2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Who is called the Father of Human Geography?
Friedrich Ratzel


Question 2.
What is industry?
The activities which are related to manufacturing are called Industry.

Question 3.
Expand ISRO.
ISRO: Indian Space Research Orgainsation

Question 4.
Name the First Megacity of the World.
Newyork is the First Megacity of the World.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which State of India has highest female population?
Kerala (1084 females for every 1000 males) according 2011 census.

Question 6.
Name the reservoir formed by Bhakra-Nangal project.
Govind Sagar

Question 7.
Mention the State which produces highest paddy in India.
‘West Bengal’ It contributes 14.24% under total production of rice in India

Question 8.
What is called ‘Liquid gold.’

Question 9.
Which industry is called knowledge based industry?
Utilization of skilled man power through the set of programmes is known as Knowledge based industry.

Question 10.
Which harbour is called the Gate Way of India?
“Mumbai port” is known as Gate Way of India.

II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Write the different human economic activities.

  • Primary activities
  • secondary activites
  • Teritary activities
  • Quaternary activities

Question 12.
Mention the types of fishing.
the different types of fishing are

  • Fresh water fishing
  • Coastal water fishing
  • Open sea fishing

Question 13.
Name any two administrative cities of the world.

  • Mysore
  • Dharwad

Question 14.
Name the States recorded highest and lowest literacy in India.
The state recorded as highest literacy rate of India is Kerala with 93.91% and Bihar with 63.83% is the lowest Literacy State.

Question 15.
Mention the different types of Tea.

  • Bohea or Chinese variety: It grows at an elevation of more than 1500 meters
  • Assamica: It can be grown at higher elevation about 2400 meters.

Question 16.
Name any two atomic power stations of India.

  • Tarapur near Bombay.
  • Ranapratap Sagar plant near Kota in Rajasthan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Mention the superior quality of coal type.
The types of coal are:

  • Anthracite
  • lignite
  • Bituminous
  • Peat

Question 18.
Write the raw materials essential for cement industry.
Lime stone, sea shalls, slag, silica alumina, clay and gypsum are the raw materials used in the cement industry.

Question 19.
Mention any two International Airports in India.

  • Sahara – Mumbai
  • Indira Gandhi International – Delhi
  • Subash Chandra Bose – Kolkata
  • Anna – Chennai
  • Kempegowda international airport – Bangalore
  • Rajiv Gandhi international airport – Hyderabad.

Question 20.
Write the different types of trade.
Export trade of India: Refers to the sale of goods and services by India to other countries of the world.
Import trade of India: Refers to the buying goods from foreign countries and bringing them to home country.

Question 21.
Mention the causes for sound pollution.

  • It causes stress and high blood pressure nervous.
  • Uneasiness among the people living close to the source of Noise Pollution.
  • It has adverse effect on animal life also.
  • It causes road accidents.

Question 22.
Write the two types of planning.
1. Planning is the process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action.

2. It involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal.
There are two approaches to planning, sectorial planning and regional planning.

  1. The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at Development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.
  2. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind.
  3. This uneven pattern of developed over space necessitates that the Planners should have spatial perspective and draws the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of Planning is termed as regional planning.

III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 25 to 30 sentences each: (5 × 8 = 40)

Question 23.
Explain the branches of human geography.
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 1

1. Economic Geography: It deals with the study of influence of Geographical factors on the economic activities man like agriculture, industries, transport etc.

2. Political Geography: It deals with the influences of geographical environment on political aspects such as states nations & boundaries etc.

3. Urban Geography: the study of urban location, development, morphology interaction and movement of urban population.

4. Cultural and Social Geography: It helps us to study the cultural evolution, distribution, age, structure and social life of the world.

5. Population Geography: It deals with geographical environment on population growth, density, distribution & migration etc.

6. Settlement Geography: The study of location of settlements, distribution, density, form, function & morphologes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 24.
Discuss the units of population growth.
The growth of population refers to the increases in the number of inhabitants of a country during specific period.

  • It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804.
  • Due to the impact of the industrial revolution & improvement in living standards, the rate of population growth increased two billion in 1927.
  • At present estimate of 2013 the globe is inhabited by 7121 million population.
  • During the begining of 20th century the world population was only 2 billion and centum ended with 6 billion. It continues to grow even in the 21st century.

Stages of Population growth:

  • Three billion – July 1959
  • Four billion – April 1974
  • Five billion – July 1987
  • Six billion – October 1999
  • Seven billion – 12th March 2012.

Question 25.
Explain the stages of demographic, cycle.
Demographic cycle is the process of population transformation from the countries of high birth rate and high death rates to low birth rate & low death rate countries.
Stages of Demographic cycle:
1. First stage: High birth rate and high death is found when the country is economically most backward, so the population remains stationary. India was in the stage till 1920.

2. Second stage (Early expanding): It begins with the declining of death rate while the birth rate ramins unchanged. These changes due to the advancement of science & technology, basic healthcare and education etc. At present many developing countries of Asia & Africa are in this stage.

3. Third stage (Late expanding): Death rate declines and birth rate begins to fall due to access of contraceptives, urbanization, an increase in the status and w’omen education etc India appears to be this stage.

4. Fourth stage (Low stationary): It is characterized with low birth rate and low death rate. Growth is stationary due to changing life style, high obesity and many diseases are caused in this stage. Japan, Sweden, Belgium Denmark & Switzerland are in this stage.

5. Fifth stage(DecIining): Population begins to decline or birth rate is lower than deathrate. East European countries like Germany and Hungary and North European countries like Sweden, Norway are now in this stage.

Question 26.
Explain the four types of Indian roads.
Classification of roads: In India, roads are of the following types.

  1. National highways,
  2. State highways,
  3. District roads and
  4. Village roads.

Besides these, there are border roads and International highways linking major Indian cities with the capitals of other neighbouring countries.

National highways:

  • They connect the capitals of the states, industrial centres and major ports.
  • They are well planned wide roads with two-lane, four-lane, and six-fane roads. Both construction and maintenance are carried out by the Central Government and National Highway Authority of India [NHAI],
  • The total length of the national highways is about 71,772 km as per 2011.
    1. The Golden Quadrilateral,
    2. The North South and East West corridors,
    3. Port connectivity with industries are all parfbf this network.

1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway: The Government of India has implemented a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai by six-lane super high-ways. It has a total length of 5846 kms and it is called as Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway.

2. North – South and East-West corridors: This project connects Srinagar (JK) in the North with Kanyakumari (TN) in the South and Silcher (Assam) in the East with Porbandar (Gujarat) in the West covering major cities along the way. The project has a total length of 7300 km.

3. Port connectivity project: This is also included in the programmes of NHAI. This project connects the Golden Quadrilateral roads with the 13 major ports (380 km) and other projects (962 km). This is still in progress.

4. State Highways: The State Highways connect the important cities of the state with its capital, with the national highways and link with other state capitals. The State Government is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the State Highways. Now there are about 1.54, 522 km length of the state highways in the country.

5. District roads: These roads connect the production and marketing centres with the highways, railways, towns and larger villages with the district headquarters. The Zilla Parishad takes the responsibility of the development and maintenance of these roads.

6. Village roads: Roads which link the taluk headquarters with villages and the district highways are called village roads. They are mostly untarred or metalled. They are constructed and maintained by Taluk Panchayats and Village Panchayats.

7. Border roads: Border roads are constructed in the border areas of the country. They are constructed in the North and North eastern border areas adjoining Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. These are mainly for army movement in the defence of the country.

8. International highways: Some of the national highways of the country have been linked with the international highways of the neighbouring countries.

KSEEB Solutions

What are the problems caused with rapid growth of population?
The Rapid growth of population has led to a number of problems as follows:-

1. Unemployment and Underemployment : It has been increasing from year to year. It has badly affected on young educated people both in rural and urban areas.

2. Shortage of food & Malnutrition: A large number of people are poorly fed. Malnutrition is prevailing throughout the country. It is fatal for the development of the country.

3. Burden on Civic & Social Amenities : Education, health and medical, housing, drinking water, electricity and problems increases.

4. Low per capita income: The increase in per capita income is only 15% annually. Low per capita income has a direct impact on the economic condition of the people.

5. Increase of Unproductive population : Below 15 years (Infants) and above 60 years (old age) are unproductive. They are dependent on earning persons. Thus rapid growth has increased dependents rather than producers. ‘

6. Others : Slow in economic development, mass poverty, low standard of living, political unrest and the social problems like theft robbery, immortality, corruption and the growth of slums, environment pollution are also directly related to the population explosion.

Question 28.
Explain the different types of migrations.
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 2

1. Internal Migration :
Movement of people from one region to another within the same country’ is called internal migration. In India there are four streams of internal migration. They are
(a) Rural to Rural
(b) Rural to urban
(c) Urban to Urban
(d) Urban to Rural.

(a) Rural to Rural: This is estimated that about 65.2% of total migration is of this category’.

  • Female migrants dominated in this stream. Thus it is an important example for matrimonal migration and it is called women migration.

(b) Rural to Urban: Rural to Urban migration (17.6%) is second important type of migration. Rural-Urban migration is caused by both push of the rural areas as well as pull of the urban areas.

(c) Urban to Urban: Generally, people like to move from small town with less facility to large cities with more facilities.

(d) Urban to Rural: Urban areas are usually affected by the pollution.

  • The retired and aged people prefer to spend their old age life in nearby villages. Thus people move from Urban to Rural.

2. International Migration: Movement of people from one country to another across international borders is called International migration.

Question 29.
Write a note on Damodar project.
The main aims of the project are flood control, Promotion of irrigation, Generating Hydro-Electricity, Navigation, Afforestation, Prevents Soil erosion, Inland fishing and recreation facilities.

Its features are as follows :
Damodar and its tributaries

  • It comprises four Dams, three Hydel Power stations one barrage and three thermal power stations.

1. Tilaiya Dam :

  • This dam has been constructed on Barakar river, a tributary of Damodar.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 395 million cubic metres.
  • Two power stations of 200KW each have been set up here. The dam provides irrigation facilities to 40,000 hectares.

2. Konar Dam :

  • It has been constructed on Konar river.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 337 million cubic metres. Its provides irrigation facilities to 1.4 Lakh hectares.

3. Marathon Dam :

  • It has been constructed on Barakar river.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 1,357 million cubic metres. There are three hydro¬electric power units with an installed capacity of 60MW.

4. Panchet Hill Dam :

  • It has been constructed on river Damodar.
  • Its gross storage capacity is 1,497 million cubic meters.

5. Durgapur Barrage : The Network is of 2,495 km long canals. They irrigate 4.75 Lakh hectares in West Bengal.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
Explain the methods of rain water harvesting.
1. Controlling the runoff of rain water and make it to perculate to increase ground water table for future purpose.

2. It involves collection and storage of rainwater at surface or in sub-surface aquifier, before it is lost as surface runoff. It not only increases water availability but also checks the declining water table.

Objectives : The following are the main objectives of rain water harvesting.

  • It checks runoff water & avoid flooding.
  • It replenishes the ground water table and enables the wells.
  • It helps to overcome the adequancy of surface water to meet demand of water.
  • If the ground water is blackish, it will reduce the salinity.
  • It also reduces ground water contamination and improve water quality.
  • It helps to increase agricultural product and improves ecology of an area.

Methods of Rain Water Harvesting :
1. In-situ method The method of percolating the rain at the point of its fall itself is called In-situ rainwater harvesting.
For example :

  • Infilteration pits: The rain water can be collected and stored in pits, dug in farm lands and used for irrigation.
  • Contour bunds and trenches: The Construction of bunds, trenches or check dams.
  • Roof top water harvesting: The Rain water that falls on the roofs of buildings or in courtyards is collected and stored in underground. Sumps, or wells or in drums and used for domestic purpose such as cleaning, washing etc.

2. Ex-situ method: This method of rainwater harvesting involves storing of running water. It is collected in check dams, huge percolation tanks etc. It is an expensive method.

Question 31.
Explain the characteristics of intensive farming.

  • The land holdings are usually small in a thickly populated area, farming is very intensive
    and produced more is known as “Intensive farming”.
  • It is a labour and capital Intensive farming.
  • Large amount of labour and capital is used on small land holding to get maximum production of crops.
  • The available small piece of land is used for cultivation with irrigation facilities through out the year.
  • In this system, farmers try to raise two or more crops, with careful tilling of the soil.
  • Intensive agriculture is characterized by high yields per unit area and farmers try to get
    the maximum production from small land holdings.
  • It is common in the fertile and irrigated parts of the country.
  • In this type, agricultural operations are carried on by manual labour and animals.
  • Rice is the main crop of Intensive farming.

Question 32.
Explain the types and distribution of cotton crop in India.

Conditions for Cultivation of cotton:

  • Cotton is a tropical & Sub-tropical crop. It requires high temperature. At the time of growing it requires 2l°C to 24°C temperature.
  • It requires moderate rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm. However it can cultivate in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
  • Deep black soil is well suitable to cotton crop. This soil is commonly known as Black cotton soil. This is capable of retaining moisture.
  • Cotton requires the use of Manures & fertilizers crop rotation helps to maintain fertility of the soil & improve the yield.
  • Cotton cultivation requires large amount of cheap labours for planting, thinning, seeding, picking of cotton.
  • Frosting, Moist weather & heavy rainfall are harmful to the crop.
  • Cotton plant is susceptible to disease & pests. Scj’it requires the use of insecticides & pesticides.

The Sunny weather is necessary at the time of harvesting the cotton.
Varieties of Cotton:-

(i) Long Staple Cotton :

  • It is the. best variety .
  • It has over 3.8 cm in length.
  • Because of its length of fibre, fine & shining it is used for making fine & superfine quality of cloth.
  • It is largely grown in Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, TamilNadu & MadhyaPradesh etc.

(ii) Medium Staple Cotton :

  • The length of cotton fiber is between 2.5 cm to 3.8 cm is known as medium staple cotton.
  • It is used for making Medium cloth.
  • This is grown in Rajasthan, Punjab, TamilNadu, MadhyaPradesh, UttarPradesh, Karnataka etc. .

(iii) Short Staple Cotton :

  • This is inferior variety with fiber length less than 2.5 cm.
  • It is used for making inferior quality of cloth, stuffing purpose, blending with synthetic, fiber etc.
  • This type of cotton production is reduced in India.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh & Rajasthan etc are growing this type of cotton.

Question 33.
Write the uses and drawbacks of television.

An electronic device that receives television signals and displays them on a screen.

  • Television can offer video clips of events that show the audience what happened in the accompanying story.
  • The television coverage covers events at all times of the day.
  • Television broadcasting was first started by the government of India under the name of Doordarshan (DD) in Delhi on Sep – 1959.
  • Today, Television coverage is provided by Doordarshan to about 90 percent of India’s population in India.


  • It is the most effective medium to deliver information to large number of people very quickly.
  • News in different part of the world can be seen with in minutes or even seconds.
  • Television educates millions of people through advertisement. ,
  • It is a source of entertainment.
  • It makes a personal appeal and transmits the message directly into the home.
  • It exhibits the persons giving the message.


  • It is a sort of time – consuming, people waste time in watching.
  • Television is a health hazard to people, especially to children.
  • Television also braodcasts some inappropriate programmes.
  • It is very costly, so it can be used only to a limited extent.
  • It requires lot of concentration, attention of the people.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 34.
Mention any six problem of slums.

  • Slums are in environmentally unsuited and degraded area. Houses in slums are decaying, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation.
  • Lack of basic amentities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities.
  • They are overcrowded having narrow street pattern prone to serious hazards from fire.
  • People living in slums are poor. Therefore problems are common.
  • They are the undernourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness.
  • They can not afford to give proper education to their children
  • The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse alcoholism, crime, vandalism and ultimately they face social exclusion.

IV. Answer any one of the following questions : (1 × 10 = 10)

Question 35.
Discuss the non-conventional sources of energy.

The term “Automobile” is applied to any self-propelled vehicle powered by an Internal combustion engine & designed to transport passengers and goods over roads and highways.

Development :

  • At present, India has above 40 million passenger vehicles.
  • More than 3.7 million Automotive vehicles are produced annually, making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world after China.
  • According to the society of Indian automobile manufacturers, annual vehicles sales are projected to increase to 4 million by 2015.

Location Factors:
The main factors favour the growth of automobiles industry are:

  • Large supply of Iron & Steel, wood, glass, aluminium and fuels.
  • Highly skilled labour.
  • High degree of scientific and engineering skill.
  • Large amount of capital.
  • A large home market.

Distribution :

  • Mumbai, Chennai, Jamshedpur, Jabalpur and Kolkata are the chief centres of automobile Industry.
  • These centres produce almost all sorts of vehicles including trucks, buses, passengers, three wheelers and two wheelers.
  • Motor cycles are also manufactured at Faridabad and Mysore.
  • Scooters are also manufactured at Lucknow, Satara, Pune, Kanpur & Odhav (Ahmedabad district).

Production :

  • In 2012-13, Automobile industry of India produced 20.6 million vehicles.
  • India is the largest producer of two wheelers.

Question 36.
Write a note on industrial regions of India.

Industrial region refers to the continuous development of industrial landscape over a large area by concentration of a number of factories of different industries. In short, it is a wide area of manufacturing industries.

1. Mumbai-Pune Industrial regions: It is the biggest and most important industrial region of the country. Opening of the Bhorghat to Pune in 1830, opening of steamer service through Suez Canal in 1843, opening of first railway line of 32 km in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane etc. Supports lot of development of industries in this region by the British who got the Mumbai island as marriage gift of Catherine Braganza’s dowry, in 1661.

2. Kolkata-Hooghly Industrial region: It is an old and important industrial region of the country. Kolkata is the main centre for Hooglgly basin, port, rich hinterland of Ganga and Bramaputra plain, Assam and Bengal tea plantations, coal and iron ore region of Chotanagapur plateau. Cheap labour from Weat Bengal Bihar, Orissa states, efficient transport by rail, road and waterways etc. are the important facilities supported to develop this region.

3. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Industrial region: It is thrid largest industrial region of the country. It is located in Gujarat and includes the areas around the Gulf of Khambhat and important industrial centres like Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Koyali, Baruch and Surat etp. Ahmedabad is the main centre for cotton.textiles, woollen and silk, textiles, paper, petrochemicals milk products, Engineering, diesel engines, oil refining etc., are the other important industries of this region.

4. Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Indusrial regions: This region lies in Tamil nadu and Karnataka states. The important centres are Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Sivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Mysore, Mandya, Bhadravathi etc. The region has diversified Industries like cotton textiles, silk, sugar, leather, chemicals, machinery, rubber, electrical equipments telephone, railway coaches, Information Technology’, BioTechnology etc.

5. The Chotanagapur Plateau Industrial regions: This region is located in the states of Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal. This region is called the Ruhr of India on account of the growth of a number of iron and steel plants and various engineering industies. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Chittaranjan, Sindri, Durgapur, Hazaribagh etc are the important industrial town in this region.

6. The Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala Industrial regions: This region covers Uttar Pradesh, parts of Haryana and Delhi. It includes Agra, Saharanpur, Faridabad, Ambala, Delhi, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ferozabad, Noida, Meerut, Mathura, Panipat etc. Delhi is the most important centre for the Industries of cotton textiles, glass, chemicals, automobiles, engineering, paper, soap, vanaspati, sugar and oil refineries. The region is facing the problem of environmental pollution.

KSEEB Solutions

V. Answer the following questions: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 37.
Construct a Pie-Diagram using the following data:
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 5
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 3

2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 4

Question 38.
Construct a simple line graph by using the following data:
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 6

Question 39.
Construct a simple bar graph by using the following data.
Density of population in Indian from 1961-2011
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 8
2nd PUC Geography Previous Year Question Paper June 2016 - 9

KSEEB Solutions

For Blind Students Only

Question 40.
Answer any two of the following: (2 × 10 = 20)

(a) Explain the development of iron and steel industry in India.


  • The Iron and Steel industry is described as a basic Industry.
  • Iron and Steel supplied by this industry such as machineries, irrigation projects, ship building, power projects, construction of bridges, buildings, transport equipment, machine tools and so on.
  • The Production and Consumption of Iron and Steel is an index level of the economic develpoment of a country.

There are nine major Iron and Steel industries in India.

  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), Jamshedpur:- It was established in 1907. It was the first largest steel plant of the country.
  • Vishveswariah Iron and Steel Co. Ltd (VISL) Bhadravathi 11 was first established in 1923 by the princely state of Mysore located at Bhadravathi in Shimoga district of Karnataka.
  • India Iron and Steel Company Ltd (IISCO) Bunpur:- It was established in 1919 at Bumpur in West Bengal. It was the second largest integrated steel plant after Tata Iron and Steel Ltd.
  • Hindustan Steel Company Ltd, Rourkela:- It was completed with the German collaboration. The steel plant was commissioned in 1955.
  • Bhilai Steel Plant :- It has the largest steel production plant of the public sector. It is located at Bilai near Raipur in Chhatisgarh.
  • Durgapur Steel Plant :- The steel plant in Durgapur in West Bengal was established with British collaboration and was commissioned in 1956.
  • Salem Steel Plant:- It is located at Salem in TamilNadu and the production was started from 1982.
  • Vishakapatnam Steel Plant :- Established by National Ispat Nigam Ltd in Andhra Pradesh.
  • New Steel Plants Some private sectors plants are.
  • Jindal Vijaynagar Steel Ltd (JVSL) This steel plant is located at Tomagal, Bellary district in Karnataka.
  • Essar Steel Ltd (ESL) It is situated at Hazira in Gujarat.
  • Ispat Industries Ltd (IIL) It is situated at Dovi, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra.
  • Neelachal Ispat Nigam Ltd (NINL)It is a new steel plant located at Dubai, Odisha.
  • Mini Steel Plants Presently, 199 lincensed electric ore furnace units with an installed capacity of 7.8 million tonnes have been commissioned and hence started commercial production.

(b) Discuss the functions of GIS and GPS.

  • Capture data: Geographical data can be collected/captured from various sources like hard copy, map through tophosheet, digital data, through GPS, Secondary data through published tables.
  • Storing data: Geographical data once captured, it needs to transform from Analogy into digital format and to be stored in computer for further analysis.
  • Query: Once you have a functional GIS containing your geographical information, you can begin to ask a simple questions.
  • Analysis: There are 3 types
    1. Proximity Analysis : Proximity queries find features with in a certain distance of other features.
    2. Overlay Analysis : It is simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require One or more data layers to be joined physically.
    3. Network Analysis : Anetwork is a set of edges and junctions that are Topologically connected to each other.
  • Display: Once analysis is done maps, diagrams, graphs and tables are to be designed and same has to be displayed over computer moniter.
  • Output: This is final, stage of GIS function where in the maps, data tables etc…. can be printed to have hard copy as output.

There are three segments of GPS:-

1. The space segments : The satellites of GPS are launched and positioned at an altitude of approximately 20200 km which is almost more than three times of the earth’s radius. The space segment consists of a constellation of 24 functioning GPs satellites located in 6 orbital plane with 4 satellites in each orbital plane. The time for the satellite to complete one revolution around the earth is 11 hrs and 58 minutes.

2. The control segment: The control segment consists of facilities necessary for satellites especially healthy monitoring, telemetry, tracking command and control clock error ‘ computation .of satellites. There are 5 GPS stations spread over the earths surface they are

  • Hawaii
  • Colorado spring
  • Ascension Island
  • Diego Garcia
  • Kwajalein.

3. The user segment: It is a total user and supplier community, both civilian and military. The user segment consists of all earth – based GPS receivers. Receivers very greatly in size and complexity, through the basic design in rather simple. The space and control segments are largely transparent to the operations of navigation functions.

(c) Explain the urban waste disposal in India.

  • Urban centres are known for large amount of waste generation. It is a serious problem in India.
  • In metropolitan cities likes Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore etc.
  • About 90 percent of the solid waste is collected and disposed.
  • The waste may be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost.
  • Untreated wastes fermently releases toxic bio gases to the atmosphere including methane.
  • These wastes should be treated as resources and utilized for generating energy and compost etc.