‘Letter of Accreditation’ by the president.

7. Emergency Powers:
The emergency powers of the President are enumerated in the constitution from Article 352 to Article 360. The President may declare emergency under three circumstances:

  1. The President may declare internal emergency under Article 352, if, in his opinion, there is a threat to India’s security due to war or external aggression.
  2. The President may impose ‘President’s Rule’ under Article 356 if he is convinced that in that particular state the law and order has completely deteriorated and it cannot be governed as per the constitution. Though the President’s rule is imposed on the recommendation of the governor of the concerned state, it is not compulsory.
  3. If the President is convinced that the financial stability and prestige of the nation is at risk, he may impose financial emergency under Article 360.

However, the imposition of internal and financial emergency should be placed before Parliament and its consent taken within 2 months of the declaration of emergency, otherwise, it is considered invalid.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Write a note on the Wee President of India.
Answer:
1. Ex – Officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha :
The vice president of India performs as an ex – officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He is empowered to preside over the meetings of Rajya Sabha. He can adjourn the house or suspend its sitting in the event of the absence of a quorum.

2. Acting President of India:
The vice president is permitted to work as a acting president when the office of the president is vacant by reason of death, resignation, removal. At that time the vice president can claim all the benefits of the office of the president. He will be in that office until a new president is elected.

Question 4.
Explain the powers and functions of Prime Minister of India.
Answer:
The power and position of Prime minister is so powerful that he is referred to as The first among equals (primus intersperes). Lord Morley regards Prime minister as “the key stone of the cabinet arch.” Former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson considered Prime Minister as “a person who conducts an orchestra without using any instrument”. The greatest ever British Prime minister R.A.Butler once said, “A Prime minister must be a good butcher, and know all the joints.”

Article 74 of the constitution states that “there shall be a Council of ministers headed by the Prime Minister for the Union of India”, The Prime minister is elected from among the members of the majority party in Lok sabha. In case no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the President to pick the Prime minister, who in his opinion will prove majority in a stipulated time.

Traditionally, the Prime minister should be from Loksabha. Some scholars compare the Prime minister to the Sun because complete administration revolves around him. B. R. Ambedkar compares the powers of Prime minister to that of the President of U.S.A,

The success or failure of a Prime minister largely depends upon the personality besides administrative knowledge and experience. For example, Nehru was known for his magnetic personality, Shastri for his soft-spoken, but firm nature, Mrs. Gandhi for ‘never forget or forgive enemies’ attitude and Rajiv Gandhi was progressive but parasitic. P. V. Narasimha Rho always regarded not making any decision as the best decision, whereas Vajpayee was emotional.
The powers and function of the Prime minister are detailed below:

1.Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Prime minister on assuming office is the formation of the Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy However, nothing prevents Prime minister from picking any one as minister.

2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavy weight portfolios such as Home, Defence, Finance, Commerce and Industry, External affairs etc., are to be given to party heavy’ weights who enjoy a good clout and following among the party workers. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. Prime minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.

3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Prime minister. The Cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of Prime minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions. The Prime minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals. Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected.

In the era of coalition politics it is a challenge for the Prime minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to. chair,a Cabinet full of divergent views, ideologies and principles. For example, for the last fifteen years we are a witness to pulls and pressures exerted on the Prime mmister from different alliance partners.

4. Leader of Lok Sabha:
Prime minister is the leader of Lok sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the government are made by the Prime minister. It is the responsibility of the Prime minister to ensure that all bills brought before Lok sabha for approval are passed. And he has to defend the government on the floor of the bouse. Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Prime minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Prime minister has the power to guide and correct him.

5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The Prime minister, as leader of the government, has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of parliament.

6. Coordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Prime minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances, it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Prime minister is tested on this count. A Prime minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term. Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to mediate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill.

The Prime minster is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration. Though each Minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality. To maintain quality in administration, the Prime minister will have to supervise. It not only gives him a general feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Prime Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.

7. Bridge between the President and the Parliament:
The Prime minister acts as a link between President and Parliament In a parliamentary government. As all executives powers are vested in the hands of the President, the Prime minister is duty-bound to keep the President informed about the decisions taken by the government.

Also, the President himself can call for any information from the government. The Prime minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the advisor to the President. Whenever necessary the President will look forward for advice. For example, the President seeks the advice of Prime minister before dissolving Lok sabha.

8. Power of Dissolution:
The Lok sabha exists as long as Prime minister wishes because even before the expiry of 5 years term, Prime minister may seek the dissolution of Lok sabha. The Lok sabha is dissolved if deep differences surface within the government or within the ruling party or the government loses a motion of no confidence.

9. Power of Appointment:
Though civil, military, judicial and diplomatic appointments are made by the President it is based on the recommendation of the Prime minister. The highest constitutional position such as the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC), Chief Vigilance Commissioner (CVC), Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), the Judges of the Supreme court and the High courts, the Chiefs of army, navy, and air force, the diplomats etc., are appointed on the advice of the Prime minister.

10. Special Powers:
The foreign affairs, national security and on economic matters Prime minister enjoys a special position. As the whole world watches and listens to his words with the attention he has a special place.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Explain the powers and functions of Union Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The powers and functions of the cabinet is as follows:
1. Formulation of Policy:
The primary responsibility of Cabinet is formulating the policy of the government. The decisions arrived at the Cabinet reflects the national and international outlook of the government. Before the start of the parliament session, the cabinet makes a list of bills to be placed before the house for consideration and approval. No minister can place any bill in the parliament without the approval of the cabinet.

The bills so placed before the parliament for approval must be strongly defended by the cabinet The members of parliament can comment, criticize, and seek clarifications, from the government on any bill. Thus, from shaping the policy to defending it, the cabinet plays a key role.

2. Control over the Executive:
All the ministers who are a part of the government belong to the executive. Each minister having assumed responsibility of a ministry is wholly responsible for any happening in that particular ministry. Hence all ministers must strive hard to implement the cabinet decisions. If any minister violates the cabinet decisions he may be fired for violating the party unity. The cabinet apart from the ministers also directs and supervises the activities of the civil service.

3. Control over the Finance:
The cabinet is responsible to the income and expenditure incurred by the state, though the responsibility of the preparing the annual income expenditure statement the budget lies with the Finance minister. In order to ensure secrecy, the cabinet does not discuss the budget proposal.

Generally, the Prime minister also plays an important part in budget making, so the budget proposal are discussed between the Prime minister and the finance minister. The content of the budget are not made known to cabinet till the Finance minister’s budget speech. Once the budget is placed before the parliament, the cabinet can discuss and seek changes if necessary. Though the cabinet has the authority to reject the budget in its entirety, it is hardly done. Because it amounts to an insult to the government.

4. Co-ordination:
To co-ordinate the activities of different ministries or departments and guide them is the responsibility of the cabinet. Generally, working of one department will have its effect on the other. For example if two ministries work out an ambitious project calling for huge investment, the feasibility of its has to be decided by the finance ministry which holds the purse. Under these circumstances, the cabinet has to strike a balance between the two and release money on priority basis. To co-ordinate governmental activities there are Secretarial Committees at the ministerial level headed by the Cabinet Secretary. Under his chairmanship, these committees suggest means of coordination.

5. Control over appointments:
Generally, appointments do not come before the cabinet. But all major appointments such as the Governor, the Chiefs of Staff (army, navy, airforce), Chief Election Commissioner, etc., are brought to notice of the cabinet before made public. The consent of the cabinet to these appointments is only a formality.

Question 6.
Explain the powers and functions of the Governor of a State.
Answer:
Powers and functions of the Governor:
In the Parliamentary executive systems of India, the position of Governor is that of a respectful figure-head, representing the honour and dignity of the people of the states. It has become a fashion to label the Governor as a rubber stamp the impression is that he does nothing but signing the bills brought before him. But there are occasions that offer scope for independent decisions. When no party enjoys a majority, the power to appoint the Chief Minister rests with the governor.

In case of the sudden demise of the Chief Minister, if the party fails to elect its leader, at the earliest the Governor may appoint a person of his choice as the Chief Minister. Importantly if a government loses the majority, and recommends for the dissolution of the house (Vidhana sabha), it is purely left to the governor whether to dissolve or not.

1. The legislative functions are detailed below.

  1. To Summon the session, to Prorogue the session or dissolve the legislature.
  2. The Governor enjoys the power to address the legislature. It is normally done after general elections or the first session of the year. That is called “Governor’s speech”. This inaugural speech outlines the objectives and priorities of the government. Traditionally this speech is prepared by the cabinet but read by the Governor.
  3. In passing the bills, if a deadlock arises due to non-agreement between two houses of the legislature, the Governor may call for joint session of both the houses.
  4. The Governor may address either House of the state legislature or both any time and also may send a message to both the houses to settle an unsettled bill. But, however, no Governor so far has neither addressed the house nor sent messages.
  5. In the considered view of the Governor if he is satisfied that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented, he may nominate a member to Vidhana sabha.
  6. (vi) Governor must seek prior permission of the President while dealing with bills relating to formation of new states, alteration of state boundaries and some special bills like the finance bills.
  7. No bills can become a law without the assent of the Governor. He enjoys the power of withhold a bill. This power is called ‘Veto power’. However, he can’t refuse his assent for finance bills. But he can withhold assent for non-money bills. But if the same is resubmitted for signature, even without changes, he cannot refuse.
  8. The Governor enjoys the power of issuing Ordinance when the legislature is not in session. It will have the same power and effect similar to that of a law made by the state legislature provided the same is ratified by the legislature within 6 weeks of its. passage, otherwise it ceases to be a law and is considered null and void.

2. Executive Functions:
The Governor is the administrative head of the state and orders are executed in his name. Article 154 clearly states that “the executive powers of the state must be vested in the hands of the Governor”.

  1. All accords and agreements carried out on behalf of the government of state is done in the name of the Governor.
  2. The Governor has the power to call for any information from the government.
  3. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and the council of ministers on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.
  4. The member of the State Public Service Commission (SPSC), Backward Classes
    Commission (BCC) are appointed by the Governor.

3. Financial powers:
The following are the financial functions of the Governor.

  1. It is the constitutional obligation of the Governor to see that the annual income expenditure statement the budget is placed before state legislature for approval.
  2. Financial bills cannot be presented in state legislature without the consent of the Governor.
  3. The recommendations of the state finance commissions and the planning commission are placed before the legislature on orders of the Governor.
  4. The members of the Finance Commission and Planning Commission are appointed by the Governor.

4. Judicial Powers:

  1. The judicial powers of the Governor extends till the will of the state legislature extends,
  2. The Governor enjoys the power of pardoning the sentence of a person declared an offender by the High Court. He is so powerful that he can reduce change or altogether cancel the punishment. This power is called Governor’s pardon. This is provided to ensure against any miscarriage of justice. However, the Governor has no power to pardon a person if the case is pending with the Supreme court.
  3. The judges of the High court are appointed by the President in consultation with the Governor and the Chief justice of the high court.
  4. The Governor is entitled to legal advice on matters relating to the constitutional clarity of bills. However, it is not binding on the Governor to accept it.

5. Discretionary Powers:
As first citizen of the state, the Governor has the responsibility of conducting the administrative machinery as per the provisions enshrined in the constitution.
Article 163 vests the Governor with discretionary power that cannot be questioned in any court of law. Though the powers are discretionary, the constitution expects it to be used with common sense, restraint and a sense of justice.

The discretionary powers of the Governor are as follows:

  1. In appointing the Chief Minister if no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the Governor to call any person to form the government and prove his majority.
  2. On the recommendation of the Chief Minister, Governor can sack a minister (Article 164).
  3. If the Governor believes that the government has lost majority or if the Chief Minister having lost majority does not resign or if the government is using unethical means for political gains, under these circumstances he can dissolve the Council of ministers. (‘Article 174).
  4. The Governor can return a bill back to legislature for reconsideration.
  5. The Governor can reserve certain bills passed by the state legislature for consideration of the President (Article 200).
  6. Before issuing an ordinance, the Governor can receive directions from the President.
  7. If the Governor is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government cannot be run according to provision of the constitution he may request the President to take over the state administration under Article 356. This is called President’s rule’. The report sent by the Governor to President must be kept confidential from the Council of ministers.

Question 7.
Explain the powers and functions of the Chief Minister of a State.
Answer:
The power and position of the Chief Minister is so powerful that he is referred to as “the first among equals’” (Primus intersperes). Article 164 of the constitution states that “there shall be a Council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister for the state”. The Chief Minister is elected from among the members of the majority party in Vidhana Sabha. In case no party enjoys majority it is left to the discretion of the Governor to pick the Chief Minister, who in his opinion will prove majority’ in a stipulated time. Traditionally, the Chief Minister should be from the Vidhana Sabha.

1.Formation of Ministry:
The primary task of the Chief Minister on assuming office is the formation of the Council of ministers. Normally ministers are picked from the same political formation to ensure uniformity and continuity of policy. However, nothing prevents the Chief Minister from picking anyone as minister from any party. The Chief Minister enjoys the authority to pick and choose his ministry because he is responsible for the efficiency and performance of the government.

2. Allocation of Portfolios:
After forming the ministry the next important task is the allocation of responsibilities to ministers. Certain key or heavy’ weight portfolios such as Home, Revenue, Finance, Industry, Public works are to be given to key and heavyweights who enjoy clout and following among party workers. Also to ensure efficiency and stability of the government. The Chief Minister enjoys the power of expanding and reforming the ministry.

3. Chairman of the Cabinet:
The cabinet meetings are held under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister. The cabinet is a deliberating forum and differences may come up. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to mediate and soften things and arrive at decisions. The Chief Minister has the authority to decide the matters to be taken up by the cabinet and may accept or reject proposals. Normally the proposals brought by ministers for discussion are not rejected. In the era of coalition politics, it is a challenge for the Chief Minister to hold the flock together. It is very difficult to chair a cabinet meeting full of divergent views, ideologies and principles.

4. Leader of Vidhana Sabha:
Chief Minister is the leader of Vidhana Sabha. All major decisions and announcements of the state government are made by the Chief Minister. It is the responsibility of the Chief Minister to ensure that all bills brought before Vidhana Sabha for approval are passed. And he has to defend the government on the floor of the house. Though ministers are individually responsible to their ministries, it is the Chief minister who provides general leadership and direction. If any minister makes a mistake, the Chief Minister has the power to guide and correct him.

5. Leader of the Government:
The decisions of the government however good, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. The opposition parties lose their identity if they do not criticize the government. So to guard against it, the Chief Minister, as leader of the government has to defend policies and programmes of the government both in and out of legislature.

6. Co-ordination and Supervision:
In running the administrative machinery Chief Minister will have to encounter numerous problems ranging from routine to serious. Under the circumstances it is essential to integrate different departments and see that they work smoothly and the ability of the Chief Minister is tested on this count. A Chief Minister should not only pick a team but also retain it as a team till the end of the term. Whenever problems arise between departments, he has to mediate and sort it out amicably through dialogue and goodwill.

The Chief Minister is the general head of the government. Hence he has the responsibility of supervising the administration. Though each minister is in charge of a ministry, lack of general supervision results in poor administrative quality. To maintain quality in administration, the Chief Minister will have to supervise it, not only gives him a general
feel of the administration but also makes the ministers more responsible. The Chief Minister may correct the working of a particular ministry and offer suggestions.

7. Bridge between the Governor and the State Legislature:
The Chief Minister acts as a link between the Governor and state legislature in a parliamentary government. As all executive powers are vested in the hands of the Governor, the Chief Minister is duty bound to keep the Governor informed about the decisions taken by the government. Also, the Governor himself can call for any information from the government. The Chief Minister not only acts as a bridge but also as the advisor to the President. Whenever necessary’ the President will look forward for advice. For example, the Governor seeks the advice of the Chief Minister before dissolving Vidhana Sabha.

8. Power of Dissolution:
The Vidhana sabha exists as long as the Chief Minister wishes because even before the expiry of 5 years term, Chief Minister may seek the dissolution of Vidhana Sabha. The Vidhana Sabha may be dissolved if deep differences surface within the government or within the ruling party or the government loses a motion of no confidence.

9. Power of Appointment:
Though civil appointments are made by the Governor, it is based on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Explain the powers and functions of the council of ministers of a state.
Answer:
The Cabinet referred to as the ‘Wheel within a wheel’, ‘the magnet of policy’ is the most powerful decision making organ of the government. The Cabinet normally meets once in a week though it can meet whenever necessary, under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister. All decisions are taken based on debate and dialogue.

The Cabinet being the highest decision-making body, all ministers must abide by its decisions. In case of difference of opinion on a Cabinet decision, a minister must quit his post, as he is not allowed to criticize the cabinet decisions being a party to it.

The Cabinet makes decisions for the whole state. So, obviously, its work load and responsibilities are varied and diverse. In order to make things convenient Cabinet committees are formed. The committees such as Political Affairs Committee, Economic Affairs Committee, will look in to the respective departments and gather necessary information, which help in decisionmaking. These committees may be temporary or permanent depending upon the task on hand.

1. Formulation of policy:
The primary responsibility of cabinet is formulating the policy of the government. The decisions arrived at cabinet reflects the state’s outlook of the government. Before the start of Legislative assembly session, the cabinet makes a list of bills to be placed before the house for consideration and approval.

No minister can place any bill in the assembly without the approval of cabinet. The bills so placed before the legislature for approval must be strongly defended by the cabinet; the members of legislature can comment, criticize and seek clarifications from the government on any bill. Thus from shaping the policy to defending it, cabinet plays a key role.

2. Control over the executive:
All the ministers who are a part of the government belong to the executive. Each minister having assumed responsibility of a ministry is wholly responsible for any happening in that particular ministry. Hence all ministers must strive hard to implement the Cabinet decisions. If any Minister violates the Cabinet decisions, he may be fired for violating the party unity. The cabinet apart from the ministers also directs and supervises the activities of the civil service.

3. Control over the finance:
The cabinet is responsible for the income and expenditure incurred by the state, though the responsibility of preparing the annual income expenditure statement the budget lies with the Finance minister. In order to ensure secrecy, the cabinet does not discuss the budget proposal.

Generally, the Chief Minister also plays an important part in budget making, so the budget proposals are discussed between the Chief Minister and the finance minister. The content of the budget are not made known to cabinet till the Finance minister’s budget speech. Once the budget is placed before the state legislature, the cabinet can discuss and seek changes if necessary. Though cabinet has the authority to reject the budget in its entirety, it is hardly done. Because it amounts to an insult to the government.

4. Co-ordination:
To co-ordinate the activities of different ministries or departments and guide them is the responsibility of the cabinet. Generally, working of one department will have its effect on the other. For example, if two ministries work out an ambitious project calling for huge investment, the feasibility of it has to be decided by the finance ministry which holds the purse. Under these circumstances, the cabinet has to strike a balance between the two and release money on a priority basis. To co-ordinate governmental activities there are Secretarial Committees at the ministerial level headed by the Cabinet Secretary. Under his chairmanship, these committees suggest means cc co-ordination.

5. Control over appointments:
Generally, appointments do not come before the cabinet. But all major appointments such as the Governor are brought to notice of the cabinet before made public. The consent of the cabinet to these appointments is only a formality.