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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs
Max. Marks: 100
Section – A
I. Answer the following in one sentence each: ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Name the four concepts of Human development.
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture is an art of tilling the soil for the purpose of raising the crops to provide food for the man and fodder for the animals.
Which is the largest news Agency in the world?
The laigest news Agency in the world is reuter. It is the first news paper in die world.
What are Hamlets?
They are smaller than village and lacking of public utilities.
What are the Rank of Human development index of India according to 2011?
The rank of Human development index of India according to 2011 is 134th rank.
What are the drawbacks of well irrigation?
They can dry up in the summer season.
What is the scientific name of the wheat?
‘Triticum’ is the scientific name of the wheat
What is the meaning of term petroleum?
The term ‘Petroleum’ has been derived from two Latin words, petro means ‘Rock’ and ‘Oleum’ means ‘Oil’ through the word petroleum literally means rock oil known as mineral oil.
In which year was STPI established in India?
Software technology park of India (STPI) was established in 1995.
National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA).
Section – B
II. Answer any TEN of the following questions in 2-3 sentence each. ( 2 x 10 = 20 )
Write a short note in food Gathering.
Gathering of products from nature to fulfill their basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. In some parts of the world, the people lead a simple life depending upon the nature for their livelihood like collect the wild fruits, roots, nuts, leaves for the food, bark of tree, leaves and grass for clothing branches of tree, bamboo, leaves for making their homes for examples few nomadic tribes in the world.
What are the uses of animal rearing.
- Source of employment for the formers.
- Source of income for the former and revenue to the government.
- For animal product like milk, meat, bones, skins, hair and wool etc.
- Source of natural manure for the agriculture.
What is occupational structure?
The economic activities is an important criteria for designing urban settlements interns of population size and their occupation secondary and tertiary occupations are pre-dominant in the urban areas.
What is the difference between intrastate and inter state migration.
Movement of people from one state to another is called inter state migration for example people can migrate from Karnataka to Goa.
In contrast movement of people within the state is called ‘Intra-state migration’ for example: People can migrate from for Mysore to Bengaluru.
What are Aus, Aman and Boro?
They are the veraities of rice grown in following seasons.
- Aus : Seeds are sown in May-June and harvested in September – October [Autumn season],
- Aman : Seeds are sown in June-July and harvested in November – December [Rainy season],
- Boro : Seeds are sown in November to December and harested in March – April [Summer season],
What are the types of thermal power projects.
- Coal based thermal power projects.
- Oil based thermal power projects.
- Gas based thermal power projects.
Which are the regions identified for the establishment of tidal power stations in India.
- the gulf of kambhat on wrest coast in Gujarat:
- sundarbans in the West Bengal on the East coast.
- lakshadweep and Andaman nicobar islands.
Mention the four important advantages of Hoogly Kolkata region?
- A rich hinter land of the Ganga and Brahmaputra plains.
- Availability of raw materials like jute, cotton, tea, minerals etc.
- Cheap labour from Bihar and Odisha.
- Availability of vast market in and around Kolkata.
State the two types of water ways.
- Inland water transport.
- Ocean water transport.
Mention the advantages of Newspaper?
- They are available for low cost.
- They provide all types of information regarding science and technology, news, articles etc.
- Large number of people can read them.
- They provide a accurate information from different sources.
Name different types of degraded lands in India.
- Barren and uncultivable waste land.
- Natural degraded cultivable waste land
- Natural and man made degraded CWL
- Man made degraded . CWL [Cultivable waste land]
Mention the drought prone areas in India.
- Semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarath.
- Western Madhya Pradesh.
- Maratha wada region of Maharastra.
- Rayalaseema and telegana pleatus of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka pleatus.
Section – C
III. Answer any Eight of the following in 25-30 sentences each: ( 5 x 8 = 40 )
Describe the development of human geography.
- Human Geography is a recent sprout from the main, trunk of geography. During 18th & 19th century a new systematic approach of studying man & nature relationship was introduced into the field of Georaphy.
- Friedrich Ratzel, a German geography was greatly influenced by Darwin’s theory (1859). He wrote a book ‘Anthropo Geography” in 1882.
- Anthropo means ‘Human’ so he coined the term “Human Geography”. Hence, Ratzel is known as the Father of ‘Human Geography’, he developed man & his relationship with environment as described in two schools –
- The German school or the Deterministic school – Describes . The control of environment
on man and his activities.
- French school or possibilistic school – It advocates that environment provides possibilities for man to persue variuos activities.
- Later Griffith Taylor an Australian Geography introduced ‘Neo-determinism’ or ‘Stop and Go determinism’ which balances between environment determinism and possibilism approach. . .
- The German school or the Deterministic school – Describes . The control of environment
- Many Geographers & new approaches, methods tools were introduced to develop Human Geography into systematic science.
Write a note on sex ratio and age structure of the world.
- The ratio between male and female population is called sex ratio. It is usual measured as “the number of females per thousand nales.
- On an average, a sex ratio of the world was 986 females per 1000 males during 2010 it was reduced 984 in 2011.
- The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in ‘Latria and Estonia’ it was 1174 & 1170 per thousand.
- The lowest sex ratio was found in UAE which is only 468 females per thousand males.
- As per the united nations list in 139 countries females are more than the males. Where as 72 countries males are more than females.
Age structure represents the number of people in different age groups. It includes both male & female population.
- About 65.8% of population belongs to the age group of 15-65 years who are ‘adults’.
- Above 65 years of age group is only 8%. They are called ‘aged’.
- Remaining about 26.2% is below the age group of 15 year called ‘infants’.
- Dependency ratio – The population ratio between the ages of 15 & 64 (Aults) and below 15,(infants) & above 64 (aged).
Explain the Growth of population in the world.
The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.
- It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
- Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
- At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
- During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and centum ended with 6 billion.
- It continues to grow even in the 21st century.
Stages of Population growth:
I Three billion – July 1959
II Four billion-April 1974
III Five billion-July 1987
IV Six billion – October 1999
V Seven billion – 12th March 2012.
Explain internet, remote sensing, E-mail and satellite communication.
- Internet : An Interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world.
- E-Mail : A system for sending and receiving messages electronically over a computer network, in between personal computers.
- Remote Sensing : Remote sensing is the scanning of the earth by Satellite or aircraft to obtain information about it. It is also the gathering and recording of information through
aerial Photographs and Satellite images.
- Satellite Communication : An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information for communication with other purposes.
What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
Effects of over population:
- Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution.
- Deforestation and loss of ecosystem.
- Increasing temperature in the atmosphere which results of Global Warming.
- Starvation, Malnutrition.
- Unhygienic living condition for many due to water scarcity, discharge of sewage water & solid waste disposal.
- Depletion of natural resources.
- Political instability.
- Increasing of unemployment.
- Lack of civic amentities (Food, Clothing & Shelter).
Measurements to Control the population:
- Adoption and Propoganda of Family planning methods.
- Practice of celibacy.
- Self control.
- Remaining unmarried.
- Improving women’s status and health.
- Provide education.
- Increasing the food production.
Explain the measures to check the growth of population in India.
The government of India has taken several steps to control the growth of population in the country are as :
- Family Planning Programme : India was the first country in the world to adopt the family planning programme in the year 1952. The main aim is to control births by various means such as free sterilization (Vasectomy for males Tubectomy for females). Adopting contraceptives etc.
- Improvement of the status of women : The social, economic and political status of women have been improved through education and various women welfare scheme. For ex: In Karnataka free Education, Government jobs, Bhagyalaxmiyojana etc.
- Programmes to control infant mortality: The government of Karnataka has introduced many child welfare programmes to control infant mortality. For ex: Jananisurakshayojan, Madilu Prasooti Araike etc.
- Area Projects : Under this project health worker visit door to door and advise. In addition they are also motivating the people to adopt contraceptives and undergo sterilization.
- Publicity : Broadcasting the benifits of small family through the Radio, Television and Newspapers etc.
Explain the chief aims and importance of Hirakud project.
- It is an ambitious multipurpose river valley project in Odisha, planned for harnessing the waters of Mahanadi river.
- There dams are constructed across the Mahanadi at different places.
- The 4801 mt long dam has been built across the Mahanadi at Hirakud, 9.7 kms up stream of Sambalpur.
- The height of the dam above the river bed is 61 metres.
- It is the longest dam in India and forms 650km2 reservoir.
- It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore cubic meters of water.
- They irrigate 2.54 lakh hectares.
- The project has two hydro-electric power stations with an installed capacity of 270 m.
- The second and third dams are constructed at Tikarapara and Naraj respectively.
- The Mahanadhi Delta Irrigation scheme can provide irrigation for 6.84 lakh hectares.
- The third one comprises of 1353 km and 386.2 km long canals with irrigation potential of 5.4 lakh hectares.
- Chief Aims of this projects are :
- Flood control
- Irrigation development
- Generation of hydro-electric power
- Provides navigation, recreational facilities and afforestation.
Explain the canal irrigation in India.
India has one of the largest canal systems of the world. Canals are the second largest source of irrigation in the country.
Canals are of two types :
- Inundation canals : taken out directly from rivers, without making any barrage or dam.
- Perennial canals : which are taken out from the reservoirs by constructing barrage or weir to regulate the flow of water.
- Canal irrigation is widely practiced in the Sutlej Gangas plains and the deltas of the peninsular rivers.
- Nearly 79% of India’s canals irrigated area lies in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh,Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh etc.
- Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India where canal irrigation is most extensive.
- Canal irrigation suffers from a number of draw-backs such as water logging, increase in water table, alkalinity of soils due to capillary action etc.
What are the Geographical conditions necessary for the cultivation of cotton? Explain the varieties of cotton.
Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:
- Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 2l°C to 24°C temperature.
- It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
- Deep black soil is well suitable to cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
- Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
- Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
- Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
- Cotton plant is susecptible to disease & pests. It requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.
- The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.
Varieties of Cotton:-
(i) Long Staple Cotton :
- It is the best variety .
- It has over 3.8 cm in length.
- Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & superfine quality of cloth.
- It is largely grown in Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, TamilNadu & MadhyaPradesh etc.
(ii) Medium Staple Cotton :
- The length of cotton fibre is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
- It is used for making Medium cloth.
- This is grown in Rajasthan, Punjab, TamilNadu, MadhyaPradesh, UttarPradesh, Karnataka etc.
(iii) Short Staple Cotton :
- This is inferior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
- It is used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fibre etc.
- This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
- Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.
Explain the need of agriculture in India.
Agriculture is the most important Primary activity and the oldest occupation of human beings in India.
- Main source of livelihood : About 70% of the people directly and indirectly depend on agriculture for their Livelihood.
- Food supply : Agriculture provides food grains, fruits, vegetables, spices etc to the people and fodder for the animals.
- Provides employment facilities : Agriculture is largest sector providing highest employment.
- Source of National income : It contributes to the national income of the country.
- Source of raw materials for Agro-based-industries ex: Raw cotton, sugar cane and Jute.
- Source of large amount of revenue to the government.
- Support to tertiary sector like transport, communication, banking, insurance etc.
- Help to internal trade like Agricultural products are transported from the area of surplus production to the area scarcity.
- Support to export, many agricutlural products produced in the country are exported i.e. tea, coffee, Jute, Tobacco etc.
- Political & Social situation in the country is determined by the agricultural production.
Describe the radio as a communication media in India.
Radio has played an important means of communication in the field of advertising, information, broadcasting local, regional, public opinions, national and international news, sports, cricket etc.
- Radio is more powerful than the press because it gives immediate information throughout the world without loss of time. Radio broadcasting was started in India in the early 1920’s.
- The first programme was broadcasted in 1923 by radio club of Mumbai. The broadcasting service was setup in 1927.
- It was changed to all India Radio (AIR) in 1936. It also came to be known as “Akashvani” from 1957.
- The All India radio has at present 213 Radio stations these includes 114 regional stations,
- Radio reaches both to the literate and illiterate as well as to people of all ages.
- It creates awakening among the people about the worls.
- It provides educated values.
- The productions costs are lower.
- Radio is the only mass media that people use while driving, cleaning, moving etc. ‘ Disadvantages:
- Radio is brief, It cannot be very descriptive.
- Its scope is limited.
- It is one way commuication.
- It is confined to the control of government.
What is target area planning? Why it is necessary in India? Give any four examples of target area planning.
Target area planning means making schmes for the development of particular group or area such as backward regions.
- This type of planning is necessary in india because region imbalances in Economic development are getting serious.
- Some of the examples of programmes directed towards the development of target areas are command Area Development Programme.
- Drought prone area development programme.
- Desert Development Programme.
- Hill area development programme.
- The small farmers development agency and margins farmers development agency which are the examples of target group programme.
Section – D
IV. Answer any one of the following : ( 10 x 1 = 10 )
Describe the distribution, production and trade of Bauxite in India.
- Bauxite ore is found in laterite rocks occuring extensively either on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India and also in the coastal tracts of the country.
- It is estimated that total reserves of Buaxite in the country is about 2500 million tones. This reserve is the .fifth largest in the world.
- Odisha : Odisha has large reserves and is the biggest producer of Bauxite in India.
Vast reserves of Bauxite are located at Kalahandi, Koraput, Sundaragarh, Bolingir and Sambalapur districts.
- Chhatisgarh: Chhatisgarh produce more than 18.4 percent of the total production of Bauxite in the country. It is found Bilasapur, Durga, Surguja and Rajagarh districts.
- Maharashtra : Maharashtra accounts for 15.1
percent of the total production of Bauxite in the country. It mainly occurs in Ratnagiri, Kollapur, Jhana and Satara districts.
- Jharkhand : It is fourth largest producer of Bauxite in India. If contributes about 14.3 percent of total production. It is located in Ranchi, Lahardaga, Palmu and Gumla districts.
- Gujarat: Gujarat is another important producer of Bauxite in India.
It accounts for 6.6 percent in India. It is located in Jamanagar, Junagash, Kedha Kuchchh and Bhavanagar districts.
- Others : East and West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerela, Karnataka etc Trade :
- Nearly 80 percent of the bauxite in India is used for producing aluminium.
- India’s export of bauxite have been reduced considerably due to the increasing demand in the home market.
- So, India exports only 20 percent of its Bauxite ore mainly to Italy, U.K, Japan and Germany.
Write the importance of knowledge based industry and explain briefly why? These industries are located in major cities.
Significance : Computer software industry in India are :
- The Aptitude of Indians for mathematics.
- Another reason may be the cost advantage of production in India. Global software firms are attracted to India’s large, skilled labour force.
- It has the second largest number of English speaking scientific professionals in the world, after the U.S.
- The Indian software industry focuses more on management information and decisions support systems, banking, insurance and financial applications, artificial intelligence etc.
- The major software and hardware producing companies include M/s Altos, HCL, Infosystems, Wipro, Digital Equipment (India), Zenith Computers, Tata Honey well, Unicorp Industries, Eseda Industries, Infosys, BEL software, PSI Data are global software firms having manufacturing base in India.
- Among the states of India Karnataka, particularly Bengaluru is the most important destination of Indian software industry so it is called Silicon Valley of India.
- In addition to Bengaluru software industries are also, developing in many centres of Karnataka such as Mysore, Mangalore, Udupi, Hubli etc.
Section – E
V. Answer any TWO of the following. ( 10 x 2 = 20 )
Construct a pie diagram using the following data.
India : Types of railways gauges – 2012.
(a) Construct a line graph by using the following data
Karnataka : Selected district-wise population (id lakh)
(b) Construct a single bar graph by using following data Karnataka: Decade wise sex ratio [per 1000 males]
Answer any two of the following : (10 × 2 = 20 )
(a) Explain the primary sources of data.
Meaning – The data which are collected for the first time by a researcher or groups of researchers, institution or organizations are called Primary sources of data.
Types of Primary data collection:-
1. Through Personal interview : Personal interviews are the most commonly used method of collecting data, because the interviewer has the opportunity of explaing the study and answering any question, here the researcher gets direct information from the respondents.
2. By Personal observations: It refers to the collection of data or information by individual or group of individuals, through direct observations in the field.
3. By Questionnaire : The most common method used in surverys is the Questionnaire. In this method, simple questions and their possible answers are written on a plain paper, and the respondents have to tick mark the possible answers from given choices.
4. Others methods :
- Telephone interview : In this method, the researcher/interviewer can collect the information over the telephone.
- Measuring properties : In this method, the data about properties of soil, and water collected directly from the field by measuring their characteristics using soil and water quality kit.
(b) Explain the components of GIS.
The components of GIS are
- Data : Geographical data can jbe divided into 3
- Spatial data Any data which is associated with a specific geographical location, eg Locating of India, Bangalore city, KRS dam.
- Attribute/Non-spatial data Any data which is not associated with a specific geographical location.
- Continous dataThe data which have no discrete boundaries like soil, atmospheric temperature and land elevation.
- Software : There are the programmes designed to run the computer. However, GIS is designed to collect, store, process geographical data and construct maps.
- Hardware : Hardware comprises storing and processing devices like central process unit, monitor, key board, mouse, printer, scanner etc …
- People : This component consists of the skilled people who involve in data capturing, ‘, processing and analysing.
- Analysis : It involves the processing of GIS data with various analyses so as to get meaningful information.
(c) Explain the segments of GPS.
There are three segments of GPS:-
1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.
2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they are –
- Colorado spring
- Ascension Island
- Diego Garcia
3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.