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Karnataka 2nd PUC Biology Question Bank Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry provides livelihood for large number of persons with milk, egg, meat, etc., production.
- Milk-Only animal protein for vegetarians. It is a complete food. Milk is obtained from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, camel and yak.
- Egg- Chick and duck are major sources. It is also a complete food.
- Meat – Protein rich diet obtained from goat, sheep, chicken, fish etc.,
- Honey – Sweet syrup from honey bees used for sweetening
- Fibres – wool, silk etc., for clothes etc.,
- Hides – For hides and leather from animals skin
- Work animals – To carry men and materials e.g.: Efuffalo, bullock, yak.
- Employment – For many persons by rearing and feeding camel etc.
- Waste production – Homs, feathers etc., all used for producing useful products.
If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Measures should be taken under following headings:-
- Selection of Breed – Milk production depends mainly on breed. High yielding, disease resistant, acclimatised to climate condition of the area.
- Cattle shed – It should be spacious, roofed but airy with sloping floors draining wine and dung removal with permanent water supply.
- Feed – Daily, regular, fresh fodder and water in adequate quantity has to be provided.
- Grooming – To be regularly brushed, massaged and cleaned. Regular grooming keeps cattle healthy.
- Sanitation – Hygiene of cattle, handlers, transportation, mechanisation etc., to bee kept, Sanitation of cattle shed.
- Health care – Regular checkup, vaccination is mandatory
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
Breed – Homogeneous group of animals within a species, subspecies or a variety which are related by descent and are similar in general appearance, size, configuration and other features. E.g.: Sahiwal, Brown swiss.
Objectives of Animal Breeding:
- Increase yield like that of milk, egg, meet and wool.
- Better quality of animal products
- Higher growth rate
- Resistance to diseases
- Longer productive life
- Better assimilation efficiency
- Higher reproductive rate.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?
- Out breeding
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture (Bee-keeping) → Rearing, care and management of honey bees. Importance:-
- Natural aromatic sweet syrup
- Natural sweetener, laxative, blood purifier.
- Immediate source of energy
(b) Bee wax – Used in cosmetics, creams, ointment
(c) Bee venom – Venom from sting used in Rheumatoid arthritis
(d) Propolis – Derived from plants for antiseptic and antibiotics
(e) Pollination – Honey Bees act as major pollinators
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Fish and other edible aquatic animals are important source of food rich is proteins, minerals and vitamins and is a source of oil. It provides with good financial gain . Enhanced food availability is called Blue Revolution.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
- Collection of variability – variability is recorded
- Evaluation and selection of parents – desirable traits are searched and parents are selected. They are selfed to obtain homozyosity.
- Cross hybridisation – single to multiple crosses are made between parents of desirable traits to produce a single variety.
They are protected from contamination
- Selection – seeds of desired characters are selected. Selection is made at every generation.
Back cross done if desired characters of one parent is not incorporated.
- Testing, release and commercialisation – Tested by ICAR and released after giving a variety name.
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Crop breeding programme aimed at increasing quality of crop like high vitamin content, more minerals, complete proteins and heathier fats, eg: lysine and tryptophan rich maize, Vitamin A enriched carrot.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?
Shoot tip culture – Apical meristem is always free of virus. So we can obtain virus free plants.
What is the major advantage of producing plants by micro-propagation?
A very large number of identical, virus free plants of desired characters (e.g. tolerance, mutation, resistance) can be raised in very short duration.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
Medium should provide carbon source such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins and growth regulators like auxins, cytokinins etc. It evens give required moisture.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
- Hybrid Maize
- Hybrid Jowar
- Hybrid wheat
- Hybrid Bajra
- Hybrid Garden Pea.
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Additional Questions and Answers
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production One Mark Questions
Define animal husbandry.
It is the science of systematic breeding and raising of domesticated animals as per human requirement.
Domesticated animals which are raised for use or profit are collectively called livestock.
Define farm management.
It is the controlled and scientific handling of farm animals in their rearing, grooming, breeding and caring so as to maximise their yield.
Mention the two major practices included in animal husbandry.
The two major practices
- Management of the animals (caring, feeding, housing etc.)
- Animal breeding.
Define inbreeding depression. (CBSE 2004)
Inbreeding depression refers to the reduced fertility and productivity associated with continued breeding.
What is plant breeding? (CBSE 2005)
It is the manipulation of plant species so as to create new improved varieties that are better suited for cultivation, give better yield and are resistant .to damage from pest and pathogens.
Mutations are sudden, stable, inheritable discontinuous variation which develop in organism due to changes in their genetic system especially base sequence in genes. They produce alleles which were not present in parental type.
What is callus?
Callus is an unorganised undifferentiated mass of actively dividing cells.
The method of producing very large number of plants through tissue culture is known as micro-propagation.
What is embryo rescue? (Embryo culture)
Embryos which normally don’t survive inside seeds can be grown in tissue culture to form new plants. This process is called embryo rescue.
What is SCP?
Single Cell Protein.
The maintenance of the hives of honey bees for the production of honey.
What is green revolution?
Green revolution is the movement launched Which was responsible for the increased food production not merely to meet the national requirement of food production but also to export it.
Name a semidwarf verities of wheat which is known for high yielding and disease resistant.
Name the varieties of rice from which semidwarf varieties have been developed in India.
- 1R – 8 (from Philippines)
- TN – 1 (from Taiwan)
Name 2 better yielding semi dwarf varieties of rice developed in India.
Jaya, Ratna, are the two varieties of rice
Name the organism commercially used for the production of single cell protein. (Delhi 2009)
Write the economic value of spirullina.
- It is used as food rich in protein, carbohydrate vitamins and minerals.
- Since its culturing uses waste materials like molasses, waste water from potato processing factories, it reduces environmental pollution.
What is soma clone?
These are genetically identical plants. developed through tissue culture from one plant.
What is somatic hybridisation.
It is process in which a plant is raised from the product of fusion of isolated protoplasts of two different varieties or species of plants in vitro.
Biofortification refers to breeding of crops to produce varieties with higher levels of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, high protein content or healthier fats.
Name a microorganism which is expected to produce large quantities of proteins (is in tonnes)
Methylophilus methylo trophus
List any two economically important products for humans obtained from Apis India (CBSE 2008)
Honey and beewax.
What is MOET? Write its objectives.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology. It used for the successful production of high yielding hybrids.
Write the economic value of Saccharum officinarum.
This sugar cane has thicker stems and higher sugar content and grows well in South India. It is used for hybridisation with Saccharum barberi to improve the variety.
The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell or explant is called totipotency.
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Two Marks Questions
What is meant by the term breed. What are the objectives of animal breeding.
The term “breed” refers to a group of animals which are related by descent and are similar in most of their features.
The objectives of animal breeding are
- Increasing the quantity of yield.
- Improving the quality of yield.
The steps in a programme are
(a) collection of germ plasm
(b) cross breeding the selected parents
(c) selecting superior recombinant progeny
(d) testing, releasing and marketing new cultivars
(i) What is programme related to?
(ii) Name two special qualities as basis of selection of the progeny.
(iii) What is the outcome of programme.
(iv) What is the popular term given to this outcome? Also name the Indian scientist, Who is credited with taking out this programme.
(i) Plant breeding
(ii) Better yield and disease resistance
(iii) Superior improved variety
(iv) Green revolution, M.S. Swaminathan.
Find out what are the various components of the medium used for propagation of explant in vctro.
Medium should provide carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino
acids and growth regulators like auxins cytokinins etc.
Name any 5 hybrid varieties of Crop plants which have been developed in India.
- Hybrid maize
- Hybrid wheat
- Hybrid Jowar
- Hybrid bajra
- Hybrid Green pea.
What is commonly used to produce virus resistant plants.
Hybridisation with disease resistant variety, wild relative or related species.
Name and define the two major methods of animal breeding.
Inbreeding and out breeding are the two major methods of animal breeding.
- Inbreeding:- Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals of the same breed.
- Outbreeding:- Outbreeding refers to the mating of the individuals of different breeds or the individuals of same breed having no common ancestors.
Why is bee keeping preferred?
Beekeeping is preferred because
- There is an increased demand for honey and also beewax
- It can be practiced in any area where there are sufficient bee pastures
- Several species of honey bees can be reared
Write the differences between somaclones and somatic hybrids.
|They are clones produced through tissue culture
They are used in rapid multiplication of a desired variety
|They are hybrids formed through protoplast tissue
Hybrids develop even in those cases where their development is not possible through sexual means.
2nd PUC Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Five Marks Questions
Enumerate the points that have to be considered for successful bee keeping.
The following are the points for successful beekeeing
- Knowledge of nature and habits of bee
- Selection of suitable location and keeping the beehives.
- Catching and hiving of swarms
- Management of beehives during deficient seasons
- Handling and collection of honey and bee wax.
(a) Write the scientific names of sugarcane grown in North India and South India respectively Mention their characteristic features.
(b) Mention the characteristic features of hybrid variety produced by crossing these two varieties.
(a) Sugar cane grown in North India is Saccharum barberi. It has poor yield and poor sugar content. Sugar cane grown in South India is Saccharum officinarum. It has thicker stems and high sugar content but cannot grow well in north Indian condition.
(b) They were successfully crossed to yield hybrid varieties having the following desirable qualities.
- High yield
- Thick stem
- High sugar content
- Ability to grow in North Indian sugar cane growing region.
Expand MOET. Explain the procedure of this technology in cattle improvement. (Delhi CBSE 2008)
MOET – Multiple ovulation Embryo transfer technology .It is a method to improve the chances of successful production of hybrids. A cow is administered hormone with FSH like activity to induce follicular maturation and superovulation, i.e. production of 6-8 ova instead of one per cycle
- The cow is either mated with the selected superior bull or artificially inseminated
- The fertilize eggs are recovered non surgically at the 8-32 celled stage
- They are often transferred to the uterus of the surrogate mother and allowed IP develop till birth
- The genetic mother is now available for another cycle of superior ovulation.
IARI has released several varieties of crop plants that are biofortified. Give 3 examples of crops and there biofortification.
- Vitamin A enriched carrots, spinach, pumpkin etc.
- Vitamin C enriched tomato, mustard, bitter guard.
- Calcium enriched spinach
- Proteins enriched broad bean, french beans and garden peas etc.
Biofortification can solve the problem of hidden hunger. Explain.
Biofortification is the breeding of crops to produce varieties with higher levels of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, high protein content and healthier fats.
- It is the most practical means to improve public health.
- Many hybrid varieties of crops have been produced that are enriched with specific nutrients
e.g.: Iron – riched spinach, vitamin C riched tomato, bitter gourd, mustard etc.,
- By eating the normal food made from these nutrient – enriched varieties of crops there can be an end to deficiency diseases.
Name and explain the method employed these days for breeding for disease resistance give an example.
Mutation breeding is used Mutation breeding is the process in which mutations are induced by the use of chemicals or radiation and selecting and using the plants that show the desirable characters, e.g.: By this process, mung bean is resistant to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew has been produced.
(a) Differentiate between Inbreeding and Out breeding.
(b) What is germ plasm collection?
|Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related indi -viduals with in the same breed for 4-6 generations.||Out breeding refers to the mating of unrelated animals of same breed or deferent breeds of different species.|
(b) Germ plasm collection refers to the entire collection of plants and seeds having all different alleles of all the genes in a crop and its closed relatives.
Write the steps in the production of new variety of plants.
- Collection of variability or germ plasm collection
- Evaluation and selection of parents
- Cross hybridisation among selected parents
- Selection of superior in fields
- Release and commercialisation of new varieties.
Define totipotency of a cell. List the requirements of the objective to produce somaclones of a tomato plant in commercial scale.
Totipotency is defined as the capacity of any plant cell to generate a whole plant. Requirements are
- An explant, i.e. any part/tissues of a tomato plant
- Nutrient medium containg a carbon source like sucrose, inorganic salts, aminoacids, vitamins and growth regulators like auxins and cytokinins.
- Sterile conditions.
What is artificial insemination in animal breeding? What are its advantages.
Artificial insemination is the process in which the semen collected from a superior male animals is injected into the reproductive tract of selected female, using surgical instruments under aseptic condition.
- Semen cart be used immediately or stored or frozen and used at a later date, when the female animal is in the right phase of reproduction.
- Semen can be transported in the frozen form to where the selected/Superior female animal is present.
- Semen from a single selected male cow be used for insemination of a number of females.
- It helps us to overcome several problems associated with normal mating.