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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 2 with Answers
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What does the word ‘Mohenjodaro’ mean?
‘Mound of the dead’ in Sindhi language.
Who was the 23rd Thirthankara in the Jainism?
Who built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore?
The Rajarajeshwara (Brihadeshwara) temple was built by Rajaraja Chola – I in 1009 C.E.
Which was the first Kannada inscription?
Halmidi (Hassan Dist) was the first Kannada inscription.
When did the first Battle of Panipat take place?
In 1526 C.E.
Name the founder of the Bahamani dynasty.
Allaud-din-Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah.
Which is the holy book of Sikhs?
Adigrantha or Gurugranth Sahib.
Which was the first capital of British In India?
Who started the Aligarh Movement?
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan.
Name the first railway line laid in Mysore state.
Bangalore to Jolarpet line which was laid in 1859 C.E.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Name the two passes that connect India with the west.
Khyber and Bolan passes.
What is the meaning of the term ‘paleolithic’?
The word Paleolithic is derived from the Greek words Paleo (old) and lithic (stone). This refers to the old stone Age.
Name any two learned women of the Vedic period.
Vishwavara, Ghosha, Apala, and others were the learned women of the Vedic Age.
Mention any two of the ‘Tripitakas’.
- Vinaya Pitaka
- Sutta Pitaka
- Abhidamma Pitaka are the sacred books of Buddhism.
Write any two measures of Kanishaka for the spread of Buddhism.
1. Buddhism was given Royal patronage, A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries to spread Buddhism.
2. He conducted the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir. The purpose was to settle the disputes that were existing in Buddhism.
Who built the Kailasantha temple? Where was it built?
Rashrakuta King Krishna-I built it at Ellora.
Mention any two persons who influenced Shivaji.
Mother Jijabai, teacher Dadaji Kondadeva, Saints like Ramdasand Tukaram influenced Shivai.
Where is Golgumbaz and who built it?
Bijapura-Mohammad Adil Shah.
Why is Shankaracharya called ‘Shanmatha Stapancharya’?
Shankaracharya attempted to unify the. different cults by giving equal importance to the worship of Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha, Kumara, and Shakti. Hence he is called as Shanmatha Sthapanacharya.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought?
Shiraj-ud-Daula (Bengal) and Robert Clive (British) in 1757 C.E.
Name any two industries established by Mirza Ismail.
Hindusthan Aeronautics Ltd (H.A.L.), Chemical factory. Sugar factory at Mandya. Steel and paper factories at Bhadravati.
Name any two Committees formed for the reorganization of states.
Dhar committee (1948), J.V.R committee (1949) and Fazl Ali committee (1953).
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each. (6 × 5 = 30)
Write a note on the contributions of foreign writers in reconstructing the History of India.
1. Foreign Accounts:
There are some interesting sources of information from the accounts narrated by foreign writers. India had attracted many foreign traders, pilgrims, philosophers, and invaders. Many of them left their records, impressions, and opinions about India. These help to fill in the gaps about important events.
2. Greek and Roman writers:
Megasthenes, the Ambassadar of the Greek Sovereign Sefeucos to the court of Chandragupta Mourya, has left a detailed account of India during the Mauiyan period, in his book ‘Indica’. Ptolemy, another greek, wrote a geographical account of India in the 2nd century AD.
He gave information regarding the.e commercial relations of Greece with ancient India. ‘The Periplus of the Erithrean sea’, a work by an unknown greek author mentions many coastal towns, rulers-and products of India. Pliny wrote ‘Natural Historia’ (1st century AD) which gives some idea regarding Indo-Roman trade relations and the political conditions of India.
3. Chinese Accounts:
There were some notable Chinese pilgrims who visited India. Fahian visited India (The reign of Chandragupta-II) in early 5th century AD and has given a vivid picture of many cities and Ashoka’s palace. He also gives information about the Gupta administration.
Hiuen Tsang (629-645 AD) visited India in the 7th century AD. He left valuable information in his book ‘Siyuki’ (Records of the western world). He visited the court ofHarshavardhanaand Pulikeshi-II. He has given a vivid picture of the education, religion, society, and administration of their regimes. He has also mentioned the battle of Narmada and the defeat of Harshavardhana.
visited India during the end of the 7th century AD. He had travelled across India extensively and gives information regarding various cities of India like Rajagraha, Kasi, and Nalanda and describes the status of Buddhism in India at that period.
5. Arab and other writers:
Muslim writers and historians have given valuable contributions to the reconstruction of our history. Prominent among them were Firdousi’s (Ibn Hassan) ‘Shahanama’.
‘Babarnama’ by Emperor Babar, ‘Jahangirnama’ by Jahangir and ‘Akbarnama’ by Abdul Fazal and many more. The Arab travellers, Sulaiman Alberuni (contemporary of Mohammad Ghazni) and Ibn Batuta, have left their records about India. Other travellers like Nicolo Conti of Italy, Abdul Razzak (Persia), Barbosa and Domingo Paes (Portugal) and Niketan (Russia) have given a lot of information regarding Vijayanagara and Bahamani Empires.
State the social and economic conditions of the Indus people.
a. Social conditions:
Experts are of the opinion, that the Indus people belonged to a mixed (admixtured) race of Proto- austroloids, Alpines, Mediterraneans, and Mongoloids. Some other scholars believed, that Dravidians founded the Indus culture.
2. Social divisions (classes):
There was no caste system then. With the help of the excavations, historians have come to the conclusion that there was a fourfold division of the society based on occupations. They were probably, as follows. The first class was made up of priests, physicians, astrologers, etc., the second that of warriors, the third class consisted of traders and various artisans and the fourth one comprising of manual labourers and agriculturists who were the majority.
3. Dresses and ornaments:
Both men and women used cotton and woollen threads as fabrics. Men wore an upper garment like shawl or cloak and their lower garment was dhoti. Women used skirts and a garment to cover their upper body and a kind of fan-shaped head-dress. They were conscious about their physical appearance. Women used cosmetics like face powder, lipsticks, eye ointment and accessories like mirrors, combs, and hairpins.
Ornaments were worn by men and women, like necklaces, anklets, girdles, armlets and finger rings. Women alone used girdles, nose studs, earstuds, anklets, etc. Rich amongst them used gold, silver, ivory, and semi-precious stone ornaments and the poor used shell, bone and copper ornaments.
5. Household articles:
Highly sophisticated household articles were found at the Indus sites. They had used mud to make domestic vessels of different shapes and sizes, stands and storage jars. Vessels of copper, bronze, silver, and porcelain were also used and they knew how to make them. Toilet jars made of ivory, metal, pottery, and stones have been discovered at Harappa.
6. Food articles:
Indus people consumed wheat, barley, rice, other grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk. Animal produce like beef, mutton, pork, fresh and dried fish, etc., were also consumed.
The people had great love for indoor and outdoor games. Dice, balls, hunting, animal and bird fight were their entertainment games. Toys were made of terracotta consisting of rattles, whistles, carts, birds, and figures of men and women. Chanhudaro was a centre for toy products.
Excavations have brought to light, weapons such as slings, maces, daggers, spears, bows, and arrows. No piece of iron has been discovered there and only weapons of defence have been found. Therefore, scholars hold the view, that Indus people were peace-loving people.
b. Economic conditions :
Agriculture was the main occupation followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. In those days, the Indus basin must have been much more fertile and received more rain. They produced wheat, barley, peas, sesame, mustard, rice, fruits, and vegetables.
2. Domestication of animals:
The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals. They were cow, oxen, sheep, goat, dog, pig, cat, elephant, camel, buffaloe, humped bull, etc. They reared a fine breed of cattle, both for milk and meat purposes.
At both Mohenjodaro and Harappa, several industries including home- spun cloth were developed. There were professionals like potters, carpenters, jewellers, ivory workers, gold smiths, weavers, blacksmiths, and dyers. Chanhudaro became a great centre for pottery and terracotta toys. They produced artistically made stone beads.
4. Trade and commerce:
Indus people had developed internal and external trade. External trade was with many countries of Western Asia, Egypt, Persia, Sumeria. Baluchistan etc., They used bullock carts as a means of transport to carry goods. Harappa, Lothal, Rupar, Kalibangan, Surkotada, and Chanhudaro were the main centers of trade. They carried on their trading activities through a barter system. They also had knowledge of the decimal system.
The dockyard at Lothal (Gurajat) shows, that they carried on external trade through ships. They exported ivory, gold, beads, timber, etc, and imported precious stones, copper and tin. The uniform seals and a regular system of weights and measures have helped commercial transactions. Weight ratios were 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160,200,320 and 640. Measurement of the linear scale used was 13.2 inches.
Explain the conquests of Samudra Gupta.
1. Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE):
The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).
The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Harisena, the court poet as well as the commander – in – chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines. The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.
1. Northern campaign (Aryavartha):
The early years of his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were
- Mathila and
- Rudradeva. After the conquest, he performed Ashvvamedha Yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.
2. Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India):
Samudragupta conquered the forest Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagapurand Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.
3. Southern Campaign:
After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived his name and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region. The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him. They were :
- Mahendra of Kosala,
- Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara,
- Mantaraja of Kowrala,
- Mahendra of Pistapura.
- Swamydatta of Kottura,
- Damana of Yarandapalli,
- Vishnugopa of Kanchi,
- Hasthivarman of Vengi,
- Neelaraja of Avamuktha,
- Ugrasena of Palakkad,
- Kubera of Devarashtra and
- Dhananjaya of Kustalapura.
The southern states were far away from his capital Pataliputra, and so they could not be brought under his direct control. The defeated rulers accepted his sovereignty and paid him tributes. No territory was annexed.
4. Annexation of the frontier Kingdoms:
The frontier area also came under the control of Samudragupta. They accepted his authority and paid tributes to him. They were Kamarupa (Assam), Samataka (Bengal), Karthripura (Punjab), Devaka (Nepal) And Rohilkhanda.
5. Extended the Kingdom:
Samudragupta’s Empire had extended from Bengal in the east to Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and up to the Vindya mountains in the south. The fame of Samudragupta reached far and wide. He maintained friendly relations with Ceylon. He was triumphant everywhere in India.
Hence, Dr. V.A. Smith, the historian has called him as the ‘The Indian Napolean’. After his conquests, he performed ‘ Ashwamcda Yaga’ (horse sacrifice) to commemorate his victories. He also issued gold coins of various denominations. He composed many poems and thereby earned the title ‘Kaviraja’.
Illustrate Hoysala contributions to religion and literature.
Hoysala rulers have contributed a lot in the fields of religion, literature, art, and architecture. A unique style of architecture and sculpture was developed during this period. It is known as ‘The golden age of temple architecture’.
The Hoysala period witnessed great religious activities. Hoysalas patronised Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Jainism. Most of the Hoysala rulers were devout Jains and patronised Jainism. Bittideva (Vishnuvardhana) was initially a Jain, but by the influence of Ramanuja charya, he embraced Srivaishnavism. He changed his name from Bittideva to Vishunardhana. His Queen Shantaladevi and his general Gangaraja were Jains.
Shaivism was encouraged by the Hoysala Kings like Ballala-II and Someshwara. Sivacharya wrote commentaries on the Gita and Brahma sastras. By the 12th century, a dynamic form of Saivism known as Virasaivism came into existence. Ramanujacharya led the spread of Srivaishnavism in Karnataka. People had complete freedom in their religious activities. This led to the construction and renovation of a number of temples and basa dies in different parts of the Kingdom.
Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished during this period. Nagachandra was patronised by Ballala-1. He was called as ‘Ahinava Pampa’ or ‘Kavita Manohara’. He was the author of books like Mallinathapurana, Ramachandra charitha, and Pampa Ramayana. Janna was in the court of Ballala-II, and he received the title ‘Kavichakravarthi’.
Janna wrote Yashodacharilre and Ananthanatha Purana. Keshiraja wrote Shabdamanidarpana, the first Kannada grammer treatise. Nayasena was the author of Dharmamrutha. Among the several other celebrities were Harihara who wrote Girija Kalyana, Pampashataka and Shivaksharamale and Raghavanka, who wrote Harischandra kavya and Siddaramapurana.
Rajadityawas the author of Kshetra Ganitha, Vyavahara .Ganitha and Leelavathi.’ Thrivikrama panditha wrote Ushaharana, Narayana panditha wrote Martdhava Vijaya and Maninianjari and Sakala, Vidyachak ravarthi-III wrote Rukmini Kalyana. All these were in Sanskrit.
Briefly write about the administration of Akbar.
a. Administrative system of Akbar:
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He established the heritage of Mughal administration and looked after the welfare of the people through a strong central government. He was a benevolent ruler having the welfare of the people, always in his mind and took personal interest in the affairs of the state and looked after every detail of the administration.
He provided strength, stability and imperial rule. The Mughal Emperor was called ‘Padishah or Badshah’. He was considered ‘Shadow of God’ and ruled in accordance with Islamic principles.
1. Central administration:
The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. The absolute authority of the King was never clearly defined, and there was practically no check on the Emperor’s powers. He was the supreme law maker and generally worked hard to safeguard the interests of the people. Emperor was assisted by a Council of Ministers. They were called the ‘Pillars of the State’.
The important ministers were, the Vakil (Prime minister), Diwan-i-Ali (Finance), Mir Bakshi (Military), Sadar-us-Sadar (in charge of charities) Khan-i-Saman (Home), Dewan (Revenue), and Qazi (Chief Justice). The government was divided into a number of departments, each headed by an officer under a minister.
2. Provincial Administration :
Akbar’s Empire consisted of 16 provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a Governor called ‘Subedar’, who was responsible for the collection of revenue and maintaining law and order within the province. Some of the important officers of the provinces were Dewan.
Bakshi, Sadar, Faujdar, Kotwal, Qazi, etc., Each Suba was divided into a number of Sarkars. Faujdar was the head of a Sarkar and each Sarkar was further divided into a number of Paraganas. Kotwals were in charge of city administration and village was the last unit of administration.
3. Military administration or mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari system’. He evolved this with the help of Mir Bakshi Shahbaz Khan in 1571 C.E. The term ‘Mansab’ means rank, dignity or office or position. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place on the basis of his horses, soldiers, his status and salary, etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required.
The army was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. There were 33 grades of Mansabdars (from controlling 10 to those controlling 10,000 soldiers which was later extended to 50,000). The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will.
The mansabdari system consisted of Zat and Sawar. Zat indicated the number of soldiers a Mansabdar was expected to maintain, while the word Sawar indicated the actual number of horses that he maintained. The salaries of Mansabdars were high. They were generally not paid in cash but were allotted Jagirs; yielding their respective salaries.
Mansabdars were directly under the control of the Emperor. Hence, most of them obeyed the Emperor implicitly. However, the system was not without defects. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers because the loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar who recruited them and paid their salaries and not to the Emperor.
4. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal:
Akbar followed the land revenue policy of Allauddin Khilji and Sher Shah. Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581, Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system and introduced what was known as ‘Zabti system or Ain- deeh-Sala’.
The land was surveyed with Jaribs (Bamboo sticks joined with iron studs). Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil. Land was classified as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar Bhoomi. He collected the aggregate rate of taxation for ten years. It was called ‘Ain-deeh-Sala’. It was 1/3 of the average of the previous ten year’s produce. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind.
The Emperor was conscious of the welfare of the peasantry. During the days of famine or fall in the yield, farmers were exempted from tax. Raja Todarmal’s revenue policy had provision to provide loans (Taccavi loans) to the cultivatiors. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments.
This land revenue system was called as “Todarmal’s Bandobust”. The state maintained the documents Patta and Qabuliyat, which recorded information regarding the land ownership and land revenue details.
What were the causes and results of the Battle of Talikote?
The decisive battle of Talikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.
Causes for the Battle:
1. Supremacy over the Doab region:
The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.
2. Religious difference :
The religious – and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim. Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.
3. Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya:
Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances.
The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.
4. Immediate Cause :
Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battlefield. This was the immediate cause for the battle.
5. Course of the battle :
Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar, and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi and Tangadagi.
Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers. The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers.
They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can carry and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Results of the battle:
1. Vijayanagara Empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
2. Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
3. The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northen territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
4. The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.
Discuss the socio-religious reforms of Basaveshwara.
1. Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara :
Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy baths in the river.
He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages. He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva and accepted his hospitality. Encouraging inter-caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son.
Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.
Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavaiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas.
He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
Explain the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
1. Swami Vivekananda:
He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influnce of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
2. World religious conferance at Chicago- 31st May 1893:
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the World. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….’’ This won over the hearts of the people.
He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
3. Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.
The Mission started several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.
4. Social and religious reforms:
Viveka Nanda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies, and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality, and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.
5. National Awakening:
Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation. He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences :
It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomary district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayarapi Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It is famous for rock-cut cave temples. It is in Bagalkote district of Karnataka.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Marty monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijayavittala Swamy temple, Stone chariot, etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
It is located on the banks of river Cauvery and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tippu sultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Daria Daulat place, Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tjppu, Ranganatha Temple, etc.
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting the Rowlatt Act on 13th April 1919.
For Visually Challenged Students Only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi – II.
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.
Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North – west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.
But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.
He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.
The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt:
1. Political causes:
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes:
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus; and Muslims. Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes:
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India economically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods.
Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot.
Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation’’.
4. Social causes:
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices, etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes:
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.
Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt:
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far-reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule:
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858:
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army:
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians:
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration:
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
1. Ashoka the Great:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.
2. Kalinga War (261 BCE):
Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XHI of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery.
One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga war was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase affier the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.
Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha or Vijaya (winning the hearts of the people).
He declared that “The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dharma and Peace.
Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchisthan in the West.
3. Edicts of Ashoka:
Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society, and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti.
Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a long time was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra. Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila, etc., The edicts are classified into
- Major rock edicts,
- Minor rock edicts,
- Pillar inscriptions and
- Cave inscriptions.
4. Edicts in Karnataka:
A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist). Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar (Chitradurga dist) N ittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and
Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha. The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness, etc.,
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of a happy life. He propagated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self-restraint, and compassion. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha, and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism.
He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanmapriya’ (beloved of the Gods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire.
He appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas, and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people. Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists.
He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent Buddhist missionaries lo far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism. It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma, and many South-East Asian Countries.
He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G. Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.
Give an account of the contributions of Sultanate of Delhi.
Contributions of the Delhi Sultanates :
The Kingdom of Delhi Sultanate was a theocratic state, (religion was Islam). ‘Shariat’ (Islamic law) were the rules of the state. The ‘Ulema (Islamic scholars) controlled the state and administration. The Sultans called themselves ‘Naib’ (deputy) of Kalifa.
2. Central Government:
Sultan was the head of administration. He exercised the legislative, executive and judicial powers. He was guided by the Ulemas. Allauddin kept the Ulemas away from the state affairs.
The Sultan. carried the administration with the help of a number of ministers. They were the Wazir (the Prime minister in charge of revenue and finance), Ariz-i- Mamlik who was in charge of the military, Amir-i-Mazlis who was in charge of royal forts and conferences, Barid-i-Mumalik- head of the state news agency, Dahir-i- mumalik – in charge of the royal correspondences, Sadar-us-Sadur who handled religious matters and Kazi-ul- Qazat- the Chief Justice.
Land revenue was the main source of the state income. The war booty, tributes, house, water, religious and Jaziya taxes, etc were the other sources of income to the state. Land tax could be paid either in cash or kind.
The Sultans administered justice with the help of Kazi-ul-Qazat (The chief Justice). The chief Kazi was helped by a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law). The towns and cities had courts headed by Kazis and assisted by Muftis. Kotwal was the Police officer in charge of law and order.
The Sultan maintained a strong army. It consisted of cavalty, intantry and elephant forces. The Sultanate was primarily a military state. The Sultan was the supreme commander. All ministers and officers except the chief Justice and the Khazis were to render both civil and military duties. Diwan-i-Ariz was in charge of army administration. The pay of the soldiers varied according to their service.
6. Provincial administration:
The Sultanate (Kingdom) was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Iqtas’. The head of a province was called ‘Naib Sultan’. They enjoyed absolute power in their provinces. The main duties were collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order within the province. The maintained an army of their own. Some Sultans transferred the Governers and punished them severely, if they revolted against the state.
Each province was divided into ‘Shiqs and Paraganas’. They were looked after by Shiqdars and Amils respectively. Village was the primary unit of administration. It had traditional officers such as the Chaudhari, the Patwari, the Chaukidar, etc.
This period witnessed the growth of Persian and regional language literatures. Persian poets of central Asia took shelter in the courts of the Sultans of Delhi. Amir Khusru was the most outstanding writer and he was called the ‘Parrot of India’. He wrote Khazyan-ul- Futuh, and Tarkish-i-Alai. Amir Hasan Dehalvi wrote sonnets.
Badruddin, Maulana Moinuddin, Umrani and Hassan Nizami were some of the great persian writers. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak and Firoz Shah Tughalak were great scholars. Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were great historians of the Tughalak period.
Barani started the Tarik-i-Firoz Shahi and it was completed by Shams-i-Siraj Afif. Chand Bardai wrote Prithiviraja Raso, Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote Padmavati. There was encouragement for translating works from Sanskrit to Persian.
8. Art and Architecture:
The Sultanate of Delhi introduced the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It represents a synthesis of the two religious ideals like Hinduism and Islam.
The important features of the Indo-Islamic movements are minarates, arches, domes, hazaras, large gateways, etc., Quwat-ul- Islam, Mosque at Delhi and Adai-Dinka- Jhampara Mosque at Ajmer were the eatlist creations. The Qutub minar was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by Iltumash.
Hauz-i-Shamsi, Jami Masjid, and Shamsi Idgah were built by Iltumash. The Jami Masjid is one of the largest and most beautiful buildings. Allauddin built the palace of Hazar situm (Palace of 1000 pillars), the fort of Siri, Jamait Khan Masjidand the Alai Darwaza at Delhi. Firoz Shah was the greatest of the builders. He laid out the cities of Firozabad, Fatehbad, and Janpur.
Give an account of the impact of British rule on Indian Economy.
a. Economic Impact:
Land revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were :
1. Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, B ihar, Orissa and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars. The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.
Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:
a. The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
b. In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
c. Zamindars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
d. Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.
2. Ryotwari or Munro system:
This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in the 1820 C.E. Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.
The land revenue fixed was about 50% the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,
a. The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
b. The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
c. The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.
3. Mahalwari system:
This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North-western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E. The Company entered into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue. Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.
Discuss the role of Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.
Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any postivie response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.
The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.
The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Governments. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.
Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.
They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition: (June 1947)
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1=5)
- Gangai Konda Chola.
- Admiral of the Marathas.
- Doctrine of Lapse.
- Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava.
Arrange the following in chronological order. (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Establishment of Kannada Sahitya Parishad.
b. Death of Ramananda.
c. Birth of Mahaveera.
d. Commencement of the Gupta era.
e. Construction of Bangalore.
c. Birth of Mahaveera.
d. Commencement of the Gupta era.
b. Death of Ramananda.
e. Construction of Bangalore,
a. Establishment of Kannada Sahitya Parishad.