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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 1 with Answers
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
From which language is the word ‘India’ derived?
The word India is derived from Persian word ‘Indos’.
Which is the first Paleolithic site found in India?
The Sohan river basin.
What is meant by ‘Veda’?
Veda means knowledge.
Which was the original home of the Kushanas?
The Kushanas were originally a nomadic race known as Yuch – Chi and they lived in China.
Which inscription tells about the Chola village administration?
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka – I.
What was the title of Shivaji?
Chatrapati was the title of Shivaji.
Name the Philosophy of Madhwacharya.
Dwaitha was the Philosophy of Madhwacharya.
When was the British East India Company established?
The British East India Company was established in 1600 C.E.
Expand : I.N.A.
Indian National Army.
Which was the famous work of Alur Venkata Rao?
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Name any two Universities of ancient India.
The Nalanda and Takshashila were two Universities of ancient India.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Neolithic’?
The word Neolithic is derived from the Greek words Neo meaning new and Lithic meaning stone to refer to the New Stone Age.
Which two political institutions assisted the King in the administration, during the Vedic Period?
Sabha and Samithi.
Name any two architectural centres of the Satavahanas.
Amaravathi, Nagarjunakonda, Karle, Nasik, Kanheri etc.,
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola-I.
Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola, Kedarakonda Deva etc.,
Name any two works of Pampa.
Vikramarjima Vijaya and Adipurana.
Mention any two titles of Vikramaditya-VI.
Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla.
Who was Mahmud Gawan and where did he build the Madarasa?
Mahmud Gawan was a chief minister of Mahammad Shah – III. He built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Who founded Anubhava Mantapa and where?
Basaveshwara at Kalyana (Bidar Dist).
Mention any two terms of the treaty of Srirangapattana.
Tippu Sultan had to cede half of his Kingdom to the British and pay 330 lakhs of rupees as war indemnity. On his failure to pay the amount, he had to keep two of his sons as hostages with the British.
What was the opinion of Macaulay regarding Eastern literature?
Macaulay opined that “A single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia”.
When and where was Swami Vivekananda born?
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 at Calcutta.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each. (6 × 5 = 30)
Unity in Diversity is the unique feature of Indian History. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different cLimatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity.
1. Geographical diversity:
India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas, etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.
2. Racial and linguistic diversities:
People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids, etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.
3. Social and religious diversity :
India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry are also practiced. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.
4. Economic and Political diversities :
The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.
In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:
1. Geographical unity :
India has well-defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.
2. Administrative unity:
The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi. Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.
3. Uniformity of education and literature:
Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country.
Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.
4. Religious and social ceremonies:
India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds, and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.
5. Recent changes:
Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.
Explain the town planning of Indus Civilization.
1. Town planning:
Town planning was a unique feature of Indus civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized, urban and developed life. The cities were excellently planned and efficiently constructed. Indus cities were built according to a standard and uniform plan with well-laid streets, construction of houses, drainage systems, Great Bath, granary and other features which is quite amazing in nature.
The streets were broad, running from east to west and north to south. The roads crossed each other at right angles. The main streets were 13 to 34 feet wide. The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks. Street lights and dustbins were also provided on the streets. An elaborate drainage system was maintained.
People of Indus, built houses and other buildings by the side of roads. They built terraced houses and used burnt bricks made of mud and mortar as building materials. In each house, there were the open courtyard, rooms around it, a kitchen and a bathroom.
Every house had two or more storeys. The entrances to the houses were usually inside alleys, and most of the houses had a well. The bathroom was constructed nearest to the street so that the wastewater drain was directly connected to the main drainage through clay pipes. Water supply was excellent. They also built a dockyard at Lothal.
4. Drainage system:
One of the most remarkable features of this civilization was an excellent closed drainage system. Each house had its own soak pit, which was connected to the public drainage. The drainage channels were 9 inches wide to 12 inches deep, The drains were laid well below the street level. The drains were all covered with slabs and had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes. Thus, Indus, people had perfected the underground drainage system.
5. The Great Bath (Public bath):
The public bath is the most remarkable well to be found at Mohanjodharo. It consists of a large quadrangle. The actual bathing pool measured 39 × 33 feet with a depth of 8 ft. It was surrounded by verandahs with rooms and galleries behind them. On all sides of the pool, there were steps.
Provisions were made to drain off the dirty water from the pool regularly and freshwater was brought in. It speaks volumes about the technical skill, perfection, sense of sanitation and hygiene possessed by the Indus people.
6. The Granary (Warehouse):
The most remarkable and the largest building at Harappa is the great granary. It measures 169 × 135 ft. The one in Mohanjodharo is 150 × 75 feet. Revenue was probably collected in kind and the granary was used to store the grains collected.
7. Dockyard :
Dr. S.R Rao discovered the Lothal dockyard at Cambay in Gujarat. It is a noteworthy structure, which could accommodate several ships at a time. It shows that Indus people earned on external trade through ships. It gives us a good idea of the engineering skill of them.
The whole city was well maintained by the municipal authorities by supplying water, constructing public wells, providing street lights, dustbins and maintaining an excellent drainage system. But there is no information regarding the political organization or nature of Government.
Write about the achievements of Chandragupta Maurya.
a. Chandragupta Maurya 324-300 BCE:
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. There is very little information about his parents, his birth and early childhood, lie was born in the capital city of Pataliputra. Kautilya, better known as Chanakya, a brahmin from Takshashi la took the orphan under his care, educated him in all the princely requirements and trained him to be a worthy commander and Ruler. Chandragupta was fortunate to come under the influence of this great thinker, politician, and statesman.
1. Conquests of Punjab :
Chandragupta built a strong army under the guidance of Chanakya and defeated the petty Rulers of Punjab and annexed their regions. He then marched against Magadha.
2. Defect of the Nanda ruler:
Chandragupta made several attempts to defeat the Nandas. Chanakya had vowed to depose Dhanananda because he had insulted Chanakya. Dhanananda was finally defeated and killed and Chandragupta Maurya became the King of Magadha and established the Mauryan dynasty.
After overthrowing and ending Dhanananda’s oppressive rule, Chandragupta consolidated his power and freed the country from foreign occupation. The Greek Governors appointed by Alexander in the Sindh and Punjab provinces were defeated and the territories were annexed by Chandragupta.
3. War with Seleucus:
After the death of Alexander, the eastern part of his Empire went over to Seleucus. A war ensued between Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus was defeated, and he had to sign a treaty with Chandragupta and had to surrender the provinces of Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar, and Baluchistan.
This victory of Chandragupta spread his Kingdom up to the frontiers of Hindukush (Afghanistan) the northwest. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with the Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as his Ambassador to Pataliputra.
Chandragupta was undoubtedly one of the greatest Rulers of India. He expelled the Greeks from the country. According to Jain tradition, in the last days of his reign, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism under the influence of the Jain scholar Bhadrabahu. lie spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and died by performing ‘Sallekhana’ in 300 BCE.
Describe the achievements of Harshavardhana.
1. Harshavardhana (606-647 C.E):
Harshavardhana was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas. He came to power in 606 C.E. Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were his parents. He had an elder brother Rajavardhana and a younger sister Rajyashri. Prabhakara Vardhana was succeeded by Rajavardhana.
Yashomathi pained by the death of her husband, committed Sati in 605 C.E. Devagupta of Malwa killed Rajyashri’s husband Gruhavarma and imprisoned her at Kanauj. Rajavardhana who went to get her released, was killed by Shashanka of Gaudadesha. Harshavardhana came to power under such painful circumstances.
2. Immediate tasks and conquests :
The immediate task of Harsha was twofold One to crush his enemies and the other to save his sister from the enemy’s prison. King Shashanka of Bengal was responsible for the murder of Harsha’s brother and even for imprisoning Rajyashri. Harsha marched against Shashanka and won a diplomatic victory by concluding a treaty of friendship with Bhaskaravarma of Kamarupa, then attacked Shashanka and took revenge.
Harsha’s first act was to rescue Rajyashri. She had escaped from prison (Kanauj) and went towards the Vindhya forests. Harsha searched for her with great difficulty, saved her and brought her back to Kanauj. Rajyashri did not agree to rule Kanauj. Harsha was compel led to accept that and he united the Kingdoms of Thaneshwar and Kanauj.
Later he shifted his capital to Kanauj. Later, he defeated Devagupta of Malwa and annexed his Kingdom. By 612 C.E., he achieved complete control over the five sindus of Punjab, Kanauj, Goudadcsha, Mithila, Orissa, and other places and annexed them to his Kingdom.
3. Annexation of North India:
HaVshavardhana won Orissa, Magadha, Vodra, Ganjam, and Bengal. Later he defeated the ruler of Nepal and received tributes from him. He established his supremacy by defeating most of the north Indian Kingdoms. In commemoration of these achievements, he took the title‘Uttarapatheshwara’.
4. War with Pulikcshi – II :
After the northern campaign, Harsha turned his attention towards south. However, he received resistance from the Chalukyan ruler, Pulikeshi – II when he tried to extend his Empire in the south. Armies of the two Emperors met on the banks of Narmada, in 634 C.E. In the battle of Narmada, Harshavardhana was defeated.
Pulikeshi – II won the battle and took the title ‘Parameshwara’. As a result, the river Narmada became the boundary line of both the Empires. Aihole inscription says, that Harsha’s harsha” (happiness) flew away, seeing his war elephants falling in the battlefield.
5. Extent of the Kingdom:
Harsha exchanged Ambassadors with China. The credit for uniting north India after the Guptas, goes to Harshavardhana. His Empire extended from Bengal and Orissa in the east, Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and Narmada river in the south.
6. Religion :
Harsha was a devotee of Lord Shiva and called himself ‘Parama Maheshwara’. Later, he embraced Buddhism due to the influence of Hieun Tsang. He built stupas at a few prominent places of Buddhism. He conducted a Buddhist council at Kanauj for a religious debate in 643 C.E. 3000 Buddhist monks, 1000 scholars, 20 Kings, 3000 brahmins and Jains attended the conference.
A golden statue of Buddha, as well as that of the King, were installed in the Auditorium. Hieun Tsang explained the philosophy of Mahayana in this council.
Harshavardhana organised the Mahamoksha Parishat, at Prayag in 643 C.E. Hieun Tsang was invited to it and a procession of Buddha’s idol along with that of Shiva and Surya was taken out.
Harsha was an able administrator, patron of literature and cared for the welfare of his people. He wrote the following dramas:- Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyadarshika in Sanskrit. He patronised the famous poet Biinabhatta, author of Harshacharite.
The celebrated Chinese pilgrim and scholar Hieun Tsang adorned his court. Nalanda University, which was established by Kumara Gupta, spread Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy and received the patronage and reached the zenith of its glory, during the reign of Harshavardhana.
Why is Mohammad – bin – Tughalak called as “A mixture of Opposites”?
Administrative experiments of Mohammad -bin-Thghalak:
1. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he enforced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation.
Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
2. Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his kingdom.
He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat ora dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony, etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan having, at last, realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool, operation – Daulatabad of was a “Monument of misdirected energy”. This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.
3. Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.:
Mohammad – bin – Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of Silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins.
Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneycrs’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to minting of the coins. People started minting their own coins. Hence, the Empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange.
Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his error in judgement and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.
4. Mohammad – bin-Tughalak:
was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. Pie lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that “Mohammad appers to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Explain the life and teachings of Shankaracharya.
1. Early life of Shankaracharya (788-820 C.E.):
Shankaracharya was the exponent of Advaitha (Non-duality) Philosophy. He was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 788 C.E. His parents were Shivaguru and Atyambha. He was inclined towards spiritualistic life and became a sanyasi with the permission of his mother. Shankara went in search of a spiritual teacher.
He met his teacher Govinda Bhagwathpada on the banks of the river Narmada. He studied under him, and very soon his teacher found in Shankara, great qualities to attain the highest spiritual knowledge. He toured the whole of India – from Kashmir to Kanyakumari three times on foot. Wherever he went, he expounded his Advaitha Philosophy. He made a spiritual conquest of India. He earned the titles of Sarvajna and Jagadguru.
2. Works of Shankaracharya:
Shankara wrote commentaries on Brahmasutra, the Upanishads and the Bhagvadh Geetha. He composed Viveka Chudamani, Shivananda Lahari, Ananda Lahari, Soundarya Lahari, Bhajagovindam, Badaramayana, Geetha Bhashya, etc.
3. Establishment of the four mathas :
To spread the Advaitha Philosophy, Shankaracharya established four mathas in the four directions of the country. They are:
- Govardhana Peeth at Puri (Orissa – east),
- Kalika Peetha at Dwaraka (Gujarath – west),
- Jyothirmatha at Badarinath (U. P. – north),
- Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (Karnataka – south).
4. Advaitha (or Monoism) Philosophy:
Shankaracharya’s contribution to Indian culture is the Advaitha Philosophy. Advaitha means non-duality or monoism. The main features of the Advaitha propounded by Shakaracharya are:
1. The Universal Soul (God or Brahma) and the individual Soul are inseparable. They are one and the same.
2. By Jnana Marga (knowledge), individual Soul ultimately merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma). This may be called as salvation (Moksha). There is no duality between them.
3. The individual Soul has no independent existence. The individual Soul merges itself with the Universal Soul (Brahma) through Sadhana. It is a part of Brahma and the ultimate reality is Brahma. That is why Shankara said ‘I am Brahma’ (Aham Brahmasmi).
4. Brahma is the ultimate truth. It is Nirguna, which means it has no predefined or specific qualities. It is Nirakara which means it has no shape or form of any kind and Swaprakashaka which means self-evident.
5. ‘Brahma Sathya, Jaga Mithya’ – It means Universal Soul (Brahma) is the ultimate reality and world is an illusion or Maya. To an ordinary man, the world appears to be real, because of ignorance.
Shankaracharya advocated ‘Jnana Marga’ (path of knowledge), to attain salvation (Moksha). He combined the path of Karma and Bhakti with Jnana. He strived to unify the different cults, by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara, and Shakti. Therefore he is called as ‘Shanmatha Sthapanacharya’.
What were the causes and results of the battle of Plassey?
Battle of Plassey in 1757:
The battle of Plassey was fought between the British (Robert Clive) and Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. This battle led to the British supremacy in India.
Causes for the battle of Plassey :
1. Misuse of the concession pass (Dastaks):
The British had received tax concessions from the Mughal Emperors. But, servents of the East India Company were misusing the concessions by openly indulging in private trade for profit. They refused to pay any taxes to the Nawab. This resulted in the loss of income to the state, and was opposed by the Nawab of Bengal. This was the main cause for the battle of Plassey.
2. Shelter to the French and demolition of fortifications of factories:
The British and the French were rivals. The British captured Chandranagore from the French. Siraj-ud-Daula gave shelter to some Frenchmen, which angered the British.
Siraj-ud-Daula tried to develop cordial relations with the British, but soon the relations got strained because the British fearing the French attack began to fortify their factories in Bengal which was counter to the interest of Bengal, when Siraj-ud-Daula protested and demanded for the demolition of all fortifications of factories.
3. Political cause – Encouragement to the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daula:
Siraj-ud-Daula had many rivals. Soon after his succession to the throne, it was opposed by Shaukath Jung, Ghasti Begum and Rajavallabha who put forward theirclaims to the throne. The British fully supported the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daulah and ultimately succeeded in bringing his downfall.
4. The black hole incident or tragedy :
During ap attack on Kasim Bazar, the forces of Nawab besieged Fort William (Calcutta). The 146 civilians comprising of women and children who surrendered to the Nawab’s army were taken prisoners and forced into a small dark cell (15’ × 18’) within the fort and killed in the most inhuman manner. This incident called ‘The Block hole episode or Tragedy’ took place on 20th June 1757.
5. Course of the Battle:
Peace was concluded between the British and Siraj-ud-Daula and the treaty of Aligarh was signed in February 1757. Robert Clive hatched a conspiracy with the commander Mir Jafar against Siraj-ud-Daula. When the arrangements were complete, Clive took position at Plassey (Bhagirathi river). However, when the war broke out, the troops under Mir Jafar remained inactive and Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and he fled and got killed while trying to escape.
Results of the battle of Plassey :
1. British domination over Bengal:
The British established domination over the political life of Bengal. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. He was called a Sovereign but in actual practice he was nothing more than a puppet of the company. He could be removed from the throne any time, by the Company.
2. Territorial gains for the British:
As a result, the British gained both in territorial as well as in finances. The Company received the 24 Parganas and other grants. The trade of the British Company greatly flourished and it made huge profits. Robert Clive was appointed as the Governor of Bengal.
3. Establishing political supremacy:
The battle of Plassey left a deep impact on the course of Anglo-French conflict in Deccan. This battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India.
Write a note on the course of the First War of Indian Independence.
Course of the war (Revolt):
1. Mangal Pandey:
The revolt broke out in 34th infantry at Barrackpur (Bengal) on 29th March 1857. The Indian soldiers of Barrackpur refused to use the new cartridges and one of them, Mangal Pandey killed the British sergeant who forced them. This was the first shot of the revolt, but he was arrested and hanged. Mangal Pandey became the first martyr of the revolt.
2. Meerut Military:
The Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and sentenced to long term imprisonments. Other soldiers broke out in open rebellion (10th May 1857). They attacked the jail, released their fellow soldiers and the British officers were killed and their houses were burnt. ‘Maro Phirangiko’ was their slogan.
3. Delhi (Bahadur Shah-II):
The soldiers marched from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May 1857 and brought it under their control. The dethroned Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed as the ‘Emperor of India’. They hoisted the flag of independence on the Red Fort. The loss of Delhi dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British Empire. Finally, in September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the British. Bahadur Shah – II was arrested and deported to Rangoon.
4. Revolt in Lucknow:
In June 1857, Begum Hazrath Mahal declared her son Wajid Ali as the Nawab of Oudh, but this proposal was rejected by the British. So, she rebelled against them at Lucknow. The British attacked Lucknow and captured it and she fled to Nepal.
5. Kanpur incident:
On 5th June 1857, Nana Saheb revolted against the British and captured Kanpur and declared himself as Peshwa. Nana Saheb was assisted by Tantia Tope. But the British (General Havelock) were successful in recapturing Kanpur (17th June 1857). Nana Saheb fled to Nepal.
6. Revolt in Jhansi:
Protesting against the policy of Doctrine of Lapse, Rani Laxmi Bai the Queen of Jhansi who was driven out of Jhansi, along with Tantia Tope revolted and captured Gwalior. When the British came to recapture Gwalior under Hugh Rose, she fought heroically and died on the battlefield on 17th June 1858.
7. Spread of the Revolt:
The news of the revolt at Delhi spread throughout northern and central India, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bihar, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagadhishpur, Jhansi and other parts of the country. Many Rulers remained loyal to the British government, but their soldiers revolted, and people started supporting the rebels.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences :
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Fi ve marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
1. Taxila (Takshashila):
It was the capital of the Gandhara Province now in Pakistan. Takshashila University was an important educational centre in ancient India. Kautilya(Chanukya) was a teacher in this University.
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
It is in Maharastra. Alla-ud-din-Khilji led many expeditions on Devagiri. Mohammad-Bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri for a short while. Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.
5. Bijapura (Vijapura) :
It was the capital of Adil Shahis. Monuments like Golgumbaz, Ibrahim Rauza, Asar Mahal, Barakaman, etc are found here.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal Coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
It is in Uttar Pradesh. The first war of Indian Independence started at Meerut. The sepoys broke out into open revolt against the British on 10th May 1857.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
For Visually Challenged Students Only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences : (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Describe the cultural contribution of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
1. Central Administration:
Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death, etc.,
Kingship was hereditary. The King was assited by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions.
Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasaman tadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanaiyaka (Leader of the council), Mahasand ivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.
2. Provincial Administration:
There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were :
a. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
b. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which was called the Nayankara system. The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories.’ The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu.
3. Village administration:
The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.
4. Revenue System:
Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.
5. Military Administration:
Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.
b. Social conditions :
1. Caste System:
The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers, and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.
2. Position of Woman:
Women enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution, child marriage, and polygamy existed in that society.
3. Social Harmony:
Musi is settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha, and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi, and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.
c. Economic Condition:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, are canuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric, etc., were the main products of agriculture.
They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals, and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadevaraya near Nagalapura. A Dam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.
3. Trade and commerce:
Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamounds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron, etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks, etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut, Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade.
There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.
Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains, and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka – I refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains.
The Vachana Movement was popular during this time. The Varkari Movement of Lord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabelagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Education and Culture.
e. Education and Literature:
Mathas, Agraharas, and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in ‘Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. Hampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Yediyur, Kunigal, etc., were notable centers of education of that time.
The Vijayariagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. Harihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are :
g. Sanskrit Works:
Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Guru Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanirnaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavati Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam, etc.,
h. Kannada Works:
Tontada Siddaling- eshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharata), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvarni – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleele. Kanakadasa – Mohana Tarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara, etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Torave Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.
i. Telugu :
Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. He patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of ‘Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
Trace the Indian National Movement from 1885 to 1920.
1. Role of the Indian National Congress:
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 gave a clear warning to the British with regard to the rising national feeling among Indians. There was a need for a common national organisation, which included all classes of people. A. O. Hume (Allan Octavian Hume.) inspired the national leaders to establish the Indian National Union in 1884, subsequently the Indian National Congress.
The first Indian National Congress session was held at Bombay on 27th December 1885, presided over by Womesh Chandra Banerjee 72 delegates from different parts of India attended it and four of them were from Karnataka.
Aims and objectives of the Congress :
1. Promotion of friendly relations among the nationalists and other political workers from different parts of the country.
2. Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity, irrespective of caste, religion, province, etc.,
3. Presenting the popular demands of the people before the British Government.
4. Organisation of public opinion in the country.
5. To politically educate the Indian masses and demand to include more Indians in the councils and civil services.
In the beginning, the British Government was friendly towards the Congress. But as its strength and popularity increased, Congress was in favour of a responsible Government in India and began to demand the same. This irritated the British Government and it began to adopt a policy of favouring anti-Congress elements. Freedom movement in India can be divided into three stages, namely:-
- The first phase – The period of the Moderates -1885-1905.
- The second phase – The period of the Extremists in 1905-1920.
- The third phase – The Gandhian period or Era – 1920-1947.
1. The first phase – The period of the Moderates in 1885-1905 :
a. The early Congress (1885-1905):
Leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji (The grand old man of India), Pheroz Shah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, G. K. Gokhale, Badruddin Tyabji, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Anandacharlu, and others were the moderates. Policy of the Moderates: The Moderates were cordial towards the British, and they had strong faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They felt that India will get modernised and uplifted by the benevolent and liberal rule of the British.
Moderates followed the principles of Prayers, Petitions, and Protests to pressurize the British Government. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums to the Government to redress the grievances of the people; If the Government was stubborn to their demands, they used to protest against it.
Dadabhai Naoroji established the East India Association in 1866. This Association took up the Indian issues at London and attempted to influence the British public and British legislators to enact policies and laws favoring Indians.
The British were hostile towards the Congress since its establishment and they developed a stem attitude towards the moderates. Their policy was nicknamed as ‘Political Mendicancy’ (begging for political concessions) by the Extremists. They called the Congress as a ‘Factory of sedition’ and leaders as ‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘Disloyal Babus’.
Moderates were true patriots and they brought political maturity to the Indians. They exposed the exploitative character of the colonial rule and policies of the British. They were able to underline that the duty of the Government was to consider the interests of the Indians.
The notable results of their demands was the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The Moderates played a very important role in the freedom movement in India. They sowed the seeds of liberalism and nationalist ideas in the minds of Indians.
2. Second Phase – The period of the Extremists – 1905-1920:
The Indian National Movement entered a new phase after 1905. The Extremists were radical and militant in their approach in contrast to the Moderates. They believed that reforms could not be secured by mere talk, and only by action. They blamed the British rule for all the prevailing problems and were called Extremists or Radical Nationalists.
Extremists convinced the public that Self – Government was essential for the sake of the economic, political and cultural progress of the country. Extremists had grown in self – confidence. The leaders of the extremists were Bal GangadharTilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Roy.
Important events during the Extremist’s Period :
1. Partition of Bengal in 1905:
In 1905, Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal into two parts as East Bengal and West Bengal. He justified the partition on administrative convenience, as Bengal was too big a province to be administrated by a single provincial Government. The real intention of the order was to curb the growing national feeling in Bengal. The people staunchly opposed this and indulged in the anti partition movement, boycott of foreign goods and usage of only swadeshi goods.
2. The Surat Split-1907:
The Extremists and the Moderates differed over issues like election of the President, setting goals and passing resolutions of the Congress. Finally, both the groups agreed to Dadabhai Naoroji for Presidentship of the Congress in 1906. But the Extremists were successful in making Dadabhai Naoroji to declare ‘Swaraj (Self Government) as the goal of the Congress.
The differences once again emerged at the Surat session in 1907. The Moderates wanted Rashbihari Ghosh and the Extremists wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be the President. Both the groups refused to compromise resulting in the split in the Indian National Congress.
This is commonly known as the ‘Surat Split’. The British undertook many repressive measures and also introduced many Acts to suppress the Extremists. Both groups reunited in the Lucknow Congress session.
3. Revolutionary Nationalism (Terrorism):
The repressive measures of the British encouraged revolutionary terrorism. The revolutionaries were radical nationalists who did not believe in passive resistance. They were ready for any violent activity in order to drive away the British from India.
They organised secret societies like Abhinav Bharat and Anusilan Samiti to achieve their goal. The revolutionaries were able to create a commotion but most of them were either imprisoned, exiled, killed or hanged.
4. Muslim League in 1906:
The All India Muslim League was founded by Nawab Aga Khan, Nawab Mohsim ul Mulk and others in 1906. The British tried to check the National movement by following a policy of divide and rule. The League followed a path contrary to that of Congress. They supported the partition of Bengal and also demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. The Hindu Maha Sabha like the All India Muslim League was also against the Indian National Congress.
5. Morley – Minto Reforms 1909:
This act increased the number of elected members to the Central and Provincial Councils and also introduced separate electorates to the Muslims. The number of seats so reserved was in an higher ratio for the Muslim population when compared to die Hindu population. Only Muslims were to vote to the reserved Muslim seats.
6. Home Rule League 1916:
The Home Rule Movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mrs. Ann ie Besant in 1916. The objective of the movement was to attain Self-Government within the British Empire by all constitutional means. The movement soon spread throughout India and became popular. Tilak gave the popular slogan “Swaraj (Home rule) is my birthright and I shall have it”.
Mr. Edwin Montague made a declaration on 20th August 1917. By this announcement, it was promised to give responsible Government to Indians, by degrees.
7. Montague – Chelmsford Reforms 1919:
(Government of India Act of 1919) This Act introduced Bi-Cameral legislatures (Diarchy). The Central Assembly (Lower house) consisted of 144 members, 104 elected and 40 nominated members. The Council of States (Upper House) was to have 34 elected and 26 nominated members.
8. Rowlatt act of 1919 and Jalian Walabagh Tragedy:
The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. This Act empowered the Government to arrest and detain suspected persons without warrant and imprison them without any trial. Indians protested against the Rowlatt Act. A huge meeting was held at Jalian.
Walabagh on 13th April 1919. About 10,000 unarmed people had gathered there. General Dyer with his troops surrounded the meeting place and opened fire on the innocent people and around 1000 persons were killed and many more were injured.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Why is the Gupta age called “The Golden Age” in the Indian History?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all-round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age and Ahe “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed Vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.
Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.
They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The Vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya, and Rajasuya yagas-were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period.
Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxi la, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology, and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II) patronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam achari the, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra, and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.
He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhuniara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
Describe the achievements of Akbar.
a. Military achievements of Akbar:
1. The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
2. Conquest of Malwa:
He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior, and Jaunpur effortlessly because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
3. Conquest of Gondwana:
In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.
4. Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567:
Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
5. Conquest of Gujarat in 1572:
The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat,, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
6. Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir:
Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir, and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
7. Extent of the Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
8. Conquest of Deccan:
Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
b. Religious policy of Akbar:
Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.
He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions.
Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and. openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Allahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
c. Administration :
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state. The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers.
The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister.
Kingdom was divided into a number of. provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar. Province was divided into Sarkars. Paraganas and, Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
d. Mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status, and salary, etc.
This army was at the service of the – Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavaliy, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a -mansabdar in charge of 10 to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.
The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, they were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries.
There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers . was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
e. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar.
The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’.
The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
f. Literature, Art, and Architecture:
Akbar was a patron of 1 literature. Abdul FazI wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer.
The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana(Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion, Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh, and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’.
Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were –
- Abdul Rahim.
- Abul Fazal,
- Hamid Human
- Raja Mansingh
- Shaikh Mubarak
- Raja Todarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were but It with red sandstone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri.
The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘BulandDarwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i- Am, Diwan – i – Klias, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.
Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’ Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivass Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial work shop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, wood works, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.
His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms:
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – F
VI. Match the following. (5 × 1 = 5)
- Kushana Ruler.
- Kailasanatha Temple.
- Navakoti Narayana.
- Head of Srirangam Mutt.
- Aligarh Movement.
Arrange the following in chronological order. (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Introduction of subsidiary Alliance.
b. Coming of Aryans of India.
c. Unification of Karnataka.
e. Woods’ dispatch.
b. Coming of Aryans of India,
d. Shivaji’s coronation,
a. Introduction of subsidiary Alliance,
c. Unification of Karnataka.