1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 7 Social Research

Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank Chapter 7 Social Research

You can Download Chapter 7 Social Research Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Sociology Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

1st PUC Sociology Social Research One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is Social Research?
Answer:
According to William P Scott Social research is any research that focuses on the study of human groups or the processes of social interaction.

Question 2.
What is Observation?
Answer:
P. V. Young defines observation as “a systematic and a deliberated study through the eye of occurrences at the time they occur”.

Question 3.
What is a Questionnaire?
Answer:
According to Goode and Hatt “questionnaire as a device for securing answers to question using a form which the respondent fills in himself’.

Question 4.
What is Primary data?
Answer:
Primary data are those which are assembled for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem.

Question 5.
What is Secondary data?
Answer:
Secondary data are those already recorded foe some other purpose but used in research project.

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Question 6.
Bring out one difference between interview and questionnaire method.
Answer:
Interview it is a direct method of direct collection of data, where as a questionnaire is a tool for data collection

1st PUC Sociology Social Research Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Mention two difference between primary data and secondary data.
Answer:
The two difference between primary and secondary data.

  • Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study
  • The major sources of primary data are Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, and Social Survey

Secondary data.

  • It is collected by the researcher from different documents
  • It includes Personal Documents Public Documents Books, Periodicals’, Abstracts and Indexes

Question 2.
State two types of observations.
Answer:
The two types of observations are:

  • Structured: In this form of interview, there are definite, concrete and predetmined questions are framed.
  • Unstructured : it includes a set of questions which are not structured in advances and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period.

Question 3.
State two types of sources of primary data.
Answer:
The major sources of primary data are Observation, Interview, Questionnaire and Social Survey.

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Question 4.
State two types of sources of Secondary data.
Answer:
The major sources of primary data are Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Social Survey.

Question 5.
Mention two demerits of observations.
Answer:

  1. There is a danger of losing objectivity because of emotional attachments and over involvement or ego satisfaction.
  2. Some phenomena cannot be observed through participation for instant, an observer cannot become a criminal.

Question 6.
State two merits of questionnaire.
Answer:

  1. It is economical and covers large number of people spread over a large area.
  2. It-is time saving because a large extent of respondents can be reached through mailed questionnaire.

Question 7.
What is meant by objectivity?
Answer:
The Objectivity simple means the ability to see and accept facts as they are might wish them to be objectivity.

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1st PUC Sociology Social Research Five Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is primary data? Discuss its sources of data.
Answer:
Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laboratories for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”.

Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary data are collected through various tools or meAnswer: The major sources of primary data are: Observation., Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey.

Question 2.
Discuss the source of Secondary data.
Answer:
Secondary data is collected by the researcher from different documents. According to Roberta on and Wright, “ Secondary data are those already recorded for some other purpose but used in research project “It includes Personal Documents, Public Documents, Books Periodicals, Abstracts, Bibliographies and Indexes, Office Statistics, Year Book, Encyclopedia, Directories and others.

Question 3.
Discuss the role of interview method in data collection.
Answer:
Interview: The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer.

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview.
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

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Question 4.
Discuss the difference between primary data and secondary data.
Answer:
Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laborators for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”.

Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary data are collected through various tools or means. The major sources of primary data are : Observation., Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey

Secondary data is collected by the researcher from different documents. According to Roberta on and Wright, “ Secondary data are those already recorded for some other purpose but used in research project “It includes Personal Documents, Public Documents, Books Periodicals, Abstracts, Bibliographies and Indexes, Office Statistics, Year Book, Encyclopedia, Directories and others.

Question 5.
Define Research. What is social research?
Answer:
Research is a “Systematized investigation to gain a new knowledge about social phenomena and problems we call it social research”
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects. Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview.

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Question 6.
Describe the importance of observation method in data collection.
Answer:
The importance of Observation method in data collection are:

  • It is possible to observe the natural behavior of the group because the observer is not stranger.
  • It is possible to gather quantitatively more and quantitatively better information.
  • It is possible to get better insights into the phenomena because the observer is an insider. It is possible to observe secrete behavior.
  • It is possible to retain a high level of objectivity.
  • A non-participant observer is able to collect considerable information because of his open role as an observer and his eagerness to learn
  • It is possible to record behavior as it occurs, without any distortions. This gives highly qualitative data.
  • Observation is a flexible method of data collection
  • It is independent of people’s willingness to report.

Question 7.
Discuss briefly the technique of questionnaire method.
Answer:
Techique include a set of questions which are not structured in advice and which may be adjusted according to need during the question period it is in flexible nature. It is used to collect data pertaining to personal experience opinions, attitudes etc.

Question 8.
Discuss the types of interview.
Answer:
Interview: The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number * of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance . than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes sei ve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Explain the importance of computers and Internet in social research.
Answer:
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects.

Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview

Question 10.
Write short notes on the focused interview and repeated interview.
Answer:
This is a differentiated form other types of interview by the following characteristics.

  • It takes place with persons known to have been involved in particular concrete solution.
  • It refers to situations which have been analyzed prior to the interview.
  • It proceeds on the basis of an “interview guide” which outline the major areas of the inquiry.

The Repeated Interview: This type of interview is particularly useful in attempts to trace the specific development of social or psychological process, that is, repeated at some interview to know and to record the progressive reaction or response of the interviewee on the very same matter, say, general elections.

Paul Lazarsfeld and his association made extensive use of this repeated interview technique in their study of how the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign, these interviews secured the progressive reaction of the voter and also helped to know about the influence of various factors entering into the choice of a president.

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Question 11.
What is closed form and open end type questionnaire.
Answer:
In closed form questionnaire, a number of alternative answers are provided at the end of each questions and the task is, the informant has to choose one of them, this is also called “poll- type” or “selective-type” of questionnaire for the informant has to select one among the answers supplied by the investigator himself.

In open-end type questions are not followed by any ready-made answers, the informant has to think of the answer himself and he is free to answer as he likes, the open-end responses are free and spontaneous expressions on the part of the informant who is not limited in his replies to a particular question posed to him. this is called “inventive type” for the respondent has to think of or invent the answer himself.

The respondent may be asked to write a descriptive essay and express his view point, describe his relationships, attitudes, indicate his problems, and repost on details and events without restrictions imposed as in the type of closed questions.

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1st PUC Sociology Social Research Ten Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Discuss the sources of data.
Answer:
In the process of conducting research, data collection is important stage. In general, collecting information related to the problem under research is called data collection. According to William Scott “information collected from observation or measurement from which attempt is made to develop generation or conclusion is called “Data are divided into two types:

Primary and Secondary Data.
Primary Data is the information related to research collected by the researcher for the first time. This data is drawn from field study or from laboratories for the specific purpose of solving a particular research problem”. Primary data is original data collected by the researcher from field study. Primary or secondary data are collected through various tools or means. The major sources of primary data are : Observation., Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and Social Survey.

Secondary data is collected by the researcher from different documents. According to Roberta on and Wright, “ Secondary data are those already recorded for some other purpose but used in research project “It includes Personal Documents, Public Documents, Books Periodicals, Abstracts, Bibliographies and Indexes, Office Statistics, Year Book, Encyclopedia, Directories and Others.

Question 2.
Explain the concept of Social Research.
Answer:
Report Writing in final stage in Social Research process. It consists in communicating the finding of the study or investigation to others. There are different types of report. Report to general public is simple clear and interesting. Report meant to organizers, it is detailed. A report meant for scientific community must be technical.

A good report should be clear and accurate. It will not have any confusion. It should explain objectives of the study and comprehensive report must be properly organized with suitable arrangement and systematic presentation. It should be ethically neutral. It should not consist personal bias and prejudices. Report should have suitable writing style and attractive presentation. It should be always prepared according to the objectives of the study.

Report has no standard outline. But is should included a clear statement of the problem, information on finding and conclusions. In the preliminary of the report, there should be a Title page, preface or foreword, acknowledgements, methodology adopted, list Or graphs, illustrations, tables, charts it should have table of contents.

The contents of the report should have an introduction, which explains objectives of the study, statements of the problem and its definition, hypothesis, definitions of concent* review of literature and previous studies, scope, time and place of present study assumptions and limitations. Finally, report should include reference materials also. It includes Bibliography, appendices, glossary of terms and index. Certain format is followed in giving bibliography. Generally author’s name, year of publication, name of the book, referred page numbers, address of publisher is provided in reference. All these aspects of report, explain relevance of the study.

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Question 3.
Discuss the techniques of data collection in social research.
Answer:
The techniques of data collection are: Observation is a regulated perception of facts and circumstances with a definite purpose in view There are two types of observation on the basis of different criteria:

Controlled and Uncontrolled observation: Controlled observation implies the use of various tools and instruments to control one or more variable. It usually takes place in a laboratory. Uncontrolled observation is also called unaided observation because it is made in the natural environment without exercising any controls on the phenomena observed.

Participant and Non-Participant Observation: The Participant observation method focus on observer or researcher participants in the social phenomena under study. Whereas in Non-participant observation or researcher does not participate, is a loof and observes the life and activities of the group in a passive manner.

Merits of participant Observation

  • It is possible to observe the natural behavior of the group because the observer is not stranger.
  • It is possible to gather quantitatively more and quantitatively better information.
  • It is possible to get better insights into the phenomena because the observer is an insider.
  • It is possible to observe secrete behavior.

Demerits.

  • There is a danger of losing objectives because of emotional attachment and over-involment or ego-satisfaction
  • Some phenomena cannot be observed through participation. For instance, an observer cannot become a criminal.

Merits of Non-Participant Observation

  • It is possible to retain a high level of objectivity.
  • A non-participant observer is able to collect considerable information because of his open role as an observer and his eagerness to learn.

Demerits

  • It is not possible to get information on many aspects of life and activities because observation is limited to formal occasions and organizations.
  • It is not possible to gain insights into many aspects of behavior because the observer is an outsider.

Merits and limitation of Observation
Merits

  • It is possible to record behavior as it occurs, without any distortions. This gives highly qualitative data.
  • Observation is a flexible method of data collection
  • It is independent of people’s willingness to report.

Limitations

  • Data collected through observation cannot be quantified
  • There is a danger of bias, especially hidden bias.
  • Observation cannot be used to study private behavior
  • Observation is limited by the duration of the event.

Interview
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.
Structured Interview: has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for the generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication .
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interviewee
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Write short note on 1. Observation 2. Social Research 3. Role of computers in Social research.
Answer:
Observation: Observation is a regulated perception of facts and circumstances with a definite purpose in view

There are two types of observation on the basis of different criteria:

Controlled and Uncontrolled observation: Controlled observation implies the use of various tools and instruments to control one or more variable. It usually takes place in a laboratory. Uncontrolled observation is also called unaided observation because it is made in the natural environment without exercising any controls on the phenomena observed.

Participant and Non-Participant Observation: The Participant observation method focus on observer or researcher participants in the social phenomena under study. Whereas in Non-participant observation or researcher does not participate, is a loof and observes the life and activities of the group in a passive manner.

Merits of participant Observation

  • It is possible to observe the natural behavior of the group because the observer is not stranger.
  • It is possible to gather quantitatively more and quantitatively better information.
  • It is possible to get better insights into the phenomena because the observer is an insider.
  • It is possible to observe secrete behavior.

Demerits.

  • There is a danger of losing objectives because of emotional attachment and over-in volment or ego-satisfaction
  • Some phenomena cannot be observed through participation. For instance, an observer cannot become a criminal.

Merits of Non-Participant Observation

  • It is possible to retain a high level of objectivity.
  • A non-participant observer is able to collect considerable information because of his open role as an observer and his eagerness to learn.

Demerits

  • It is not possible to get information on many aspects of life and activities because observation is limited to formal occasions and organizations.
  • It is not possible to gain insights into many aspects of behavior because the observer is an outsider.
    Merits and limitation of Observation

Merits

  • It is possible to record behavior as it occurs, without any distortions. This gives highly qualitative data.
  • Observation is a flexible method of data collection
  • It is independent of people’s willingness to report.

Limitations

  • Data collected through observation cannot be quantified
  • There is a danger of bias, especially hidden bias.
  • Observation cannot be used to study private behavior
  • Observation ig limited by the duration of the event.

Social research:
Report Writing in final stage in Social Research process. It consists in communicating the finding of the study or investigation to others. There are different types of report, report to general public is simple clear and interesting. Report meant to organizers, it is detailed. A report meant for scientific community must be technical.

A good report should be clear and accurate. It will not have any confusion. It should explain objectives of the study and comprehensive report must be properly organized with suitable arrangement and systematic presentation. It should be ethically neutral. It should not consist personal bias and prejudices. Report should have suitable writing style and attractive presentation. It should be always prepared according to the objectives of the study.

Report has no standard outline. But is should included a clear statement of the problem, information on finding and conclusions. In the preliminary of the report, there should be a Title page, preface or foreword, acknowledgements, methodology adopted, list or graphs, illustrations, tables, charts it should have table of contents.

The contents of the report should have an introduction, which explains objectives of the study, statements of the problem and its definition, hypothesis, definitions of concepts, review of literature and previous studies, scope, time and place of present study assumptions and limitations. Finally, report should included reference materials also. It includes Bibliography, appendices, glossary of terms and index. Certain format is followed in giving bibliography.

Generally authors name, year of publication, name of the book, referred page numbers, address of publisher is provided in reference. All these aspects of report, explain relevance of the study.

Role of computers in social research:
Research is a “Systematized investigation to gain a new knowledge about social phenomena and problems we call it social research”.
Modern society is dominated by Information and Communication Technology. Recent computers perform multi-dimensional functions. Various soft ware packages provide data on different topics. Use of internet provided world wide data on different subjects. Internet provides more up to data information, very large extent of data which is limitless because traditional print media has limited space in library. Internet access is available for 24 hours a day. research . successfully save time, energy and resources due to use of internet.

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing techniques are common in America. It helps the researcher to collect data systematic way and computer easily store, classify and analyses the responses immediately completion of interview.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Describe the merits and demerits of interview.
Answer:
Interview
The very term implies “Interviewing is an interactional process, it is a mutual view of each other”.

Structured Interview : has predetermined questions and standard techniques. The number of questions is also fixed. In this method of interview, number and nature of questions, order of asking them, wording of questions, recording system and everything in the interview process is standardized.

Merits of structured Interview:

  • It provides safe basis for th&generalization
  • In this method, interview’s bias can be restricted
  • It is more methodical and easy to administer

Demerits.

  • The rigid and mechanical process, sometimes defeat the purpose of interview. It lacks the flexible nature and personal touch in interview
  • In this method, there is a possibility that substances of interview obtain less importance than formal process and set up.

Unstructured (Oral) Interview: It is not rigid type of interview. In this method, there is flexibility in the entire process of interview. The interview has greater freedom to choose the form depending on situations. The flexibility nature of interview allows the interview to ask number, sequence, and method of questions according to requirements of situations.

Merits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview creates a congenial atmosphere for effective communication.
  • In a highly diverse society of India, the formal set up interview imposes serve limitations on interview. Unstructured interview is the only remedy for this problem

Demerits of Unstructured Interview

  • The informal nature of interview provides respondents to answer differently, this is difficult in analysis of data
  • To administer this type of interview, well trained and skilled persons are required
  • The more number of personal bias and prejudices may be the part of this method.

Merits of Interview method

  • It is possible to obtain highly reliable information and in depth knowledge
  • It is possible to obtain information about the past and also about future plans in a detailed manner.
  • There is a high rate of response
  • Interview method can be used with all types of persons.

Demerits of Interview method

  • There is a possibility of misleading information being given by the interview
  • There can be defects due to the interview who may not be the best person to give information
  • There can be defects due to the bias or prejudice of the interview himself. Interview is a difficult skill and needs training
  • It is a costly and time-consuming method.

KSEEB Solutions