1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2015 (South)

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2015 (South)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
How is the term sociology derived?
The term “Sociology” is derived from Latin word “SOCIUS” means “Companion “Associate” and Greek word “LOGOS” means “Science” or “Study”.


Question 2.
What is Co-Operation?
Co-Operation is one of the basic pervasive and continuous social process. It generally iriea-> “working together for the pursuit of the common goal”.

Question 3.
What is competition?
Competition is the most fundamental form of social struggle to acquire scarce goods & sen ici

Question 4.
Define Accommodation.
Accommodation is one of the principal types of social processes. Where by the adjustment of Hostile individuals and groups attains a sense of harmony.

Question 5.
Define Socialisation.
According to H. M Johnson “Socialization in the learning process that enables the learner to perform social roles”.

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Question 6.
What is polygamy.
Polygamy denotes marriage to more than one mate at one time and takes the form of either.

Question 7.
What is Evolution.
The term evolution is emerged from the Latin word ‘Evolvere’ which means to unfold’ or to ‘develop’.

Question 8.
Give meaning of Word “Research”.
Systematic Investigation to gain know knowledge.

Question 9.
What is water pollution?
Any Activity of human begins resulting in variations in the water quality is known as water pollution.

II. Answer any ten questions. ( 2 x 10 = 20 )

Question 10.
What is Sociology? give a definitions.
Sociology is known as science of society.
According to Auguste Comte : “Sociology is the Science of Social phenomena Subject to natural and invariable laws. The discovery of which is the object of investigation”.

Question 11.
Mention two Characteristics of institutions.

  1. Institutions are Universal
  2. Institutions are Standardized Norms

Question 12.
What is division of labour?
Distribution of work according to age gender and experience.

Question 13.
What is Social Process?
According to Maclver and Page: “Social processes is the manner in which the relationship of ; the members of a group, once brought together, acquire a distinctive character”.
According to A. W. Green: The social processes are merely the characteristics ways in which interaction occurs”.

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Question 14.
What is conflict?
“Conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another or others”.

Question 15.
How is the term “Co-operation” derived.
The term Co-operation is derived from the Latin word ‘co’ meaning ‘together’ and ‘operari’ meaning to work.

Question 16.
What is material culture?
Material Culture includes all the man made concrete, tangible, visible things. They include for example the house, buildings, furniture, automobiles, machine, dams, locomotives etc.

Question 17.
What is anal stage?
According to Sigmond Freud the Anal Stage normally begins after first year, completed during the third year, the crisis of this period is called anal crisis and is caused by imposition of new demands. In this stage the child is asked to take over some degree of care for himself. Anal disciplines are learned through what in ordinary termed as “Toilet Training”.

Question 18.
What is environmental pollution.
Concentration of polluting elements is called environmental pollution.

Question 19.
What is primary data?
Primary data are collected by researcher through observation, questionnaire and Interview.

Question 20.
Give any two definition of social research.
Social research is a systematic Invertigation to gain new knowledge of social phenomenan. According to William P Scott Social research is any research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction.

Question 21.
What is Noise Pollution?
intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

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III. Answer any four following question. ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 22.
Explain 3 major criteria of science.
Pure science is a branch for knowledge, without primary concern for practical use. Knowledge for knowledge sake is the main aim of a pure scientist. Scientists, who seek knowledge for its own sake, no more moved by the question of its, utility like the mother and the father who protect and nourish their children without expecting any thing inretum parents commonly love their children without calculating their usefulness.

Many students/ researchers of science feel much the same thing about their work. Pure sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Botany, Physiology, Psychology, Anthropology, Political Science, Sociology, etc) are concerned with the advancement of knowledge. Their main aim is to investigate the underlined principles of the natural and social world which sustain and change in the natural and social order.

They are not concerned w ith the practical applications of their results or curing the immediate ills of natural or social orders. The goal of each natural science, including sociology is the formulation of scientific laws. Sociology is a pure science, not an applied one. The immediate goal of sociology is the acquisition of knowledge about the human society, not the utilization of that knowledge.

Question 23.
Explain conditions of Interaction.
Social interaction is the foundation of society. It is the very essence of social life. Hence, the concept is crucial to any study of the dynamics of society and culture without interaction there would be no group life. Thus, it can be said that interaction is the basic social process, the broadest term for describing dynamic social relationships. Social interaction represents the dynamic nature of human society. It is true the life is stable, confined and defined by traditional systems, norms and patterned ways.

Life is dynamic. People are on the move they are striving, competing, conflicting, Co-operation, appeasing, adjusting, reconciling and then challenging again. This action element or functional element itself represents social interaction Direct and Symbolic interaction Interaction may be direct or symbolic. Direct interaction refers to the activities of person which may be seen in such conduct as pushing fighting, pulling, embracing dishing or in other forms of bodily contact with other gestures and language, spoken or written.

A symbol is a summary of experience. It may represent an object, act, quality, value idea or any expected response. Language is the rich storehouse of such symbols. The centre nature of interaction is inter stimulated and response. One stimulates the actions, thoughts or emotions of another persons and response to the similar behavior of the others. Interaction increases mental activity, fosters comparison of ideas, sets new tasks, accelerates and discovers the potentialities of the individual.

According to N. P. Gish “Social interaction is the reciprocal influence human begins exert on each other through inter stimulation and response”. According to Dawson and Gettys: “Social interaction is a process where by men interpenetrate the minds of each other”.

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Question 24.
Explain types of co-operation.
Types of Co-operation:
The types of co-operation can be discussed in the following ways:

1. Direct Co-operation: In the direct cooperation action the individual involved to do the identical function. Ex. Playing together worshiping together, tilling the field together, taking out a cut from the mud, etc., people do work in company with other members, performance of a common task with joint efforts brings them social satisfaction.

2. Indirect Co-operation: In this case people work individually for the attainment of a common end. People do tasks towards a similar end. This is based on the principle of division of labor and specialization. For ex. Farmers, spinners, weavers, dyers, tailors are different and engaged in different activities. But their end remains the same, that of producing clothes. The modem technological age requires specialization of skill and functions, hence it depends on Co-operation.

Sociologi st have also spoken of three other types of Co-operation, namely Primary Co-operation Secondary Co-operation and tertiary Co-operation. These types are witnessed in primary groups, secondary groups and between two or more groups respectively.

Question 25.
What is socialisation, give definition of socialisation.
The concept of socialization is one of the central concepts in sociology. It is a learning process by which an individual develops into a social being and is able to function in society. Child rearing, formal education, acculturation and role learning are all socializing processes that help to mould individuals to the ways of their society & culture. Socialization begins almost at birth and continues throughout life.

The human infant comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs. It is gradually moulded into social being and he leams the social ways of acting and feeling. Without this process of moulding the society could not continue itself, nor could culture does not exist, nor could the individual becomes a person. This process of moulding is called “Socialization”.

According to H. M. Johnson: “Socialization in the learning process that enables the learner to perform social roles”.
According to Ogburn & Nimkoff: “Socialization is the process by which the individual leams . to conform to the morms of the group”.

On the basis of above given definition we can draw the fact that socialization is a learning process by which one acquires the culture ofhis group. This will help an individual to develop his Self concept. He is converted into an active member of the community.

Question 26.
Explain the role of culture in socialization.
Socialization is an important matter for society. It doesn’t occur accidently. But should be controlled through cultural directions. Social nature is very much influenced by the culture of an individual. It is a known fact that man is bom as a biological animal. He becomes social animal only through the process of socialization. Culture is the content that is length in the process of socialization. Though culture varies from society to society, every society has its own distinct culture. Therefore society, culture and socialization are closely related to each other, Socialization that turns the child in to a useful members of society according to cultural directions.

The role of culture in socialization can be explained in the followings:

  • Culture provides the base to the socialization process was making the individual a normal social being.
  • Culture provides the guidance to the individual to control his various activities.
    Which he learns through the process of socialization.
  • Culture assists socialization in teaching the culture qualities like morality, good behaviors, positive attitude, ideals and values.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps the individual to decide his career.
  • Cultures through the socialization also provide guidance to the individual to maintain their behavior patterns according to social situation.
  • Culture through the socialization process helps an individual to become an important contributor to society.
  • Culture through the process of socialization helps to work for social welfare and develop a positive attitude towards all.

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Question 27.
Explain the functions of marriage.
According to naclver and Page “Marriage is a durable association between husband and wife for procreation and upbringing of children and requires social approval”.

The functions of marriage are:

Regulation of sex life: Marriage is the powerful instrument of regulating the sex life of man. It is an Instinct, it has to be controlled and regulated through the Institution of marriage. Marriage thus regulative means of sex life marriage often called the license for sex life acts as a

Marriage regulates sex relations also:
It prohibits sex relations between the closest relatives i.e., between father and daughter, mother and son., brother and sister etc., such a kind of prohibition is called “incest taboo” Marriage also puts restrictions on the premarital and extra martial sex relations.

Marriage leads to the establishment of the family: Sexual satisfaction offered by marriage results in self-perpetuation. It is in family the children are bom and brought up. The marriage which determines the descent, inheritance and succession.

Provides for economic co-operation: Marriage makes division of labor possible on the basis of sex age and experience, partners of marriage divide work among themselves and perform them.

Marriage contributes to emotional and intellectual aerstimulation of the partners: Marriage brings life-partners together and helps them to develops intense love and affection towards other. It depends the emotion and strengthens and also helps them to develop intellectual co-operation between them.

Marriage aims at social solidarity: Marriage not only brings two individuals of the opposite sex together but also their respective families and their Kith and Kin, friendship between these groups is reinforced through marriage. It is often suggested that by encouraging marriage between different castes, races, classes, religious, linguistic and other1 communities.

III. Answer any four following questions: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 28.
Explain the primary functions of family.
The primary functions are;

1. Member replacement and physical maintenance: In order to survive, every society must replace members who die and keep the survivors alive. The regulations of reproduction is centered in the family as are cooking and eating and care of the sick. Once children are bom, they will be nurtured and protected within the family. It is the family that feeds, clothes and shelters them.

2. Regulation of sexual behavior:The family regulates sexual behavior. Each member’s sexual behavior is influenced to some extent by what is learnt in the family setting. The sexual attitudes and patterns of behavior in the family reflects societal norms and regulate the sexual behavior,

3. Socialization of children: The family carries out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are taught largely by their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior. The family as an act of instrument of transmission of culture, it serves the individual as an instrument of socialization.

4. Status transmission: Individual social identity is initially fixed by family membership being bom to parents of a given status. Children take on the socio-economic class standing of their parents and the culture of the class into which they are born, including its value, behavior patterns, in addition to the internalizing family attitudes and beliefs. Children are treated and defined by others as extensions of the social identity of their parents.

5. Emotional support: The family as a primary group is an important source of affecting entertainment love and interaction, caring. It is seemingly the nature of human begins to establish social interdependency, not only to meet physical needs, but also to gratify emotional and psychological needs also.

6. Fulfillment of needs: Family is the most important primary institution that gives moral and emotional support for the members. Providing safety, security, love and affection. Warmth and comfort. It provides defense against Isolation. Family as an health agency provides most of the help for the young, the old and the sick. It is by large responsibility for the Health of its members.

Question 29.
Explain types of Education.
According to Durkheim “Education as the socialization of the Younger generation and it is a continuous efforts to impose on the child ways of seeing feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.

The types of Education: Education is a process, as a process, education is a continuous activity that goes on all through one’s life-from birth to death. This process of humanizing man, developing his personality, transmitting culture from one generation to other, a Spontaneous unfolding of human potentialities, is carried on in all social institutions like religion, peer grouped, neighborhood, family and community etc. on the other hand, what takes place in Schools and colleges, the methodical socialization, designed instruction and interaction between socialize and the socializing agent for the education and the educator is what is called formal education. A brief description of types of education as follows:

1. Informal education: It simply denotes the in deliberate, spontaneous, life long process of learning continuously and universally emanating from all most all social institutions. The process of informal training begins for everyone of us in the family.

2. Family is the first school and the mother is the first teacher is the dictum that sufficiently explains the role of informal education in molding human nature and personality. “Peer Groups” means those groups made up of the age mates or contemporaries of the child, his associates in playground, neighborhood etc.,

Formal education: On the other hand is designed, consciously and deliberately given with a planned pursuit what takes place within the four walls of the school, strictly officially in accordance with the curriculum is format instruction.

3. Time table, syllabi, specialized and compartmentalized knowledge, authority pattern, official structure, by laws, disciplines, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, examination system all reflects the formal design of the school and colleges. As it is with the modern social structure characterized by formal institutions and relations in performing economic, industrial, legal and political regulative functions.

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Question 30.
Describe characteristics of social change.
The characteristics of social change are:

Social change is Universal and Continuous: The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society changes.

Social Change is Continuous and Temporal: Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change is Inevitable: Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed.

Inclusive Organisation : Society is the most inclusive organisation. As we have seen earlier, the concept Society may be analysed from both structural and functional view points. In its wider sense, it is used to refer to human race as a whole. In its narrower sence, it is applied to a tribe consisting of only few hundred people or families. The concept includes the total social heritage of folkways, mores and institutions; of habits, sentiments and ideals; also the groups in reciprocal relationships interacting upon one another.

Question 31.
Mention characteristics of social change.
The characteristics of social change are:

Social change is Universal and Continuous: The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society changes.

Social Change is Continuous and Temporal: Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change is Inevitable: Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed.

Inclusive Organisation : Society is the most inclusive organisation. As we have seen earlier, the concept Society may be analysed from both structural and functional view points. In its wider sense, it is used to refer to human race as a whole. In its narrower sence, it is applied to a tribe consisting of only few hundred people or families. The concept includes the total social heritage of folkways, mores and institutions; of habits, sentiments and ideals; also the groups in reciprocal relationships interacting upon one another.

Question 32.
Describe factors of social change.
According to M. E. Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of, any aspect of social progress, social patterns, social interactions or social organization” The various factors of social change

In all societies there are several conditions or causes that make for social change. These conditions are understood as factors. The change may occur internally. All the factors which bring change in society naturally or change comes from within society is known as intrinsic change.

Natural factor or Geographical factors:
Change brought by natural conditions or change brought by environment is called as physical factor or geographical factors. Man and society exist within the environment. Whenever change occur in environment it brings change in society too.

Aecording to Ian Robertson, relationship between social and environmental factors bring change in society. We find less change in polar region. More on banks of river.
When society grows complex. It brings more loss on geographical factors. Civilization brings convenience to man but develops controversies with environment.

Recently because of technological and scientific developments we find less influence of physical factor. Growth of culture and civilization minimize the influence of geography.

Biological factor: It indicates two types A) One is non human biological factor and B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth. Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves l)size of population 2) structure of population 3) Heredity 4) race 5) Birth rate 6)Death rate 7) fertility 8) sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense problem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration 1) Urban rural migration 2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’One child norm’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.

Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  •  Discovery: discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Sri Lanka.

Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modern technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

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Question 33.
Describe ‘Ogburn and Nionkaff’ causes for resistance for social change.
Ogbum and Nimkoff says that sometimes “Boon to society is also opposed”

The factors for resistance are:

Inadequacy of invention: For one or the other reason. People may or may not show interest in inventions. Some time the innovatory fails to convince the community. Inventions do not impress community life or are needful by that perfect of time.

Fear: Men in general are happy with present. People always .feel that new disturbs or may bring new problems. When Thomas Edison invented electric bulb, exhibition of illuminating electric bulb was arranged, immediately when electric bulb illuminated, people ran away with fear. Earlier people did not show interest in photography.

Ignorance: Education and training make him intelligent. Even though man is ignorant about new. Before he is given proper knowledge his ignorance make him to resist. Secondly some men do not even learn to live. They are happy with their ignorance. America took generations to learn use of iron plough. Material change and its resistances is temporary. For example Mahatma Gandhij i and his efforts are still in process to bring “non alcoholic society”.

Habit: Man develops his personality thorough socialization. Once developed Personality cannot be changed easily. Personality is a complex whole of many habits. Habits force man to follow traditions. Habits influence our thoughts and dialylife.. people hesitate to accept new rules and regulations in society.

Vested Interests: Vested Interest are selfish groups who want statuesque. Most social changes carry a threat to some vested interests. Land Reform Act in India brought change. But such change and legislative reformations were opposed by land lords. Orthodox society is always in fear of losing its interests, it opposes inter caste marriage.

Economic Costs: Money play important role in adopting social change. For example to implement five year planning Indian government invested money. In recent tears cost of planning is raising. Some of the welfare measures like education, health, housing are lagging behind.

Lack of an integrated approach: Society is combination of different parts, for example religion, education, government are in social system only. Change in one element brings change in another part also. When we want to bring change in religion it is necessary to bring change in education system also. To eradicate blind belief or evil practices all other conditions in prevailing society should be changed.

Technical difficulties in implementation: Looking to new technical innovations, society adopt its life style. Community many times accepts technical changes immediately, but does not accept some time. Technical devices should be restructured or they are not suitable to the conditions, hence there is hindrance in acceptance.

Intellectual Laziness: Creativity drive the attention immediately. Lack of creativity in man does not accept new. Active men agree to modem condition. Lazy do not. To understand the importance of new one must show interest in it. when there is lack of interest and do not pay attention, it is difficult to make men to change themselves.

Desire for stability: Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel

  1. No guarantee in new social system, and
  2. New things may bring pain.
  3. Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
  4. Wants to maintain present status.
    Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.

Question 34.
Explain source of pollution.
The word Environment is derived from the French word “Environ” which means all that surrounds us.

Air Pollution:
Air pollution is caused by unwanted and rejected things in the atmosphere around us. According to Oxford dictionary air pollution means “The compounds that get mixed with the atmosphere causes dangerous effects on useful plants, animals and human beings”.

Causes for Air pollution: Man’s activities in the name of the modernization have damaged the living species. Man’s activities are also responsible for polluting air, causing dirt, dust and smoke. The Natural disasters like volcanic eruption, forest fire and bacteria also cause air pollution. Man has created industries, vehicles, atomic energy, excessive use of Petrol and other source of energy like Coal, and different types of mining also cause air pollution.

Water Pollution:
Water is essential for all living things 2/3 portion on the earth is covered by water, 97.2% of water on earth is mixed with solids and rest 2.8% only is left for drinking purpose.

Water pollution occurs in three different forms.

  • Inland pollution.
  • Underground pollution
  • Sea pollution.

Causes for water pollution: Water pollution is due to many factors. Factory wastes, Houses hold wastes and water from agricultural land, all these contributions to water pollution. Biological contamination like gutter water, food processing factories, skin and hide processing factories, insecticides,.drugs, various chemical colours contributes to water pollution.

Noise Pollution
Intolerable sound is considered as sound pollution, because intense sound result in physical and mental stress and also irritation. Sound pollution is also result due to various activities of human begins. Intensity of sound is measured in decibels while talking usual intensity of sound is 60 decibels.

Soil Pollution
The upper most layer of the earth is consisted of “Soil” This soil layer is formed by the natural processes from millions of years. This layer supplies the necessary nutrients essential for the growth of the plants. The soil which feeds the plants is the reason for the existence of all biological system.

The decrease in the quality of the soil and changes in it due to various activities of the humans is called as soil pollution. Soil pollution lessens the productive nature of the soil and destroys the living beings in it and also its rejuvinable process.

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IV. Answer any two of the following. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 35.
Distinguish between sociology and common sense.
Many times Sociology is charged with what it studies, we have at least a bit of knowledge about it or we have experienced it. Sometimes in our own lives or we know it through our popular wisdom. This knowledge, while sometimes accurate, is not always reliable, because it rests on commonly held beliefs rather than systematic analysis of facts. It was once considered ‘common sense’ to accept that the earth was flat. This was questioned by Pythagoras and Aristotle. Such notions still remain with us today.

For thousands of years people’s common sense told them that big objects fall faster than small ones, that stone and iron were perfectly. Solid materials, that the desire for children is instinctive in women, that with the spread of education, the institutions of caste and dowry will automatically wither away, yet today we know that none of these statement are true. These common sense statement s based on popular wisdom illustrate our point that common sense knowledge is not always true.

Some popular observations may be true but many others are not supported by empirical data. Many .common sense conclusions are based on guesses, hunches, ignorance, prejudices, mistaken interpretation and haphazard trial and error learning. Common sense can lead us astray when we are studying other societies and also when we are studying our own society. Like other scientists, sociologists do not accept something as a fact because “everyone knows it”. Instead, each piece of information must be tested and recorded, then analysed in relationship to other data. Sociology relies on facts gathered scientifically in order to describe, understand and predict about many social phenomena. ‘

Question 36.
Explain elements of community.
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “a group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality”.

In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, provides to fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence people’s social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “A feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awakens community sentiments in pepple.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

Question 37.
Explain characteristics of primary groups.
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of Primary Group

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few
members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate. ‘

(c) Physical proximity or nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less
the same background. These must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together, any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 38.
What is folkways explain its characteristics.
The term folkways was introduced to the sociological literature by W.G. Summer in his book with the little “Folkways” published in 1906. The word literately means “The ways of the floor people”. Folkways are the accepted ways of behavior.

Characteristics :
(a) Social in Nature: Folkways are the product of man’s group life. They are created by the groups for their sustenance and maintenance. Individuals get social recognition by conforming to the folkways. Every new generation absorbs folkways partly by deliberate teaching but mainly by observing and talking part in life about them.

(b) Unplanned Origin: The origin of folkways are very obscure. Sumner believed that they arise automatically and unconsciously. They are not result of any advance planning.

(c) Informal Enforcement: Folkways are not as compulsive and obligatory as those of laws or morals. Conformity to the folkways is neither required by law nor enforced by any special agency of the society.

(d) Folkways are Innumerable: It is not possible for anyone to enlist all the folkways. No encyclopedia could contain all the folkways observed by all of the people of history. They are very diverse and numerous.

(e) Folkways are subject to change: Folkways are not static, but dynamic; folkways are change with changing social conditions. Some folkways undergo relatively rapid change; some are resist change very often.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 39.
Mention characteristics of sociology.
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a I general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modem science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

Question 40.
Explain characteristics of law.
Law is the most powerful formal, means of social control in the modem society. It is an indispensable part of the modem social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found.
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”


  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.

Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continually changing standards of what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.

Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where the content of laws often differ significantly.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 41.
Explain importance of computers in social research.
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects.

Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview

Question 42.
Explain legislative measures to protect environment.
The legal and constitutional measures are:

As per 1948 rule it’s a mandatory to get permission from the granting commissions for establishment and extension of the factories. From this policy which directs the factories will have the full information about the chemical that can spill out from the factories .

The Atomic energy rule (1962). Each and every matter relating to the atomic energy will be directly affiliated to the Central government. This rule controls and directs the atomic energy related matters.

The 1972 rule of Wild life protection provided complete protection to the wild life and birds. As per the directed of this rule every state government and centralized states must create a committee for wild life suggestion. This law restricts the hunting of wild animals violates of this law will be punished .

Control and prevention of Water pollution act (1974) has enforced and the water pollution is prohibited through this law and for prevention of water pollution a special rule in 1981 is introduced( prevention on control of air pollution)

Environment protection act (1986) have intended to protect and improve the environment; it implements nationwide programs on environment pollution and encourages the researches on Environment Pollution.

The Motor vehicles act 1988 control the air pollution caused by the vehicle traffic.

The noise pollution act of 1989: This law controls the decibels of the sounds residential places, schools and colleges, hospitals, courts premises are declared as silent zones and prohibits using mikes crackers etc. in these areas.

1991 rule of Public Security: the Government of India has introduced this law in 1991 this law suggested to establish a environment solution fund and provided security to the citizen, it enables to lodge a criminal cases on the law breakers.

State pollution control board is active in state level and with the co-ordination of central pollution control board is engaged in the environment protection. Environment department will implement many works regarding environment protection.