1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Social Change

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 6 Social Change

You can Download Chapter 6 Social Change Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Sociology Social Change One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is change?
Answer:
According to samuel koening “Social change refers to modification which occure in the life patterns of People.

Question 2.
What is social change?
Answer:
According to M. E. Lones “social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of any aspect of social process. Social patterns, social interactions or social organization”

Question 3.
What is Evolution?
Answer:
According to Morris Ginsberg “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed”.

Question 4.
Give meaning of the term evolution.
Answer:
The term evolution is emerged from the Latin word ‘Evolvere’ which means to unfold’or to ‘develop’.

Question 5.
What is progress?
Answer:
The Progress means to a forward movement of Population from one area to another.

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Question 6.
What is global village?
Answer:
Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as global village

Question 7.
What is migration?
Answer:
Migration is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in the society,

Question 8.
Who is the author of the book “The origin of Species”?
Answer:
Charles Darwin is the author of the book ‘the origin of species’.

Question 9.
Who introduced the term evolution?
Answer:
Herbert Spencer introduced the term evolution.

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1st PUC Sociology Social Change Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define Social change?
Answer:
According to M. E. Jones: “Social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of, any aspect of social process social patterns, social interactions or social organization. According to Samuel Koenig “ Social change refers to modification which occurs in the life patterns of people”.

Question 2.
Give two characteristics of social change?
Answer:
The two characteristics of social change are:

  • Social change is universal
  • Complex phenomenon
  • Social change is change in community
  • Social change is continuous and temporal ,

Question 3.
Give two examples for Natural change.
Answer:
Food habits, Human activities.

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Question 4.
Give two examples for Biological change.
Answer:
Family Planning, Birthrate

Question 5.
Give two examples for Cultural Change.
Answer:
Discovery, Invention

Question 6.
Give two examples for Technological change.
Answer:
Mobile Phone, Computers.

Question 7.
Give two legislations brought change in India.
Answer:
legislations, specially social legislations brought social reforms Through the notice of social change concept of welfare state in modem state directly express change in the life style of people.

Question 8.
Give two differences between progress and evolution.
Answer:

Progress Evolution
Progressive is a mobility from inferior to superior which express ideal Evolution is in one direction it is always move from homogeneity to heterogeneity
Progress is change towards definite goal, if progress involves human satisfaction Evolution is a continuous process. It is intrinsic and it continues only within the structure.

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Question 9.
Define development.
Answer:
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, development means a gradual unfolding a fallen working out of details of anything it is in this sense that we often speak of the development of a child or of a disease, but the case of social development it is difficult to speak in the same way.

Question 10.
How do you consider “social change” as an objective term?
Answer:
The term social change is an objective term because it has not value-judgments attached to it. In sociology, social change as a social phenomenon is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral.

Question 11.
Mention any two characteristics of social change.
Answer:
Two characteristics of social change are

  • Social change is universal
  • It involves tempo and some direction.

Question 12.
What do you mean by planned social change?
Answer:
When social change is conditioned by human decisions, efforts, plans and programmers to bring about definite results, it is called “planned social change”.

Question 13.
What do you mean by unplanned social change?
Answer:
Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities such as famines and floods, earthquakes volcanic eruptions, etc.

Question 14.
What is social development?
Answer:
The concept of social development is generally used by people to mean the development of society its improvement or advancement.

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Question 15.
Mention any two character tics of social progress.
Answer:
The two features of progress are:

  • Social progress is basically a type of change but it denotes a change towards some goal.
  • It is defined in terms of our values.

Question 16.
Mention any two differences between social change and social progress.
Answer:
The two differences between social change and social progress are:

  • Social change is an objective term social progress is an abstract and a normative term.
  • The word social change indicates no direction, but the word social progress denotes change taking place towards some directions.

Question 17.
Mention any two factors of social change.
Answer:
The two factors of social change are:

  • Geographic factors and
  • Technological factors.

Question 18.
Name any two social geographers.
Answer:
Huntington, Lombroso, Le Play and others were known as great social geographers

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Question 19.
What is technology?
Answer:
According to Horton and Hunt “technology is the use of scientific discoveries to solve practical problems”.

Question 20.
Mention any two effects of technology.
Answer:
The two effects of technology are:

  • Technology has led to industrialization and urbanization
  • Technology has led to technological unemployment.

Question 21.
What is modernization?
Answer:
Modernization is a process in which the characteristics and life-styles of the more advanced societies are acquired by the people of less advanced societies.

Question 22.
In what way our habit can also resist social change.
Answer:
Habits resisting social change: individuals are very much influenced by habits and customs. People are not ready to give up a practice to which they have been habituated to and adopt a new one.

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Question 23.
State as to how economic disparity leads to resistance for social change.
Answer:
Economic disparity and resistance to change: Wide gap between the rich and poor also poses problems for change. People who have economic difficulties or problems cannot take the risk of inviting or supporting new things. They fear that such a step may prove to be very costly for them.

1st PUC Sociology Social Change Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the role of Natural factor which brings social change.
Answer:
Natural factor or Geographical factors:

(i) Change brought by natural conditions or change brought by environment is called as physical factor or geographical factors. Man and society exist within the environment. Whenever change occur in environment it brings change in society too.

(ii) According to Ian Robertson, relationship between social and environmental factors bring change in society. We find less change in polar region. More on banks of river. When society grows complex. It brings more loss on geographical factors. Civilization brings convenience to man but develops controversies with environment.

(iii) Recently because of technological and scientific developments we find less influence of physical factor. Growth of culture and civilization minimize the influence of geography.

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Question 2.
Explain the role of Biological factor social change.
Answer:
Biological factor: It indicates two types (A) One is non human biological factor and (B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth.

Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves (1)size of population (2) structure of population (3) Heredity (4) race (5) Birth rate (6)Death rate (7) fertility (8)sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense r blem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration (1) Urban rural migration (2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’ One child norm,’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Question 3.
Explain the role of cultural factor Social change.
Answer:
Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.
Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  • Discovery, discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Shri Lanka.

Question 4.
Distinguish between progress and evolution.
Answer:
The difference between progress and Evolution

Progress Evolution
Progress is a change towards desired goal. Evolution is a definite term explained definite features in change
Progress is subjective and is value based. Evolution is slow and step by step process
Progressive is a mobility from inferior to superior which express ideal. Evolution is in one direction it is always move from homogeneity to heterogeneity
Progressive is change towards definite goal, if progress involves human satisfaction. Evolution is a continuous process. It is intrinsic and it continues only within the structure.

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Question 5.
Explain How desire for stability resist change.
Answer:
Desire for stability:
Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel

  1. No guarantee in new social system, and
  2. New things may bring pain.
  3. Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
  4. Wants to maintain present status.
    Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.

Question 6.
Explain the three processes brought changes in cultural factor.
Answer:
Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.

Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  • Discovery: discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before.
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Shri Lanka.

Question 7.
Explain the consequences of social changes.
Answer:
Change is inevitable. Both man and society must agree to face the changes. Human history, explain the struggle of man and society against the consequences of sopial change. Social change bring two types of changes one is positive change, which helps human life. Other type is negative in direction for which man show his resistance. Social development, social progress, social reformations can be listed as positive changes.

Threat by natural calamity, environmental imbalance Ecological crises, war, pests, famine are the examples for change in negative direction in society.
Change in one aspect bring change in another parts of society. Direct change can be observed immediately but indirect consequences in other part of society is to be studied. Extent of change may be small but its effect is wide, and slowly influences in future. Technological changes created an arena for industrialization urbanization and modernization. Such changes brought new social problems like, slums, housing, rural urban migration. Such new consequences are in India also.

Ogbum explains that material culture changes whereas non material culture changes slow, which bring the consequences like cultural lag society always suspended by the problems of cultural lag, in simple we always talk about generation gap. After 1947 political changes in India brought many social changes. India accepted democracy.

Conclusion: All changes are not harmful and unjustifiable. Change and resistance to change both are advantageous and disadvantageous. Community should be cautious before it look to change. Specially in adopting new scientific inventions, there is need to study its effect on environment, pollution is a grave problem in modem world. Evaluation is always necessary before adopting artificial change. Change is meaningful and harmful. Society admits or rejects on its need.

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Question 8.
Write a note on development.
Answer:
Owing to the weakness ofthe analogy between biological and social evolution. Some sociologists preferred to used the term ‘Social Development’ to refer to the process of historical change. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Development means a gradual unfolding a fuller working out of details of anything. In the recent sociological literature the term Development is used firstly to refer to the distinction between two types of societies, namely Industrial Society and Rural and agricultural society.

Question 9.
Mention any five characteristics of social change.
Answer:
The characteristics of social change are:

Social change is Universal and Continuous: The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society changes.

Social Change is Continuous and Temporal: Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change is Inevitable: Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed.

Inclusive Organisation : Society is the most inclusive organisation. As we have seen earlier, the concept Society may be analysed from both structural and functional view points. In its wider sense, it is used to refer to human race as a whole. In its narrower sence, it is applied to a tribe consisting of only few hundred people or families. The concept includes the total social heritage of folkways, mores and institutions; of habits, sentiments and ideals; also the groups in reciprocal relationships interacting upon one another.

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Question 10.
Differentiate between social change and social progress.
Answer:
The terms “change” and “progress” are interrelated. The fpllowing table highlights the. differences between the two

Change Evolution
1. The term “change” is a general term. It denotes all types of changes 1. The term “evolution” is a specific term. It implies only one form of change.
2. Change could be slow or fast. Evolutionary or revolutionary. 2. Evolution implies a slow and a gradual transformation.
3. Change could take place in any direction. It could be matrilineal, progressive or regressive, short-run or long-run and so on. 3. Evolution takes place in only one direction. It is unidirectional. It proceeds from simplicity to complexity.
4. Change is a continuous process but it need not necessarily take place in the structure alone. 4. Though evolution implies “continuous” change it always takes place from “within” that is in the structure.

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Question 11.
Distinguish between change and evolution.
Answer:
The term “change” and “evolution”, though interrelated are not one and the same. Main differences between them are mentioned below:

Change Progress
1. Change implies a variation or an alteration or modification in an object or a situation. 1. The term “progress” implies not only change, but change in a desired direction, towards the fulfillment of a goal
2. Change is an objective term. It does not indicate the direction in which change is taking place. It does not involve value- judgments. 2. It is an abstract concept. But it definitely involves and implies value-judgments. Whenever the change is for the better, for an upward trend, there is progress.
3. It is silent its outcome, in the sense, it neither appreciates nor welcomes, nor condemns its effects. It is neutral. 3. Social progress connotes improvement, betterment, going up from a lower position. Hence, it is welcomed and appreciated.
4. The term ‘social change’ as used in sociology implies an analytical term. Unlike ‘social progress’. It is not a value- loaded term. Hence it is not associated with the elements of human happiness or unhappiness. 4. When we speak of progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally. Progress always refers to the change that leads to human happiness.

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Question 12.
Explain any five factors that resist the process of social change.
Answer:
The factors that resist the process of social change. Lack of New Inventions: Social changes depends on the invention of new objects, techniques, thoughts, devices and plans to a great extent. Changes will take place without much opposition if the people have the strong craving for new things. Lack of inventions as such, do not provide a favorable atmosphere for change.

Rejection or Non-Acceptance of New Inventions: No change is possible if people go on rejecting the new inventions. Ex (1) Dr. William Harvey’s Blood Circulation. Theory, and Galileo’s theory concerning the planetary system and the movements of earth, were opposed in the beginning (2) opposition came in the British Parliament for the use of steam energy in British Naval Ships.

Imperfections of New Inventions: In the beginning, inventions are generally subject to imperfections, such as inadequate performance, easy breakage, and difficulty of repair. Social inventions also have imperfections in the beginning. People may oppose them for their inadequacies.

Fear Towards the New: Man has not only love for the past but also fear for the new. People express their fear for the new while making use of the new objects, listening to the new thoughts and following a new practice.

Tradition and Reverence for the past: People are traditional in their attitudes, the old and the traditional practices and things and ideas are upheld by the people. People are emotionally and sentimentally bound by them.

Question 13.
Examine the concept of “social evolution”.
Answer:
The term “evolution” is borrowed from the biological science to sociology. Herbert Spencer, a – British sociologist, made evolution a “universal principle” in his book “First Principles”. He replaced the term “organic evolution” by “social evolution” in sociology. Whereas the term “organic evolution” is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression “social evolution” is used to explain the evolution of human society. Here the term implies the evolution of man’s social relations. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man’s social life and his society.

The concept of Social Evolution- As Popularized By Herbert Spencer: It was Herbert Spencer, who made the concepts of evolution and social evolution the central concepts in his sociological theories. Spencer, who adopted the concept of Evolution spoke in terms of the four main principles of social evolution. They are as follows.

Social evolution is but the cultural aspect of the law of cosmic evolution.
Social evolution takes place in the same way in which cosmic evolution takes places Social evolution is gradual and Social evolution is progressive.

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1st PUC Sociology Social Change Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Define social change. Explain the characteristics of social change.
Answer:
According to M. E. Jones: “Social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of, any aspect of social process social patterns, social interactions or social organization Characteristics of social change are:

Social change is universal: The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society changes

Complex Phenomenon: Change may take place part by part or change may occur as a whole. The direction of change, variations of change are different or mixed together. Therefore we call change as a complex phenomenon.

Social change is change in community.’ Social change is no change in individual or the change in personality of individual. In sociology we study change as change in community or change in social life entirely. Many aspects influences community.

Social change is continuous and Temporal : Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change varies from society to society: Speed and extent of social change varies from society to society. One may change fast or other may change slow or in one factor we see fast change and another factor we see slow change. In one part of society or in one section of society, there may be differences in change. Similarly the directions of social changes are different. Upward changes in society for one or the other reasons may go downward likewise speed and extent varies.

Social change is inevitable: Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed Social change is a process of synchronization: We cannot say that change destroys past and creates new. New emerges out of old only. Some new and some aspects are combined together in the process of change, in society also we see the synchronization of old and new.

Social changes shows chain-Relation sequence: Society is complex. Society is a dynamic whole, consisting of mutually related parts. Change in one part usually reacts on other part. This we call it as chain reaction. Social change shows chain relation or chain link.

Social change has no value judgment: The term social change is neutral. When change occurs we try to look to change as good or bad. Moral or immoral but social scientists look to the mater as amoral. Change may be beneficial or harmful. The industrial revolution in world is both progressive and regressive, but we study the changes caused by industrial revolution. Industrials ion in India helped to promote jobs also brought negative effect on traditional professions.

Social change may be planned and unplanned: Both man and nature are caused for social change. When we find change by man according to his choice, we call it as planned change, when nature but its process changes we call it as unplanned change. Society is guided by both artificial and natural aspects. All manmade aspects are artificial. Others are natural.

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Question 2.
Explain the role of Technology brought social change.
Answer:
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem soci ‘ Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the grow di of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modem technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

Question 3.
Describe the factors that resist social change.
Answer:
Ogburn and Nimkoff says that sometimes “Boon to society is also opposed”

The factors for resistance are:

Inadequacy of invention: For one or the other reason. People may or may not show interest in inventions. Some time the innovatory fails to convince the community. Inventions do not impress community life or are needful by that perfect of time.

Fear: Men in general are happy with present. People always .feel that new disturbs or may bring new problems. When Thomas Edison invented electric bulb, exhibition of illuminating electric bulb was arranged, immediately when electric bulb illuminated, people ran away with fear. Earlier people did not show interest in photography.

Ignorance: Education and training make him intelligent. Even though man is ignorant about new. Before he is given proper knowledge his ignorance make him to resist. Secondly some men do not even learn to live. They are happy with their ignorance. America took generations to learn use of iron plough. Material change and its resistances is temporary. For example Mahatma Gandhiji and his efforts are still in process to bring “non alcoholic society”.

Habit: Man develops his personality thorough socialization. Once developed Personality cannot be changed easily. Personality is a complex whole of many habits. Habits force man to follow traditions. Habits influence our thoughts and dialylife.. people hesitate to accept new rules and regulations in society.

Vested Interests: Vested Interest are selfish groups who want statuesque. Most social changes carry a threat to some vested interests. Land Reform Act in India brought change. But such change and legislative reformations were opposed by land lords. Orthodox society is always in fear of losing its interests, it opposes inter caste marriage.

Economic Costs: Money play important role in adopting social change. For example to implement five year planning Indian government invested money. In recent tears cost of planning is raising. Some of the welfare measures like education, health, housing are lagging behind.

Lack of an integrated approach: Society is combination of different parts, for example religion, education, government are in social system only. Change in one element brings change in another part also. When we want to bring change in religion it is necessary to bring change in education system also. To eradicate blind belief or evil practices all other conditions in prevailing society should be changed.

Technical difficulties in implementation: Looking to new technical innovations, society adopt its life style. Community many times accepts technical changes immediately, but does not accept some time. Technical devices should be restructured or they are not suitable to the conditions, hence there is hindrance in acceptance.

Intellectual Laziness: Creativity drive the attention immediately. Lack of creativity in man does not accept new. Active men agree to modem condition. Lazy do not. To understand the importance of new one must show interest in it. when there is lack of interest and do not pay attention, it is difficult to make men to change themselves.

Desire for stability: Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel

  1. No guarantee in new social system, and
  2. New things may bring pain.
  3. Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
  4. Wants to maintain present status.
    Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.

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Question 4.
Explain the various factors of social change.
Answer:
According to M. E. Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of, any aspect of social progress, social patterns, social interactions or social organization” The various factors of social change

In all societies there are several conditions or causes that make for social change. These conditions are understood as factors. The change may occur internally. All the factors which bring change in society naturally or change comes from within society is known as intrinsic change.

Natural factor or Geographical factors:
Change brought by natural conditions or change brought by environment is called as physical factor or geographical factors. Man and society exist within the environment. Whenever change occur in environment it brings change in society too.

Aecording to Ian Robertson, relationship between social and environmental factors bring change in society. We find less change in polar region. More on banks of river.
When society grows complex. It brings more loss on geographical factors. Civilization brings convenience to man but develops controversies with environment.
Recently because of technological and scientific developments we find less influence of physical factor. Growth of culture and civilization minimize the influence of geography.

Biological factor: It indicates two types A) One is non human biological factor and B) Second is human biological factor. It is true that both constitute total life on earth. Mclver and page are the opinion that demographic or biological factors involves l)size of population 2) structure of population 3) Heredity 4) race 5) Birth rate 6)Death rate 7) fertility 8) sex ratio

Six of population: People are assets, without men and women this society is useless. But the size of population is to balanced. We know that according to Malthus, more population leads to poverty. Similarly optimum size of population, theory explains that there should be balance between population and production of food. It fails we find change in society. To maintain balanced society we want population.

Birth rate and death rate: A high birth rate and low death rate leads to population increase. This brings various problems, like poverty, unemployment, housing problems etc Similar lower birth rate and higher death rate brings changes in society like that of scarcity of human resources, decrease in efficiently. This may create defense problem in nation.

Migration: It is one of the most influential activities which brings changes in society. Migration means movements of population from one area to another. There are two types of migration 1) Urban rural migration 2) Rural urban migration.

Age and sex ratio: Population constitutes three elements in its structure children, youth and old. In every society the members of below fourteen years and more. But in china due to strick’One child norm’ there is decrease in 0-14 years age children ratio. If youth population low economic development.

Cultural factor: Man is a social human being. Also man is a cultural being, the term society itself express that, it is a cultural phenomenon. Without culture it is difficult to understand social life.

Mainly three process can be observed which bring change:

  •  Discovery: discovery is the perception which unfold a reality that already exists, for egg. Vasco- D-Gama discovered way to India by sea.
  • Invention: invention is use of existing knowledge to produce something that did not exist before
  • Diffusion: diffusion is the spread of cultural elements from one culture to another. For egg. Western culture is spreading in east. Buddhism and its culture spread in China and Sri Lanka.

Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogbum and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

Transport and communication: After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modern technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

Growth of classes: Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

Agriculture: Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’ chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

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Question 5.
Analyze the consequences of social change.
Answer:
Change is inevitable. Both Man and society must agree to face the changes. Human history, explain the struggle of man and society against the consequences of social change. Social change bring two types of changes one is positive change, which helps human life. Other type is negative in direction for which man show his resistance. Social development, social progress, social reformations can be listed as positive changes. Threat by natural calamity, environmental imbalance Ecological crises, war, pests, famine are the examples for change in negative direction in society.

Change in one aspect bring change in another parts of society. Direct change can be observed immediately but indirect consequences in other part of society is to be studied. Extent of change may be small but its effect is wide, and slowly influences in future. Technological changes created an arena for industrialization urbanization and modernization. Such changes brought new social problems like, slums, housing, rural urban migration. Such new consequences are in India also.

Ogburn explains that material culture changes whereas non material culture changes slow, which bring the consequences like cultural lag society always suspended by the problems of cultural lag, in simple we always talk about generation gap. After 1947 political changes in India brought many social changes. India accepted democracy.

Conclusion: All changes are not harmful and unjustifiable. Change and resistance to change both are advantageous and disadvantageous. Community should be cautious before it look to change. Specially in adopting new scientific inventions, there is need to study its effect on environment, pollution is a grave problem in modern world. Evaluation is always necessary before adopting artificial change. Change is meaningful and harmful. Society admits or rejects on its need.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Define social change. Explain its characteristics.
Answer:
According to M. E. Lones “social change is a term used to describe variations in our modification of any aspect of social process. Social patterns, social interactions or social organization” The characteristics of social change are:

Social change is Universal and Continuous
The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society Changes.

society changes Social Change is Temporal:
Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change is Inevitable and Environment:
Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed

Social change is Human Change:
The sociological significance of the change consists in the fact that it involves the human aspect. The composition of society is not constant, but changing. The fact that people affect change and are themselves affected by it makes change extremely important.

Factors of Social change:
Social change results from an interaction of a number of factors. A single factor may trigger a particular change, but normally is always associated with a number of factors. The physical, biological, technological cultural and other factors may together bring about social change.

Question 7.
Describe the factors that resist the social change.
Answer:
The factors that resist the process of social change.

Lack of New Inventions: Social changes depends on the invention of new objects, techniques, thoughts, devices and plans to a great extent. Changes will take place without much opposition if the people have the strong craving for new things. Lack of inventions as such, do not provide a favorable atmosphere for change.

Rejection or Non-Acceptance of New Inventions: No change is possible if people go on rejecting the new inventions. Ex (1) Dr. William Harvey’s Blood Circulation Theory, and Galileo’s theory concerning the planetary system and the movements of earth, were opposed in the beginning (2) opposition came in the British Parliament for the use of steam energy in British Naval Ships.

Imperfections of New Inventions: In the beginning, inventions are generally subject to imperfections, such as inadequate performance, easy breakage, and difficulty of repair. Social inventions also have imperfections in the beginning. People may oppose them for their inadequacies.

Fear Towards the New: Man has not only love for the past but also fear for the new. People express their fear for the new while making use of the new objects, listening to the new thoughts and following a new practice.

Tradition and Reverence for the past: People are traditional in their attitudes, the old and the traditional practices and things and ideas are upheld by the people. People are emotionally and sentimentally bound by them.

Ignorance: Due to ignorance people often oppose new inventions and changes. It usually takes time for a new discovery or a tool or a technique to be understood.

Habit: Habit is another obstacle to social change. Individuals are very much influenced by habit and customs. People are not ready to give up a particular to which they have been habituated to, and adopted a new one.

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Question 8.
Write a shot note on Social evolution and social developments.
Answer:
The term “evolution” is borrowed from the biological science to sociology. Herbert Spencer, a British sociologist, made evolution a “universal principle” in his book “First Principles”. He replaced the term “organic evolution” by “social evolution” in sociology. Whereas the term “organic evolution” is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression “social evolution” is used to explain the evolution of human society. Here the term implies the evolution of man’s social relations. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man’s social life and his society.

The concept of Social Evolution-As Popularized By Herbert Spencer: It was Herbert Spencer, who made the concepts of evolution and social evolution the central concepts in his sociological theories. Spencer, who adopted the concept of Evolution spoke in terms of the four main principles of social evolution. They are as follows.

  • Social evolution is but the cultural aspect of the law of cosmic evolution.
  • Social evolution takes place in the same way in which cosmic evolution takes places Social evolution is gradual and
  • Social evolution is progressive.
  • Social Development

The term development like evolution is not used in a precise manner in our sociological literature. In ordinary usage “development” means “a gradual unfolding” a fuller working out of the details of anything the growth of what is in the germ and so on. It implies expansion maturity and advancement. It denotes qualitative changes whether they are positive or negative.

The concept of social development is generally used by people to mean the development of society, its improvement or advancements. It is also used to mean the generally economic development of the society. It denotes an arrangements within society to make provision for a more equal distribution of income and wealth within the various sections of the society. It also reflects a state of affair that ensures the moral development of people.

Question 9.
What is technology? Examine the social effects of technology.
Answer:
According to Horton and Hunt “Technology is the use of scientific discoveries to solve practical problems”
Use of machines and technological tools are common in modem society. Scientific development and approach towards making life more convenient, help the growth of society Ogburn and Nimkoff remark that the Most novel phenomena in society is not capitalism but Mechanization. The role of technology can be discovered in the following ways:

Transport and communication:
After 18th century, we see big changes in society due to industrialization, communication and transportation. Such development took place only because of growth in technology. As a result now modem technology has changed the joint family system and its relationships. Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as “Global Village”.

Growth of classes:
Industrialization leads to growth of urbanization. Industrialization brought opportunities for new professions. Youths are provided new jobs. Along with it new “Class” system developed in society. Society is classified as upper middle and lower class.

Agriculture:
Changes in the agricultural technology directly influenced rural community. Invention of new agricultural tools and techniques’, chemical manures brought increase in agricultural production which influenced standard of living in village.

Urbanization:
In many Countries the growth of Industries has contributed to the growth of cities or urbanization. Urbanization denotes a diffusion of the influence of Urban centers to a Rural Hinterland.

Modernization:
Technology has led to modernization “Modernization” is a process which indicates the adoption of the modem ways of life and values. It indicates a change in peoples food habits, dress habits, speaking styles, tastes, choices, preferences, ideas and etc.

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