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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following Questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What is Numismatics?
The study of coins is called as Numismatics.
Which was the first metal used by man in North India?
Copper was the first metal used by man in North India.
Which was the capital of Sathavahanas?
Paithana or Pratishthana.
Who composed the Allahabad Pillar inscription?
Harisena composed the Allahabad Pillar inscription.
What is meant by ‘Chauth’?
The neighbouring areas of Shivaji’s Kingdom which were not under the direct rule of Shivaji were to give 1/4 of their land revenue collection to him. This was known as ‘Chauth’.
Name the lady who defended the fort of Chitradurga.
Obavva defended the fort of Chitradurga.
Who presided over the religious discourses at Anubhava Mantapa?
Who was the devotee of Krishna who popularized her philosophy in Rajastan?
In which year was the battle of Buxar fought?
Which was the book written by Dadabai Naaroji?
Poverty and un-British rule in India.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Name the Epics of India.
Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two great epics of India.
Mention any two causes which brought an end to Indus civilization.
1. The natural calamities such as widespread floods or serious earthquakes might have rocked the cities and ruined them.
2. The conquest and destruction of the important cities by much more powerful set of people.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Hinayana and Mahayana.
Mention any two works of Kalidasa.
Kalidasa was called as the Indian Shakespeare. He wrote Abhijnana Shakuntala, Raghuvamsha, Meghadhoota, Vikramorvashiya, etc.
When and between whom did the battle of Takkolam take place?
The Takkolam battle was fought between the Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E.
Name any two famous temples of Hoysalas.
Keshava temple at Somanathapura, Hoysaleshwar temple at Halebeedu. Channakeshava temple at Belur, Keerthinarayana temple Talakadu, etc.,
Who was Shivappa Nayaka and why was he famous?
Shivappa Nayaka was a ruler of Keladi. He was famous for his Land Revenue scheme, called ‘Shivappa Nayaka’s Sistu’.
Name any two important orders among the Sufis.
Chishti order, Suharawardi order, Firdausi, Quadri, Shattara, Mahdawi, Raushaniyath, and Naqshbandi.
Name any two trading centres, of the French in India.
Pondicherry, Surat, Chandranagore, Mahe, Karaikkal, Machalipattanam, etc.,
Mention any two Indian states which accepted the Subsidiary Alliance.
Hyderabad, Mysore, Oudh, Travancore, Jaipur, Jodhpura, Gwalior etc.,
What is Ryotwari system?
The East India Company made direct settlement with the cultivators. The ownership of land was given to Ryots on the condition that they had to pay a fixed revenue to the company.
When and where was Ramakrishna Mission established?
In 1897 – at Belurmutt near Calcutta in West Bengal.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the 4 following questions in 15 words or 20 sentences each. (6 × 5 = 30)
Explain briefly the impact of Geography on Indian History.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different climatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land, where we see unity in diversity. “India” is the epitome of the world. On the basis of its physical features, India can be broadly divided into 5 geographical divisions. They are,
- The Himalayan regions,
- The plains of Hindustan or the Northern plains,
- The Deccan plateau or plains,
- The coastal region or coastline and
- The Thar desert.
1. The Himalayan region:
The Himalayas separate India from the rest of Asia. These are the highest mountain ranges in the world. The Himalayas have played a very important role in the Indian history. They prevent the cold winds and invaders from the north. The snow-capped mountain ranges have given birth to the north Indian rivers (Sindhu, Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra). They are rich in minerals and natural wealth.
2. The Northern Plains:
It is located between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya mountains to the south. From Assam in the east to Punjab in the west, it runs over 2400 kms. This region is watered by the great rivers like the Sindhu and her tributaries in the west, Ganga and Yamuna in the center and Brahmaputra valley in the east.
These rivers have made the plains rich and fertile, and they were the cradles of civilizations and Empires. The great Indus valley civilization and Vedic culture developed in this region. The Aryan culture was brought up in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The northern passes such as Khybar, Bolan, etc., have helped Indians to have commercial and cultural relations with the outside world.
3. The western desert and the dense forests of the Deccan plateau:
This region includes the Kathiawar (Gujarat) and Rann of Kutch (Rajastan). It stretches almost up to and beyond the Aravalli range, which is now almost dry in the hot weather. So, this region has turned the inhabitants into hard-working and warlike.
4. Deccan Plateau:
It is a tringular peninsula or ‘V’ shaped land. It is surrounded by the Vindhyas in the north and by sea on the other three sides (Bay of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and the Indian ocean in the south). They have helped develop the commercial and cultural relations with the west.
The geographical diversity and existence of various races like Dravidian, Alpine, Mongolian and different tribes have led to the development of different languages and cultures. The river valleys in the north and south have made the country. agrarian. They have also influenced the rise and fall of many dynasties and growth of many religious, cultural, educational and commercial centres.
Eastern (Coromandel coast) and western (Malabar) coastal plains are traversed by many big rivers like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery. Abundance of rain and favourable climate has resulted in the growth of rich flora (plants of a particular region) and fauna (Animals of a region). Excluding the Himalayas, hills and the desert area, the whole country falls in the tropical climate zone. The atmosphere is conducive for the all-round growth of mankind.
Enumerate briefly the salient features of Indus civilization.
Seals, terracotta figurines and statues narrate the religious life of the Indus people. They primarily worshipped nature in its various forms. Mother Goddess (Sakti). Pashupathi and Shiva were their main Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped sacred trees like Pipai, Neem, and Acacia. The worship of Linga was associated with Shiva was very common.
Worship of nature, animals, trees, and spirits also existed. The Indus people worshipped animals like the humped bull, elephant, crocodile, unicorn, tiger, naga, etc. Probably the different birds and animals were accepted as vehicles of the various Gods and Goddesses.
2. Art and crafts:
Art specimens of the Indus people are found in their pottery, carpentry, ivory carvings, stone-cuttings, seals and other objects. Statues were made in stone, clay, copper, and bronze. The most remarkable contribution of the Indus people to the ancient craftsmanship was in the form of toys. The bronze idol of a dancing girl is a noteworthy object. It indicates their artistic skill.
3. Seals and Scripts :
More than 3000 seals made of terracotta and ivory and stone have been found. Most of them are square or rectangular in shape and small (1 /2 to 3cm) in size. These give us a lot of information about their script, religious beliefs, commercial contacts, etc., The seals contain figures of animals, human beings and pictographic writings.
The direction of the writings was from right to left and pictographic in nature. Many of the symbols used during that age, were similar to the ancient Egyptian script. Due to lack of sufficient written proof, it has been very difficult to study them in-depth.
Give an account of political conditions of Aryans.
1. Political condition :
During the early Vedic age, their organisation was tribal in character. Some of the important tribes were the Bharatas, the Purus, Yadus, Anu, etc. They were called ‘Janas’. The primary unit of the administration was the village (Grama) and Gramini was the head of the grama. Next administrative unit was the ‘Vis’ headed by ‘Vispathi’. The King (Rajan) was the head of the state.
2. Duty of the Kings :
The tribes quarrelled with each other over cattle ownership and territories. The primary duty of the King was the protection of his tribe and he received gifts from the people. King (Rajan) was assisted by the purohita, sangrahatri, Senapati, vispathis and graminis in the administration.
Sabha (group of elders) and Samithi (group of experts) acted as a check on the possible misuse of power by the King. Sabha and Samithi were two powerful bodies, who acted on democratic lines and decisions were taken by a majority of votes. The laws were based on customs and traditions.
During the later Vedic period, the Kingdoms were divided into provinces and further subdivided into gopas, vishyas, and gramas. Kingship became hereditary. Kuru, Panchala, Kashi, Videha, Vidharbha, etc., were the important Kingdoms. Imperialism came into existence.
Kings began to perform (Yagas) sacrifices like Rajasuya, Ashwamedha, and Vajapeya for establishing their political supremacy. The Kings were assisted by a council of ministers and officers. The sabha and Samithi also continued to monitor
The military consisted of infantry, elephant riders, and the cavalry. Simple weapons of the early Vedic age were replaced in the later Vedic age by improved war weapons like bows and arrows, sword.s, spears, maces, axes, etc. Helmets and armours used for protection made their appearance.
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
1. Village (local self) Administration :
An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables.
It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.
Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka – I, gives us detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were.
- Ur or Urar (kuri) and
- The Mahasabha.
According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system.
Villagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.
Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘VariyamsU The representatives were called ‘Variya PerumakkaP. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.
2. Duties of the committees :
The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves, and forests, etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.
3. Minimum qualifications of members :
The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.
Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:
- The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
- He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
- Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
- Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas, and Commerce.
- Candidate should possess a good character.
Disqualifications of members :
- A member was disqualified for reelection, if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
- Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
- Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.
This way, certain minimum qualifications, and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.
Describe the contributions of Mughals to Literature, Art, and Architecture.
The Mughal period witnessed a growth in literature. Many literary works were written in Persian, Hindi, Turkish and Arabic languages. Babar had written his memoirs or ‘Tuzuk – i – Baburi in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdul Rahim. Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum wrote ‘Humayun Nama’. Abdul Fazal wrote ‘Ain- i-Akbari’ and ‘AkbarNama’. His style was grand and he was the most renowned Persion writer.
The Tabakat-i-Akbari was written by Nizamuddin. Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharva Veda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala. Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. Prince Dara (son of Shahjahan), translated the Upanishads into Persian.
Jahangir wrote a book ‘Tuzuk- i-Jahangiri’. Shahjahan patronized the scholars like Abdul Hamid Lahori who wrote Padshah Nama and Inayat Khan who was the author of Shahjahan Nama.
2. Hindi Literature:
The well known Hindi poets. of Akbar’s time were Abdul Rahim, Bhagwandas, Mansingh, Birbal, Tulasidas and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Tulasidas wrote ‘Ramcharitmanas’. Surdas wrote the famous work ‘ Sur Sagar’, Ras Khan who was a muslim devotee of Lord Krishna, wrote ‘Prem Vatika’, Malik Mohammad Jaisy wrote the famous epic called ‘Padmavati’.
Sundar of Gwalior composed the work ‘Sundar Srinagar’. The great Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Pandit wrote ‘GangaLahari’. In Bengali, Marathi, Urdu, and Gujarathi also, literature progressed during the Mughal rule. Akbar, Jahangir, and Shahjahan were great patrons of literature in their courts.
3. Art and Architecture:
The mughals were great builders and lovers of art and architecture. Their style of architecture was partly foreign and partly indigenous. The important features of the mughal architecture were domes, tall pillars, gateways with domes, arches, minars, etc.,
The mughals built a large variety of secular and religious buildings. Babar built the mosques at Kabulibagh in Panipat and Jami Masjid at Sambal in Rohilkhand. Humayun built mosques at Agra and Fathepur. He built a palace at Delhi called Din-i-Panah. Sher Shah built his tomb at Sasaram and the Purana Qila at Delhi.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the Humayun Tomb at Delhi which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai palace and Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikhri.
The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘ Buland Darwaza’ is the tallest Gateway in India. Agra Red Fort. Jamma-Masjid, white marble tomb of Sheikh. Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i- Khas, house of Birbal, and Sonhal Makan are some of the most beautiful architectural pieces at Fathepur Sikhri built by Akbar.
The architecture of mughals reached its highest watermark during the reign of Shahjahan. He got built many buildings at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Kabul, Kashmir, Kandhar, Ajmer and other places. The important buildings of Shahjahan were the Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas. Red Fort and Jamma Masjid in Delhi. Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal in Agra.
4. Taj Mahal (1632-1653):
Taj Mahal at Agra is symbolic of the royal love. Shahjahan built it on the banks of river Yamuna in the memory of his beloved wife Arjumand Banu Begum, who was given the title ‘Mumtaz Mahal’. Taj was construced under the guidance of Ustad – Isa – Khan.
It took nearly 22 years for the construction to be completed and nearly Rs 3 crores was spent for the purpose. The height of the mahal is 187 ft. It was built of white marble. The Taj is certainly the “finest monument of conjugal love and fidelity”. It is considered as ‘one of the wonders of the modern world”.
5. Paintings of the Mughal Age:
Babur, Akbar, and Jahangir were the most important mughal rulers who patronized painting. Babur was a lover of beauty and art. The mughal painting is a mixture of Indian and Persian styles. Indian artists under Akbar, caused the growth of this mughal style. Akbar created a separate department of paintings, under the control of Khwaja Abdul Samad.
He gained the title Shirim Khaim or Sweet Pen. They painted court scenes, historical events, and natural scenes. Portraits and miniature paintings were a Mughal speciality. Govardhan, Jagannath, Tarachand, Abdul Sammad, Mir Sayyid Ali, Basawan, Manohar, Bishen Das, Aqa Riza, Abul Hasan, and Ustad Mansur were some of the great artists of this time. Jahangir was an expert judge and critic of paintings.
Mughal Emperors patronized music and musicians. Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the great musicians in the court of Akbar. Babar, Jahangir, and Shahjahan were themselves good singers and composed many lyrics.
Give an account of Kabirdas and Gurunanak.
1. Kabir (1398-1518 C.E.):
Kabir was brought up by a Muslim weaver couple Niru and Neema at Varanasi. Since his childhood, Kabir was inclined towards spiritual life, and he became a disciple of Ramananda. He preached equality and a religion of love aimed at promoting unity among all castes and creeds.
He tried to develop a sense of unity and brotherhood between the Hindus and the Muslims. He quoted that there was no difference between Rama and Rahim, Krishna and Karim or the Puranas and the Quran. They are one and the same. God could be neither found in a Temple nor in a Mosque, but only in the heart of his devotees. He preached brotherhood, oneness of God, religion and true devotion to God.
Kabir condemned casteism, idol worship, supremacy of the Brahmins and Ulemas, baseless ceremonies, rituals, pilgrimage to holy places and practice of participating in formal prayers like Namaz. He preached that ‘Hindus and Muslims are pots made out of the same clay’. He said that Kabir was the child of Allah and Rama. True devotion and true love towards God alone can help people to proceed on the path which leads to Salvation. God could be attained only through Bhakti.
He was a spontaneous poet and his poems are.in the form of ‘Dohas’. His dohas or couplets in Hindi became popular. His followers came to be known as Kabirpanthis. He was one of the enlightened socio-religious reformers in India.
2. Gurunanak (1469-1539 C.E.):
Guru- Nanak was a great socio-religious reformer. He is the founder of the Sikh religion (Sikhism). He was influenced by the teachings of Kabir. He preached the brotherhood of Mankind. He was born in 1469 at Talwandi (Banks of Ravi). His parents were Mehta Kaulchand and Tripta. Since his childhood, Nanak was inclined towards spiritual life and believed in a life of purity. He condemned caste system, idol worship, polytheism, sati, superstitions, useless rituals, and costly ceremonies.
He advised people to speak the truth. He tried to achieve Hindu – Muslim unity, religious tolerance and unity of God and paid respect to all religions. He believed in the theory of Karma. He gave importance to Meditartion, Bhakti and repetition of God’s name (Sat Nam) as the means towards the salvation of the Soul from the chains of the flesh. God loved those who did hard work. He advised his followers to give up selfishness and falsehood.
His disciples were called ‘Sikhs’. ‘Guru Granth Sahib or ‘Adi Granth’ is the holy book of Sikhs. Gurudhwara (at Amritsar) is the holy place of Sikhs. Gurunanak wanted to reorganize the Indian society on the principles of equality and aimed at the establishment of a casteless society.
Write a note on the course of the First war of Indian Independence.
Course of the war (Revolt):
1. Mangal Pandey:
The revolt broke out in 34th infantry at Barrackpur (Bengal) on 29th March 1857. The Indian soldiers of Barrackpur refused to use the new cartridges and one of them, Mangal Pandey killed the British sergeant who forced them. This was the first shot of the revolt, but he was arrested and hanged. Mangal Pandey became the first martyr of the revolt.
2. Meerut Military:
The Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to use the cartridges. They were tried and sentenced to long term imprisonments. Other soldiers broke out in open rebellion (10th May 1857). They attacked the jail, released their fellow soldiers and the British officers were killed and their houses were burnt. ‘Maro Phirangiko’ was their slogan.
3. Delhi (Bahadur Shah-II):
The soldiers marched from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May 1857 and brought it under their control. The dethroned Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah-II was proclaimed as the ‘Emperor of India’. They hoisted the flag of independence on the Red Fort. The loss of Delhi dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the British Empire. Finally, in September 1857, Delhi was recaptured by the British. Bahadur Shah – II was arrested and deported to Rangoon.
4. Revolt in Lucknow:
In June 1857, Begum Hazrath Mahal declared her son Wajid Ali as the Nawab of Oudh, but this proposal was rejected by the British. So, she rebelled against them at Lucknow. The British attacked Lucknow and captured it and she fled to Nepal.
5. Kanpur incident:
On 5th June 1857, Nana Saheb revolted against the British and captured Kanpur and declared himself as Peshwa. Nana Saheb was assisted by Tantia Tope. But the British (General Havelock) were successful in recapturing Kanpur (17th June 1857). Nana Saheb fled to Nepal.
6. Revolt in Jhansi:
Protesting against the policy of Doctrine of Lapse, Rani Laxmi Bai the Queen of Jhansi who was driven out of Jhansi, along with Tantia Tope revolted and captured Gwalior. When the British came to recapture Gwalior under Hugh Rose, she fought heroically and died on the battlefield on 17th June 1858.
7. Spread of the Revolt:
The news of the revolt at Delhi spread throughout northern and central India, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bihar, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jagadhishpur, Jhansi and other parts of the country. Many Rulers remained loyal to the British government, but their soldiers revolted, and people started supporting the rebels.
Briefly discuss the unification movement of Karnataka.
The Independence to India Act of 1947 provided for the formation of India and Pakistan. 562 Princely States were given the option of either joining India or Pakistan or could remain Independent. Our first Home Minister Sardar Vallababhai Patel (Indian Bismark) persuaded the Princely states to join the Indian Union. But the Rulers of Hyderabad, Junagad, and Kashmir refused to join the Indian Union.
At that moment, Sardar Vallababhai Patel skillfully handled the situation and merged these Princely States into the Indian Union.
After the merger of Hyderbad, the ruling Government agreed to create Andhra Pradesh which would bring together all Telugu speaking people. Andhra province could not be formed.
In Andhra, people started agitations for the formation of Andhra state and Potti Sriramalu undertook a fast unto death for this cause and he died (58 days) in 1952. The unrest spread to many other provinces which wanted unification of provinces on the basis of linguistic and cultural unity. Kannada speaking regions also wanted unification and formation of a separate state.
Some important factors like newspaper editorials, Cultural and Political organizations, poets, Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee, recommendations of national leaders, etc., infused the provincial feeling in the minds of Kannadigas.
The Government appointed the Dhar Committee in 1948 to look into the question of the Reorganization of states. The committee’s report did not favour the formation of states on linguistic grounds and opined that it was detrimental to the national integration. The people were discontented and agitations continued.
The J.V.P. Committee (Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel, and Pattabi Sitharamaiah) was formed in 1949. That committee agreed to the formation of Andhra but refused the formation of Karnataka. Andanappa Doddameti resigned from the Bombay Assembly and started a fast demanding the unification of Kannada speaking regions.
State Reorganization Committee (S.R.C.) was formed in 1953. It consisted of Fazl Ali as (Chairman) and H. M. Kunjru and K.M. Panikkar were its members. The Committee toured all over the state, interviewed thousands of people, studied their petitions and submitted its report on 30th September 1955.
As per its report, with some modifications the integrated Mysore State came into being on 1st November 1956. The first Chief Minister of Mysore state was S. Nijalingappa. Mysore state was renamed as Karnataka on 1st November 1973 under the Chief Ministership of D. Devaraja Urs.
1. Integrated Karnataka – 1956.
The Kannada speaking areas that were integrated on 1st November 1956.
I. Mysore Provinces (Old Mysore State) had 9 Districts.
II. From Bombay Presidency:
- Karwar (North Canara)
III. From Madras Presidency (State):
- South Canara (Mangalore)
- Coorg (Kodagu)
IV. From Hyderabad Presidency (State):
V. From Independent States:
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any 5 of the following Historical places on the outline map of India provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences:
It is the capital of Bihar State, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauryas and the Guptas rule.
2. Kanchi (Kanchipuram):
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
It is in Haryana state, It was a great battle field in the history of India where three great battles were fought.
It was the capital city of the Bahamani Kingdom. Here Mahamud Gawan built a Madarasa.
It is the capital of West Bengal, situated on the banks of river Hoogli. Calcutta was the first Capital of the British, in India. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur near Calcutta.
It is the capital of Maharashtra. It was the main British settlement in India. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held here in 1885.
8. Jalian Walabagh:
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed
For Visually challenged students only
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
B. Describe the cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas.
1. Cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas: Religion:
Rashtrakuta rulers practised religious tolerance towards all religions. Even though they were followers of the Vedic religion, they also patronised Jainism and Buddhism. Amoghavarsha was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalaxmi. They granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions.
Rashtrakutas constructed a number of temples in Malkehda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwar, Naregal, Jogeshwar, Ellora, etc., in different parts of their Kingdom. Brahmanas were engaged to perform yagnas and yagas. Kings respected them and gave them money generously.
2. Development of literature:
The Rashtrakuta period witnessed great literary activity in both Kannada and Sanskrit. Amogahavarsha himself was a scholar and he wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jjnasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Parshwabhyudaya, Mahaveeracharya who wrote Ganita Sara Sangraha and Shakatayana who was the author of Shabdanushasana.
Srivijaya wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, which was the earliest work of Kannada literature. It refers to the fact that Karnataka extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Asaga wrote Vardhamana Purana, Halayudha wrote Kavirahasya and Mruta Sanjeevini and Trivikrama wrote Madalasachampu.
3. Pampa was given patronage by Arikeshari -II:
Pampa is respected as the ‘‘Adikavi’ of Kannada. He wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampabharatha) and Adipurana (Champu Work). Ponna was called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi’ and he lived in the court of Krishna – III. He wrote Bhuvanaika Ramabhyudaya, Jinaks- haramala, and Shanthinathapurana.
Pushpadantha wrote Mahapurana and Nayakumar Charite. Shivakotyacharya wrote Vaddaradhane, which is accepted as the first prose work of old Kannada. Harisena and Gunabhadra were other well-known writers.
4. Art and Architecture:
The contributions of the Rashtrakutas to the field of art and architecture are memorable. The architectural monuments of the Rashtrakutas are found at Ellora, Elephanta, Naregal, Malkheda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwara, Jogeshwari, Mandape- shwara, etc., The Pallava (Dravidian) style of architecture was adopted by the Rashtrakutas.
Temples were built consisting of Pradakshanapatha, Mukhamantapa, Sabhamantapa, Antarala, and Garbhagruha. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut (Cave) shrines at Ellora, Ajantha, and Elephanta. There are 34 cave temples at Ellora. They belong to Buddhist, Hindu and Jain deties.
5. The Kailasanatha Temple:
The most extensive temple is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora, (Aurangabad Dist) built by Krishna – I in the 8th century C.E. The temple is divided into four main parts. It was carved out of a single rock. This storied temple is supported by life-size elephants at the base. It is 276 ft long, 154 feet wide and 107 feet deep. On the walls of the temples are the figures like Ravana lifting mount Kailasa, adorned with Nandi, Vishnu, Bairava, Laxmi, Shiva and Parvathi which attracts one’s attention.
There are other such scenes of carvings in bas relief like Shiva in dancing pose and Vishnu and Lakshmi listening to the music. Some other noteworthy and famous rock cuts are Ravana’s cave Rameshwara cave No. 21. Neelakhanta cave, Jagannatha sabha. Dasavathara cave – 15 etc.,
6. Dashavatara Cave:
It consists of two storeys and the underground hall measures 97 ft × 50 ft. The sculptured figures of Vishnu and Shiva, and the scene of death of Hiranyakashipu are excellent.
7. Elephanta Caves (Trimufthi Temple):
Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It has a big hall, 130 feet long and 129 feet wide. It has three entrances leading to the hall. At the end of this hall is the garbhagruha with Linga. Opposite to the central hall at the back, is the gigantic image of Thrimurthi which is 25 feet high.
Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareshwara, Shiva – Parvathi and other bas – reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that the Rashtrakutas patronised paintings.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah is called the ‘Maker of Modern Mysore’. Explain.
Sri M. Vishweshwaraiah was the most outstanding Dewan of Mysore. He entered the services of Mysore as Chief Engineer. He was a great Engineer, a capable administrator, eminent economist a liberal-minded statesmen and patriot. He is rightly called as “The Architect of Modem Mysore”.
2. Early life and career of M.V. :
Sir M.V. was born on 15th September 1861 at Muddenahalli (Chikkaballapur District). His parents were Srinivas Shastri and Venkatalaxmamma who were orthodox Hindus. After completing his primary education at Chikkaballapura, he went to Bangalore for further studies.
He obtained his B. A. degree from Central College, Bangalore in 1881. He did his B.E. degree (Pune) from Madras University in 1884. He served in the Bombay Government from 1884 to 1909. He was appointed as the Chief Engineer of Mysore State in 1909. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – IV appointed him as the Dewan of Mysore in 1912. The main objective of Sir M.V. was the eradication of poverty and to put India in line with the developed nations.
3. Administrative reforms:
Sir M.V. was a liberal statesman and believed in democracy. He took steps to strengthen the local self-governing bodies. The number of the members of the legislative council was increased from 18 to 24 and given the power to discuss the budget of the state. Sri M.V. passed the local self-governing bodies Act.
This act made provisions for the majority of the members of the district and taluk boards being elected. Village reform committees were established for the progress of villages. The development of Malnad region was given priority and a plan was drawn up.
4. Industrial Development:
‘Industrialize or Perish’ was the slogan of Sir M.V. His aim was to make Mysore an industrially advanced state in India. He started several industries in the state. The important industries are Sandal oil factory at Mysore, Soap factory, Central Industrial workshop and Metal factory at Bangalore, Silk research center at Channapattana.
Small scale and Cottage industries also developed. Cottage industries such as weaving, pottery, oil processing, mat making, woodworks, leather goods, etc., flourished. The Mysore Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established in 1913 at Bangalore. The Mysore Bank was founded in 1913 at Bangalore for the promotion of Industries and Commerce.
5. Educational reforms:
Sir M.V. believed that “Progress in every country depends mainly on the education of its people”. His main objective was the eradication of illiteracy from India. So, he introduced compulsory primary education. Scholarships and special grants were made available to encourge education among the economically and socially backward classes.
Female and technical education were also encouraged. The major Educational Institutions started by Sir M.V. were the Government Engineering College at Bangalore, School of Agriculture at Hebbal and Chamarajendra Technological Institution at Mysore.
His greatest achievements were the establishment of Mysore Univesity in 1916 at Mysore and the Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1915 at Bangalore to promote the growth of Kannada language and Literature.
6. Irrigational scheme:
He understood the needs of the farmers. He introduced the block system and the automatic gates for better utilisation of the available water. K.R.S. dam was built across Cauvery at (1911 to 1931) Kannambadi and as a result, 150,00 acres of barren lands in the Mandya and Malavalli areas came under cultivation.
He offered many proposals for the eradication of poverty. Canals, tanks, and reservoirs were built. Proper sewage systems were introduced.
7. Railway reforms :
Sir M.V. introduced the ‘Railway committee’ in the State. In 1913, the Mysore – Arasikere and Bowringpete – Kolar railway lines were laid. In 1918, Bangalore – Mysore, Mysore-Nanjangudu and Birur-Shimoga railway lines being managed by the Madras and Southern Marata Company were brought under the State control.
8. Relief works:
During Sir. M. Vishwesh waraiah’s Dewanship the first world war (1914-18) broke out. This led to severe shortage of foodstuff. He took up relief works by opening fair price shops, stopping export of food grains and fixing the selling prices.
Sir. M.V. resigned in 1918 after rendering commendable service to Mysore State and won the heart of the people. In recognition of his services, tire British Government honoured him with Knighthood in 1915. In 1955, the Indian Government deservedly conferred him with the title of ‘Bharata Ratna’. He was the first Kannadiga to get this award. Sir M. V. passed away on 14th April 1962. He lived for 101 years.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 to 40 Sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi – II.
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.
Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North-west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.
But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapathe¬shwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.
He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammad – bin – Tughalak.
a. Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak:
In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne- with the title Mohammed-bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.
1. Register of the land revenue:
Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.
2. Tax increase in Doab area:
The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine.
People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were, unique to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.
3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE:
Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:
a. (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.
b. He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital.
Reasons for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad. The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony, etc resulted in death and sufferings of many.
The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.
4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE:
Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver, etc., caused much loss to the treasury.
Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the. Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moneyers’ and a currency expert.
The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:
1. People could not grasp its real significance
2. Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
3. Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as a standard unit of exchange.
4. People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.
Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences.
According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.):
Krishnadevaraya of the Tuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of Tuluva Narasanayaka and Nagaladevi. He came to the throne in 1509 G.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.
Military achievements of Krishnadeva- Raya:
1. The war of 1510 C.E. :
Krishna- devaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field. Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces up to Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna- Tungabhadra doab area.
2. Siege of Ummatturu – 1513 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasamudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a. new province with its headquarters at Srirangapattana.
3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition- 1513 – 1518 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapathi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he seiged the Fort of Kondavidu and defeated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma.
Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathigg King Pratlaparudtadeva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.
4. Battle of Raichur-1520C. E.:
When Krishnadevaraya was busily engaged in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapura recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishna-devaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.
5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga – 1523:
Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya’.
6. Relation with the Portuguese:
Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. He gave permission to the Portuguese to build a Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) visited the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanagara trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.
7. Peace in Ceylon:
There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There were revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.
8. Extend of his Empire:
The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea – in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East.
9. Patronage to Literature:
Krishnadeva- Raya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu. Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Chari the and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’. He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishna- devaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati.
He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakan dhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishtha panacharya, etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524C. E., Krishnadeva- Raya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.
Discuss the role of Gandhi in Indian National Movement
Gandhiji an Era-1920 to 1947:
The Montague – Chelmsford reforms (1919) and subsequent events like the Rowlatt Act, the Jalian Walabagh tragedy made Gandhiji to plunge into the National movement. He advocated the policy of Satyagraha which was Non-violent and Non-Cooperation to the British Government.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22) :
A special session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in September 1920. Gandhiji proposed the Non-Cooperation Movement. His plan of launching a nationwide Non-Cooperation Movement was accepted by the session. The response of the people to the cal I was unprecedented. Students and teachers came out of Schools and Colleges and national Institutions like Kashi Vidyapeetlia, Jamiya Miliya Islamiya, etc., also joined the movement.
Members of the council tendered their resignations. Congress took some constructive measures and Hindu – Muslim unity was stressed. Foreign goods were boycotted and were collected and burnt at public places. This created nationalistic awareness among people, who began, to use ‘Swadeshi’ and wearing khadi became a symbol of national pride.
2. The Chowri – Chowra incident:
5th February 1922: Non-Cooperation Movement shook the foundation of the British Empire in India. Gandhiji toured the whole country to motivate people. The Viceroy, Lord Curzon took steps to curb the movement. NonCooperation participants along with Gandhiji were sent to prison.
A violent mob at Ghowri Chowra (U.P.) set fire to the police station on 5th Feb 1922. In this incident, 22 policemen were killed. Immediately Gandhiji called off the movement.
3. The Swaraj Party – 1923:
Congress leaders like C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru were dissatisfied about the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement and they wanted to end the boycott to the legislature and wanted to contest elections. But Congress rejected the proposal to contest elections So, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the ‘Swaraj Party’. Their aim was to achieve Independence by radical but constitutional methods.
4. Simon Commission in 1927:
The British Government appointed the Simon Commission to placate the agitating Indians and make recommendations for further reforms. As the Commission did not have any Indian representative in it, it was boycotted by the Congress. The Congress organised a black flag demonstration with the slogan ‘Simon go back’.
5. Nehru Report and Poorna Swaraj (1929):
The British challenged the Indians to provide an alternative proposal acceptable to all the & political parties. The All Parties Conference took up the challenge and appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru. The Committee submitted its report in 1928.
Differences arose with regard to the communal representation between parties like the Muslim League, the Hindu Maha Sabha, and the Sikhs. Communalists also were unhappy with the Nehru report, and the British ignored the same.
At the Indian National Congress session held at Lahore in December 1929 presided by Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution of complete Independence of India as its goal (Poorna Swaraj) was adopted. It announced the celebration of 26th January 1930 as the Independence day and authorised Gandhiji to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement
6. Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930:
In the 1929 Lahore Congress session, it was – decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. In order to overthrow the British, many methods were adopted. Gandhiji placed 11 demands before the British and set 31st January 1930 as the deadline to accept or reject the demands. Without any positive response, the British nationalised the production of Salt.
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement through the ‘Salt March or Dandi March’ on 12th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and reached Dandi on 5th April 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji and his followers made salt from the sea water, violating the salt laws.
The salt satyagraha was carried out throughout India. The Government took repressive measures. Gandhiji and many other leaders were put behind bars. Salt became a symbol of our National Pride.
7. The first Round Table Conference 1930-31:
Muslim League, Hindu Maha Sabha, Liberals and the Princes of various States attended it. The conference could not achieve much without the participation of the Indian National Congress which had boycotted it. The British unconditionally released Gandhiji and the other members of the Congress working committee (CEC) from prison.
A pact was made between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. Irwin agreed to withdraw all repressive measures relating to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji demanded the formation of a responsible Government. The signing of the Gandhi – Irwin Pact also known as the ‘Delhi Pact’ was done on 14th February 1931. Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement.
8. Second Round Table Conference 1931:
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table Conference at London as the sole representative of the Congress. The session soon got deadlocked on the question of the minorities. Separate electorates were being demanded by the Muslims and the oppressed classes. Gandhiji claimed the untouchables to be Hindus and not to be treated an minorities and no special electorates to be provided to them or to the Muslims.
The British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald announced separate electorates to the Muslims and the untouchables, which was called as the ‘Communal Award’. This resulted in serious differences between Gandhiji and Ambedkar This issue was finally settled amicably with the ‘Poona Pact’ signed between the two stalwarts in 1932.
9. 3rd Round Table Conference 1932:
This conference was held at London in 1932. Congress refused to participate in it and the conference failed. The only important result of the discussions of the Conference was the passing of the Government of India Act 1935. This Act provided for All India Federation and Provincial Govemements. Gandhiji launched a movement with Ambedkar to eradicate untouchability from India.
10. Second World War and National Movement in 1939:
The second world war broke out in 1939. India was dragged into the war without any consultation. The Congress refused any kind of cooperation. All the Congress Ministries resigned in 1939. Gandhiji launced individual Satyagraha against the British. The British tried to enlist the Indian support by creating differences between the Muslim League and the Congress.
Muslim League adopted the Pakistan resolution in 1940. Viceroy Linlithgow announced that India would get Dominion status and establishment of constitiuent Assembly after the war and requested the Indian public to support the British in the war.
11. Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to negotiate with the Indian leaders. He proposed that Dominion status and an Interim Government of Indians to administer on all matters except defence, to be granted to India after the war. Gandhiji described Cripps’ offer as “a post-dated cheque of a drowning Bank”.
12. Quit India Movement in 1942:
The All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and passed the Quit India resolution on 8th August 1942. It was declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity. Gandhiji gave the call of ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The British Government arrested the Congress leaders including Gandhiji and people were stunned.
They did not know what to do next. As a result people took to violence. They attacked Police stations, Post offices, Railway stations, etc., They cut off telegraph and telephone wires and railway lines. They burnt Government buildings and Railway carriages were put on fire. The Government adopted strong measures of repression and more than 60,000 people were arrested. More than 1000 people died in the police and military firing.
13. The Cabinet Mission 1946:
During his Prime Ministership, Clement Atlee deputed a Commission to India in 1946. (Cripps, Lawrence and A.V. Alexander were its members) Its objective was to concede independence to India and transfer powers. The Cabinet Mission held discussions and rejected the creation of Pakistan.
The Muslim League rejected it and Jinnali called for ‘Direct Action Day and insisted upon having Pakistan (Lekar rahenge Pakistan). This resulted in communal violences at many places, bloodshed, and killings. Aconstituent Assembly was constituted under the Chairmanship of Babu Rajendra Prasad on 9th December 1946. The Congress under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru formed an interim Government.
14. Independence and Partition:
(June 1947)British Prime Minister Clement Atlee entrusted to Lord Mountbatten (Viceroy) the job of transferring power. He tried to resolve the deadlock which existed between the Congress and the Muslim League. When he realised that it was impossible to patch up the differences, he made an announcement on 3rd June 1947 regarding the partition of the country.
On the basis of Mountbatten’s declaration, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on 18th July 1947. This Act came into effect on 15th August 1947. This act divided the country into India and Pakistan. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of Independent India and Lord Mountbatten who was the last Viceroy became Independent India’s first Governor-General.
Sardar Vailababhai Patel was instrumental in reorganizing and merging the Princely Indian States into the Indian Federation. The constitution was brought into effect on 26th January 1950 and India became a Republic.
PART – F
VI. Match the following (5 × 1 = 5)
- Discovery of Mohenjodaro.
- Jagadguru Badshah.
- Architect of English Education in India.
- Eradication of untouchability.
Arrange the following in chronological order. (5 × 1 = 5)
a. Establishment of Aryasamaja (1875 C.E.).
b. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal (1581 C.E.).
c. Birth of Basaveshwara (1132 C.E.)
d. Accession of Kanishka (120 C.E.)
e. The Battle of Kannegala (1118 C.E.)
d. Accession of Kanishka (120 C.E.),
e. The Battle of Kannegala (1118 C.E.),
c. Birth of Basaveshwara (1132 C.E.),
b. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal (1581 C.E),
a. Establishment of Aryasamaja (1875 C.E.).