1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2014 (South)

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2014 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
Who is father of Sociology?
August Comte.


Question 2.
What is Society?
Society is the web of Social relationship.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of community? .
We feeling and living in a given area.

Question 4.
Define competition?
Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle:

Question 5.
How is the term “CULTURE” derived?
The term ‘Culture’ is derived from a Latin word ‘Colere’ means to cultivate or to till the soil.

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Question 6.
Give one example of material culture.
Material culture are printing press, banks, money and as.per like.

Question 7.
What is Marriage?
Marriage is a permanent bond between permissible mates.

Question 8.
What is Social Change?
Social change refers to modification which occur in the life patterns or people.

Question 9.
State two types of observation.
Controlled and uncontrolled observation.

Question 10.
What is Environment?
Environment means “That which surrounded us” or “environus”, which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments.

II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in two sentence each : ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
How is term society derived?
The term Society is derived from Latin word ‘Socius’ which means “companionship or friendship’

Question 12.
Mention any two types of community?
Rural and urban community.

Question 13.
Mention the W.G Sumner’s classifications of social groups?
In group and out group.

Question 14.
What is cultural lag?
The Gap between material and non material culture.

Question 15.
What is Socialization?
Learning of social cultures is called socialization.

Question 16.
Name any two agents of socialization.
Formal and Informal.

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Question 17.
Give any two examples of planned social change.
Transport & Communication.

Question 18.
What is Social progress?
March towards particular aim.

Question 19.
What are the source of data ?
Primary and secondary.

Question 20.
State two types of questionnaire.
Structured and unstructured.

Question 21.
How the term pollution derived?
The term pollution is derived from Latin word pollutionem.

Question 22.
Mention any two movements of environmental protection.

  1. In 1993 chipco movement
  2. 1983 Appiko movement.

III. Answer any FOUR of the following in about 15 sentences: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 23.
Explain the characteristics of science.
Science is essentially knowledge. The word “science” is derived from the Latin word scientia which means “knowledge”. But science in a particular kind of knowledge. In simple terms, – “science is a systematic study of knowledge.”
Characteristics of sciences are:

  1. Factuality
  2. Causality
  3. Universality
  4. Predictability
  5. Verifiability
  6. Objectivity
  7. Insistence on the scientific method.

Question 24.
Explain the elements of community.
Generally the term community is very loosely used Thus the expressions like a caste community, a racial community, a religious community, a linguistic community are used in a very limited since. But its sociological meaning is different and specific. Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community, locality Means- “a group of people became a community only when they start to reside permanently in a definite locality. In contrasct with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, gives fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence peoples social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “a feeling of belongingness towards’’. Or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common . interests, and similar life styles awaken community sentiments in people.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As a along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

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Question 25.
What are the types of competition? Explain it.
Competition plays an important role in social life. Competition performs a number of useful functions in society.

The major types are:

(a) Social Competition: People always compete to get into higher status and position, Competition of this kind is mostly observed in ‘open’ societies. Wherever individual ability, merit, talents and capacities are recognized.

(b) Economic Competition: The most important and at the same time the most vigorous forms of Competition is the economic Competition. It is witnessed in the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods

(c) Political Competition: In the modern world Competition for political power is always present. Political parties are always engage in Competition to secure power. Such a Competition becomes apparent especially during elections.

(d) Cultural competition: Some sociologists have also spoken of cultural competition. It may take place between two or more cultural groups. Human history provides various example of such a Competition.

(e) Racial competition: Competition may also take place between racial groups such as the Blacks and the Whites, Aryans and Dravidians etc.

Question 26.
Explain the role of family and school in the process of socialization.
The family: Family is the first agency of socialization of the child. Physical nearness, close relationship, passiveness of the child, authority of parents over the child etc., all have greater influence in moulding the personality of the child.

In family, parental influence, particularly of the mother, is very great. From the parents the child learns language. It is taught number of civic virtues. The child gets his first lessons in cooperation, tolerance self-sacrifice, love and affection, etc., in the family.

The earliest and the closet ties of an individual are with his parents and siblings. There have authority over the child. Possessiveness of the child and its emotional attachment with parents and siblings make socialization an easy and smooth process. Cultural heritage is passed from one generation to the other in family.

The School
School is also an agent of socialization. Teachers in school play a decisive role in molding child’s personality. Since the family in itself is not fully equipped to prepare the child for adult roles, school has an important role to play. In the school the child gets his education which moulds his ideas and attitudes, school transmits not only required knowledge but also important values such as cooperation, discipline, patriotism, friendship etc. it helps further development of intellectual, emotional and social development. It is a formal agency that socializes the child.

Question 27.
Explain the types of culture.
Material culture: according to Ogbum material culture includes all the man made concrete, tangible, visible things. They include for example the house, buildings, furniture, automobiles, machines, dams, locomotives etc. it also includes the printing press, banks, money and the like. Material culture is also referred to as “Civilization”. The material culture is undergoing rapid changes within a short period of time.

Non Material Culture: it includes all the abstracts intangible invisible elements. The beliefs, tradition, habits, values, rituals etc. are the examples for non material culture. Ogburn includes . languages and ideologies, all the contributions such as family, marriage and religion in non¬material culture. It is said that the non material culture changes slowly and does not adjust itself to the changes in material culture.

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Question 28.
Explain the merits and demerits of questionnaire.
Merits of Questionnaires :

1. Questionnaires are inexpensive
First of all, questionnaires are one of the most affordable ways to gather quantitative data.

Especially self-administered questionnaires, where you don’t have to hire surveyors to perform face-to-face interviews, are a cost-efficient way to quickly collect massive amounts of information from a large number of people in a relatively short period of time.

A questionnaire can be placed on your website or emailed to your customers. These methods have little to no cost, though strong targeting is necessary if you want to have the highest possible response rate receive the most accurate results.

Still, no matter what type of questionnaires you pick, it will be more affordable than outsourcing to a market research company.

2. Questionnaires are practical
Apart from being inexpensive, questionnaires are also a practical way to gather data. They can be targeted to groups of your choosing and managed in various ways. You can pick and choose the questions asked as well as the format (open-ended or multiple choice). They offer a way to gather vast amounts of data on any subject. They can be used in a wide variety of ways.

For example, KBC Group learned just how practical surveys are. They were able to spread their quizzes, polls, and questionnaires during a three-day event. This made collecting real-time feedback almost effortlessly.

3. Questionnaires offer a quick way to get results
questionnaire speedy results
It’s quick and easy to collect results with online and mobile tools. This means that you can gain insights in as little as 24 hours (or less!), depending on the scale and reach of your questionnaire.

You don’t need to wait for another company to deliver the answers you need.

Dajo Associates needed quality feedback fast. The South African consulting firm needed a way to make informed decisions quickly. An online questionnaire allowed them to collect the data they needed in the shortest time frame possible.

4. Scalability
Questionnaires and surveys allow you to gather information from a large audience.

Online, you can literally distribute your questions to anyone, anywhere in the world (provided they have an internet connection). All you have to do is send them a link to your survey page. And you don’t even need to do this manually. This could be done through an automated email in your customer onboarding or lead nurturing campaigns.

This means that for a relatively low cost, you can target a city or a country.

You can use multiple data collection points, for example via multiple tablets in kiosk mode.

Geography no longer stands in the way of market research either, thanks to the internet. But be aware of cultural differences between people and countries when conducting worldwide research. Thanks to Survey Anyplace’s multiple languages feature, you can easily create a single questionnaire available in multiple languages.

Demerits of Questionnaires :

1. Dishonest answers
While there are many positives to questionnaires, dishonesty can be an issue.

Respondents may not be 100% truthful with their answers.

This can happen for a variety of reasons, including social desirability bias and attempting to protect privacy. Stop dishonesty in its tracks by assuring respondents that their privacy is valued and that the process prevents personal identification.

2. Unanswered questions
When using questionnaires, there is a chance that some questions will be ignored or left unanswered.

If questions are not required, there is always that risk they won’t be answered. Online questionnaires offer a simple solution to this issue: make answering the question required.

Otherwise, make your survey short and your questions uncomplicated and you will avoid question skipping and get better completion rates.

3. Differences in understanding and interpretation
The trouble with not presenting questions to users face-to-face is that each may have different interpretations of your questions.

Without someone to explain the questionnaire fully and ensure each individual has the same understanding, results can be subjective.

Respondents may have trouble grasping the meaning of some questions that may seem clear to the creator.

This miscommunication can lead to skewed results. The best way to combat this situation is to create simple questions that are easy to answer.

4. Hard to convey feelings and emotions
vantagens e desvantagens dos questionários 7A survey or questionnaire cannot fully capture emotional responses or feelings of respondents. Without administering the questionnaire face-to-face, there is no way to observe facial expression, reactions or body language.

Without these subtleties, useful data can go unnoticed.

Don’t get stuck trying to interpret emotion in data, instead go for a Likert scale, the response scale that often uses a rating scale from “slightly agree” to “strongly disagree.” This allows for strength and assertion in responses rather than multiple choice.

5. Some questions are difficult to analyze
Questionnaires produce a lot of data. Multiple choice questions can be tabulated and graphed, but open-ended questions are different.

Open-ended questions allow for individualized answers which cannot be quantified and must be reviewed by a human.

Too many open-ended questions can produce a flood of data, that can take forever to analyze. Fix this pitfall but choosing your question types carefully. If you have ten questions, you probably don’t want more than one to be open-ended since these have no way to be quantified.

That’s why it’s important to select the right type of question as a questionnaire is only as effective as its questions.

The survey questions need to be evaluated quickly and they need to produce data that can be acted upon.

If you make questions too difficult or confusing to answer, you may end up with meaningless data.

Choosing the wrong type of question can also lead to incomplete results or data that is hard to interpret.

The main question types are open-ended, closed-ended and semi-closed ended questions. Within these types, there is an abundance of ways to present your query from ratings to yes/no question.

Learn how to select the right types of survey questions for your needs in our essential guide.

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IV. Answer any FOUR questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 4 × 5 = 20 )

Question 29.
Explain the factors which leads to the emergence of sociology.
Influence of the French revolutions (1789): The French Revolution was the most immediate factor in the rise of sociological thinking, the new political climate emphasized liberty, equality, emity, justice, individual right & thinking. The writers and thinkers of the day were particularly disturbed by the chaos and disorder which the Revolution brought in.

Some of the radical I thinkers sought the need to find out new bases of social order or system which had been disturbed by the political revolutions. This interest in the issue of social order evinced by the social thinkers ultimately supported the cause of the emergence of sociology. The impact of the Industrial Revolution: the Industrial Revolution that began in England 1 in the 18th century swept through many western societies.

The Social effects of Industrial I Revolution were many. The revolution led to a factory system of production which in turn gave, place to mechanisation and industrialization. The simple rural life and domestic industries were replaced by complex urban life and mass production of goods. Industrialization changed the direction of civilisation.

Question 30.
Explain the characteristics of organized groups.

  1. Common interests and goals
  2. Element of organization
  3. Size of the Groups
  4. Nature of social relations
  5. Group structure.

Question 31.
Explain the favoring factors of assimilation.

  1. Toleration
  2. Cultural similarity
  3. Education
  4. Amalgamation or intermarriage
  5. Intimate social relationships.

Question 32.
Explain the characteristics of marriage.
The characteristics of marriage are:

Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre¬literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. For example. In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called‘Half’persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory.

The Todas ofNilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differ significantly.

Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as- Vagdana. Homa, Kanyadana, Magalia Dharana, Saptapadi, Ashmarohana, etc

Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

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Question 33.
Analyze the role of biological factors in social change.
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Question 34.
Explain the types of environment.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.
Environment which is helpful to man’s existence and progress has been divided into physical, biological and social environments

Physical Environment: It consists of earth, water, mountains and hills, forests, planets, stars, lakes, minerals sources etc., This is called Physical or Natural Environment. The Physical Environment is not created by man: hence it is called the Natural environment.

Biological Environment: This category of environment includes all living things on • earth. For the production and growth of all living creatures, environment is complimentary and protecting.

Social Environment: Social Environment is man-made. Social environment is nothing but the collective and cooperative life of human beings. Sociologists feel that “man is a social animal and one cannot live without society”. For the survival of mankind there must be a cordial relationship with environment.

KSEEB Solutions

V. Answer any TWO of the following questions in twenty five sentences each: ( 2 × 10 = 20 )

Question 35.
Describe the uses of sociology?
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
Explain the characteristics of society?
Characteristics of society.

(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collect together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not’just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of ‘ likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, Sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develop. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, businessmen, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labour. Due to the feeling of co-operation people share their joys and Sorrows. The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modem society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

Question 37.
Explain the characteristics and importance of co-operation?
Co-operation is one of the basic pervasive and continuous social process. It is very basic of .men’s social existence. Co-operation generally means “working together for the pursuit of the common goal”.
According to Merrill and Eldredge: “Co-operation is a form of Social interaction wherein two or more persons work together to gain a common end”.

The nature of Co-operation are:

Co-operation is universal and continuous: It is a form of social process is not only universal but also continuous. Co-operation makes possible same understanding and adjustment between individuals and groups without which social life is impossible. Co-operation is hailed as the very basis of the communication life of men.

Perception of common goals: Individual indulging in Co-operative interaction are aware of some goals. The goal may be winning a victory in a battle, winning a hockey match, students making a combined study and so on perception of a common goal often draws people together.

Collective work for common rewards: Co-operation involves combined or collective efforts, rewards are normally shared by them, for example the reward may be match victory or profit shared in an Industry.

Co-operation is not necessarily unselfish: It is generally believed to be unselfish, but men may also find that their selfish goals are best served by working together with their fellows. Groups may Co-Operate for self-advancement as in the case of a monopoly or mutual protection, or for the welfare of all groups.

Essential conditions of Co-operation: According to Young and Marck Co-operation takes under some conditions. They are as follows. Firstly, Co-operation requires a motivation to seek a goal. Secondly, people must have some knowledge of the benefits of Co-operative activity. This requires some kind of education and must have a favorable attitude towards sharing both the work and the rewards involved.

Psychological qualities necessary for the developing Co-operative attitudes: Co-operation requires sympathy and identification, Sympathy depends upon the capacity of the individual to imagine himself in the place of another, particular when the other person is in difficulties, Mutual aid is another name for Co-operation. Co-operation is possible only when there is like mindedness. Similarity of purpose, mutual awareness, mutual understanding, mutual helpfulness and selfless attitudes.

The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:

Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.

Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modern technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.

Sociologist have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely primary Co-operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
What is family? Explain its characteristics.

The basic unit of the social structure in every society is the family. It associated with such emotive issues as love, marriage, home and child bearing.
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”

The characteristics of family are:

Family is an Universal
As stated earlier, the family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions. All societies both large and small, primitive and civilized, ancient and modem, have institutionalized the process of procreation of the species and the rearing of the young. It is a permanent and universal institution and one of the constants of human life.

Biological Basis of the Family: The institution of the family is to be explained in terms of biological factor-the existence of two sexes and the sexual character of reproduction in the human species. It appears as s natural answer to the human sexual drive, a phenomenon solidly based in the biology of the human organism.

Limited size: Family is defined as a primary group. It may include parents and their unmarried children or parents and their children. The bonds that the together these limited number of members with limited common interests are the outcome of emotional factors such as love, mutual affection and solicitude. This emotional basis of the family makes it an ideally suitable primary social group in every society.

Common Residence and Nomenclature, satisfy basic needs: The family is one of the most durable of all social institutions. Each family has s residence, an address and a name, a family can mean two quite different things depending upon the vantage from which we view it.

Each family has common habitation for its living. Without a dwelling place, place the task of childbearing and rearing cannot be adequately met. however, family has a wider meaning than mere household since a family can be spread out geographically sometimes but yet emotionally, socially and legally be known as a family.

KSEEB Solutions

VI. Answer any TWO questions in fifteen sentences each: ( 2 × 5 = 10 )

Question 39.
Explain any five characteristics of social change.
The factors that resist the process of social change. Lack of New Inventions: Social changes depends on the invention of new objects, techniques, thoughts, devices and plans to a great extent. Changes will take place without much opposition if the people have the strong craving for new things. Lack of inventions as such, do not provide a favorable atmosphere for change.

Rejection or Non-Acceptance of New Inventions: No change is possible if people go on rejecting the new inventions. Ex (1) Dr. William Harvey’s Blood Circulation. Theory, and Galileo’s theory concerning the planetary system and the movements of earth, were opposed in the beginning (2) opposition came in the British Parliament for the use of steam energy in British Naval Ships.

Imperfections of New Inventions: In the beginning, inventions are generally subject to imperfections, such as inadequate performance, easy breakage, and difficulty of repair. Social inventions also have imperfections in the beginning. People may oppose them for their inadequacies.

Fear Towards the New: Man has not only love for the past but also fear for the new. People express their fear for the new while making use of the new objects, listening to the new thoughts and following a new practice.

Tradition and Reverence for the past: People are traditional in their attitudes, the old and the traditional practices and things and ideas are upheld by the people. People are emotionally and sentimentally bound by them.

Question 40.
What are evil effects of Air pollution?
Air pollution is an extensive problem badly affecting main’s health, plants and animals.

  1. The minute particles of Sulphur Dioxide, coal, silica, Barium and other chemicals cause lungs cancer, heart diseases like hypertension.
  2. Due to rapid technological radiation anemia, leukemia, cancer physical weakness are caused.
  3. Due to air pollution world famous marble Taj mahal is getting destroyed stage by stage. The rare intricate are getting spoiled day by day.
  4. Due to use of different fuels the temperature of the earth is increasing. This is called as Green house effect.
  5. The Photo synthesis activities of plants and tree are showing down due to dirt and dust

Question 41.
Explain the role of self help groups in economic development of family.
The family is the most permanent and pervasive of all social institutions, all swales both large and small, primitive and Civilized, ancient and modern have institution lased the process or procreations of species and rearing of the young.

The Family canoes out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are thought largely their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior.
The Large world and acquaint them with the large culture. This Process takes place in family.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Write report on marriage rituals which you have attended.
Marriage is associated with some civil religious ceremony as a sacrament it receives the blessings of religion, marriage among the Hindus is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as Vagdana, Homa, Kanyadana, Mangalya Dharma, Saptapadi, etc.