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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper June 2018
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
What is excavation?
Excavation is the scientific digging of earth for unearthing ancient buildings or artifacts belonging to earlier periods.
Which was the capital of Satavahanas?
Prathisthana or Paithan was the capital of the Sathavahanas.
Who was the Foreign traveller who visited the court of Amoghavarsha?
Arab traveller Sulaiman.
Who shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Who had the title “Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya?
Krishnadevaraya assumed the title Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya.
Who built Madarasa at Bidar?
Mahmud Gawan built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Name the philosophy of Madhwacharya.
Madhwacharya preached the Dwaitha (dualism) Philosophy.
Who was the Governor, who introduced the Subsidiary Alliance?
Lord Wellesley introduced the Subsidiary Alliance in India in 1798.
Who was the first Kannadiga who secured Bharata Ratna Award?
Sir. M. Vishweshwaraiah, in 1955.
Which was the farmous work of Aluru Venkata Rao?
Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava.
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 words or 2 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Mention any two sites of the paleolithic age.
Narmada and Tungabhadra valleys, Bhopal and Chota Nagpur area of MP, Madurai, Tanjavur, Trichinopoly, and Arcot of Tamil Nadu, Nellore, Kurnool, Guntur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, and Krishna of A.P., Raichur, Ghataprabha river basin in Belgaum, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, etc. are some of the sites.
Mention any two causes which brought an end of Indus Civilization.
Major causes for the decline of the Indus civilisation are:
1. The conquest and destruction of their important cities by the powerful set of invaders (probably Aryans) declined the civilization.
2. Natural calamities such as wildfires, floods or severe earthquakes might have resulted in the damage of the cities and ruined them. For example, Mohenjo Daro was rebuilt more than seven times.
3. Shifting of the monsoons and soil erosion made the people to desert the places. For want of fertile land, the people might have abandoned these places.
What is the importance of Maski edict?
Maski is located in Raichur district. This edict which refers to ‘Devanampriya Ashokasa’ confirms that Ashoka had the titles ‘Devanampriya’ and ‘Priyadarshi Raja’.
Write any two measures of Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
- Kanishka gave royal patronage to Buddhism and it was also extended to the Buddhist monks.
- A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries like Japan, Tibet and Central Asia for spreading Buddhism.
When and between whom did the Battle of Takkolam take place?
The battle of Takkolam was fought between Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E.
Who were the parents of Harshavardhana?
Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were the parents of Harshavardhana.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.
Where is Gol Gumbaz and who built it?
Gol Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.
Name any two trading centres of Portuguese in India.
Goa (Capital), Diu, Daman, Salsette, Bassein, Bombay, Calicut, Cochin, Machalipattanam, Santhome, etc., were the trading centers of the Portuguese in India.
Name any two Land Revenue Systems introduced by British in India.
The British introduced three types of land revenue systems in India. They were:
- The permanent land revenue settlement (PLRS) or zamindari system,
- Ryotwari or Munroe system
- Mahalwari system.
Name any two industries established by Mirza Ismail.
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) Bangalore’ Sugar Factory at Mandya, Match Factory at Shivamogga,- Chemical and Fertilisers Factory at Belagola.
Mention any two members of the J.V.P. Committee.
In 1949 Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallababhai Patel and Pattabi Sitharamaiah were the members.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
Explain the special features of Indian History.
India is the 7th largest country in area and the second-most populous country in the world. The special features of Indian history are:
a. Continuity of civilization and culture:
India has one of the earliest histories in the world. The physical features of our country, full of variety, richness and contrasts tend to divide India into different local zones. However, it has 4000 years of continuous history and continuity of civilization and culture, like China.
b. Evolution in phases:
Its has developed in various stages with necessary improvements. We find a connecting link of events from the Indus to the Vedic period, Vedic to Islamic and Christian influences.
c. Foreign invasions:
The natural barriers on the frontiers of India provided security from foreign invasions. However, foreigners like Greeks, Persians, Huns, Shakas, Arabs, Turks, Kushans, Afghans, and others entered India from the Khyber and Bolan passes. All these invaders contributed to the Indian culture.
The historical monuments and other structures like forts built by these invaders are attracting tourists even today. South India had immunity from such invasions and developed a distinct culture of its own.
d. Religious tolerance (dominant and tolerant Hindu faith):
India is home for Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Parsis, Christians, and several tribal faiths and practices. Indians believe in the concept of ‘Vasudhaivaka kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janaha sukhino bhavantu’, which means that the whole world is one family and let all the people be happy.
e. Indian contributions to the world:
India has contributed immensely in the fields of literature, philosophy, science, art, culture, architecture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, etc. UNO has recognized more than 30 Indian historical sites as centers of world heritage, such as the hill forts of Rajasthan, Khujaraho, Konark, Taj Mahal, Bodh Gaya, Sanchi, Ajanta, Ellora, Hampi, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Madurai, Kanchi, Churches of Goa, etc.
Yoga, Ayurveda, and other artistic specimens are the special contributions of Indians to the world. The great contributions of Indian mathematicians have enriched the world with the concept of zero and the decimal system.
The ancient universities of Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, Prayag, Vikramshila, Kashi and Kanchi attracted students from different countries of the world. India was at the height of its intellectual and spiritual glory.
f. Unity in diversity:
India possesses diverse physical and geographical features and also shows diversity racially, linguistically, socially, economically, religiously and almost in every sphere of human activities. In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying forces that have kept India united.
Write the social condition of Aryans.
1. Social conditions:
The early vedic people developed a highly organised society, that was based on the principle of monogamy. Polygamy was practiced-only among the royal families. The eldest male member was the head of the family and was called ‘Kulapathi’ or ‘Grihapathi’.
There was no system of child marriage but widow remarriage prevailed. Marriage was considered a sacred bond and after marriage the bride lived in the house of the bridegroom. Usually a joint family system prevailed among the Aryans.
2. Social divisions:
The social divisions, chati vamas were based on professions. They were Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra. People could change professions and hence change their vamas. Thus, there was mobility among the vamas.
3. Position of the women :
The status of women in the family and in the society was high and they had equal rights with men. Women were educated and highly civilized for e.g.: Gargi, Maithreyi, Apala, Ghosha, Vishwavara, and others. Girls had considerable freedom in selecting their life partners. Women freely moved out of their houses and attended public functions. A high standard of morality was maintained.
4. Food and entertainment:
People consumed wheat, barley, rice, fruit, vegetables, fish and meat and intoxicating drinks like soma and sura. Aryans wore clothes made of cotton and wool. Ornaments were used by both men and women, made of gold, silver, and flowers. Gambling, chariot and horse racing, hunting and dance were the popular entertainments. Education on the whole was oral. It aimed at the development of character and was religions in nature.
During the later vedic period, polygamy and polyandry came into practice. Patriarchal system still continued, and the joint family system was quite common. Women were still allowed to get higher education and participate in the religious rites. But the women were now under the protection of father or husband or a son. On the whole, position of the women had considerably come down.
Varnas turned into many castes. Caste system became hereditary and very rigid. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas enjoyed a higher status compared to Vaishyas and Shudras. Life of an individual was divided into four stages called ashramas.
They were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha, and Sanyasa. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness and devotion. Gurus enjoyed great respect.
Living standard of the people was usually the same as it was in the early vedic civilization. People still lived in villages and small towns. Agriculture was the main profession of the people.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
1. Hoysaia art and architecture:
Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysaia style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysaia temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.
The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples :
1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a, raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
7. The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.
2. Hoysala temple constructions:
Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.
Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-Ill (1173-1220 CE) built AmrutheshWara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.
Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.
The Channkeshava temple (1117CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.
What were the causes and results of the battle of Talikote?
The decisive battle of Talikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.
Causes for the Battle:
1. Supremacy over the Doab region:
The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.
2. Religious difference :
The religious – and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim. Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.
3. Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya:
Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances.
The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.
4. Immediate Cause :
Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battlefield. This was the immediate cause for the battle.
5. Course of the battle :
Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi and Tangadagi.
Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers. The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers.
They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can carry and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Results of the battle:
1. Vijayanagara Empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
2. Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
3. The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northen territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
4. The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.
Discuss the socio-religious reforms of BasaVeshwara.
1. Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara :
Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy baths in the river.
He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages. He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva and accepted his hospitality. Encouraging inter-caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son.
Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.
Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavaiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas.
He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
Discuss the struggle of Tippu Sultan with the British.
Anglo-Mysore wars (1767-1799) :
1. The first Anglo-Mysore war (1767-1769):
The British after establishing supremacy in Bengal, waged war against Mysore to expand their Empire. Tippu had participated in his father’s campaigns and had gained sufficient military experience. In 1766, he fought against the Paliagars of Balam. In 1767-1769, in the first Anglo-Mysore war, he took his army towards Madras. Later, he helped his father capture the forts of Tirupattur and Vaniyambadi.
2. The second Anglo-Mysore war (1780-1784):
Hyder Ali died in 1782. His son Tippu Sultan continued the war. Tippu defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783, and marched against Mangalore and besieged the fort. Negotiations for peace started between Tippu and British through signing the treaty of Mangalore in 1784. and the second Anglo-Mysore war ended with that.
3. Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-1792) :
The third Anglo-Mysore war was again fought between Tippu Sultan and the British. Tippu’s rise caused fear and jealousy among the Britishers. Tippu was trying to get the help of the French to expel the British from India. War broke out with Tippu’s unprovoked attack on Travancore in 1789, whose ruler was an ally of the British. British Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis was waiting for a pretext to wage a war against Tippu.
He formed a coalition consisting of the British, the Nizam and the Maratbas against Tippu, and attacked Sirangapattana. Tippu could not fight this combined army arid he began to lose ground. They besieged his capital Srirangapattana in 1792. Forced by circumstances, Tippu signed the most humiliating treaty of Srirangapattana in March 1792.
4. Treaty of Srirangapattana in 1792 :
The terms of the treaty were:
- Tippu had to surrender half of his Kingdom to the British and their allies.
- Tippu agreed to pay a war indemnity of 3.5 crores (30 lakh pounds) to the British. As he did not have enough money, he had to send two of his sons to the British as hostages.
5. Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-1799):
Tippu could not reconcile to the defeat and humiliation in the third Anglo-Mysore war and was determined to drive out the British from India. He again started negotiations with France, Turkey, Kabul, Afghanistan, etc. by sending his delegations but he could not get any help. Lord Wellesley forced him to sign the subsidiary Alliance, which he refused, As a result war became inevitable.
Lord Wellesley sent a powerful army along with the Marathas and Nizam. Tippu was defeated in the battle of
Siddeshwara and Malavalli. On fourth May 1799, the British besieged the fort of Srirangapattana. The fort was bombarded and the enemy entered the fort. Tippu died fighting in the battle and the British captured Srirangapattana.
After the death of Tippu, his territories Were divided among the British, the Marathas and the Nizam. A portion of his Kingdom was given to the Wodeyars of Mysore. Krishnaraja Wodeyar – III became the King of Mysore.
Explain the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
1. Swami Vivekananda:
He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influnce of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
2. World religious conferance at Chicago- 31st May 1893:
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the World. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….’’ This won over the hearts of the people.
He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
3. Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.
The Mission started several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., Its branches have been established all over the world. Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.
4. Social and religious reforms:
Viveka Nanda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies, and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality, and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.
5. National Awakening:
Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation. He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
What were the important factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The important factors for the growth of Indian Nationalism were as listed below.
1. Political Unity and Uniform Administration:
The British conquered the whole of India and brought it under a single administration. This made the people of India unite psychologically. Now they faced many common problems and a common enemy. The concept that “We are all Indians” was created in the minds of the Indian people. The British imperialism gave India political unity.
2. Impact of English Education:
A wave of liberalism and individual freedom was passing through English politics and literature in the 19th century. The enlightened Indians began to compare their existing conditions to that of Europe.
By the study of English literature and history, educated Indians were filled with the spirit of democracy and national patriotism. English language was the language of comunication for the national leaders.
3. Discrimination against Indians:
The British considered themselves to be racially superior to Indians. They had the feeling that Indians were incapable and unworthy of trust. Therefore, they denied higher posts to Indians. The British officers often berated Indians as Kutthe (dogs) Niggers (blacks) and Suvars (pigs).
The Queen’s proclamation in 1858 promised to Indians, that they would be appointed to higher posts on the basis of their merit, irrespective of their caste, religion or race, but this policy was never implemented: Indian culture and heritage were looked down upon by the British. This unjust policy created great discontent among the educated class.
4. Role of Indian press and literature:
The Indian press contributed a lot to the national awakening. Newspapers openly criticised the political policy of the British Government. Newspapers like the Bombay Samachar, Indian Mirror, The Kesari, Hindu, Patriot, etc., greatly influenced the nationalist feelings.
Many articles and poems inspiring nationalism were being published both in English and the vernacular languages. Scholars like R. G. Bhandarkar, R. L. Mitra, Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, Max Muller, Monier Williams, and others conducted researches and brought to light the glorious cultural past of India.
The cultural heritage of India filled the nationalists with pride and self-confidence. For e.g. writings of Ravindra Nath Tagore and the inspiring song ‘Vandemataram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee stirred the hearts of Indians.
5. The Economic Policy of the British:
The British considered India to be only a colony which provided cheap raw materials and market for their finished goods. Their economic policy destroyed the economic structure that existed in India and the nation became poorer. The Indian cottage industries suffered severely. The economic deterioration of India was attributed to the British rule.
6. Network of Communication:
The British followed reactionary policies like divide and rule, subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, annexing States quoting misrule, etc., to establish political supremacy over India. Indian Rulers and common people were discontent with the British policies.
The introduction of the telegraph network, postal and railways looked like efforts to chain the country. The nationalist movement spread very quickly throughout India. It made inter-provincial relations and exchange of thoughts possible. The national leaders visited every nook and corner of the country and made propaganda.
Indian Nationalism is the offspring and outcome of the British rule. All the above factors directly or indirectly led to national awakening among Indians.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated (5 + 5 = 10)
A. Mark any five of the following historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
- Jallianwala Bagh
It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montgomery district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayaram Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
2. Jalian Walabagh:
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement; General Dyer massacre here unarmed people who were protesting the RowlattActon 13th April 1919.
It is the capital of Bihar state, now called as Patna, which is on the banks of the river Ganga. It was the capital of the Magadha Empite, the Mauiyas and the Guptas rule.
It is situated on the banks of river Jamuna in U.P. It was founded by Sikandar Lodhi. It became the capital of Akbar. Taj Mahal is the most famous monument of Agra.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected sea water and made salt, and deliberately violated the salt law.
The early name of Badami was Vatapi and it was the capital of the Chalukyas. It is famous for rock-cut cave temples. It is in Bagalkote district of Karnataka.
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijaya Vittala Swamy temple, stone chariot, etc. are the noteworthy monuments here.
It is a Union territory located on the east coast of India (Coramandal coast). It was the capital of the French in India. It played an important role during the Carnatic wars.
(For Visually Challenged Students only)
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 × 10 = 10)
i. Describe the achievements of Akbar.
a. Military achievements of Akbar:
1. The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
2. Conquest of Malwa:
He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior, and Jaunpur effortlessly because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
3. Conquest of Gondwana:
In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.
4. Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567:
Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
5. Conquest of Gujarat in 1572:
The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat,, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
6. Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir:
Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir, and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
7. Extent of the Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
8. Conquest of Deccan:
Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
b. Religious policy of Akbar:
Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.
He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions.
Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and. openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Allahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
c. Administration :
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state. The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers.
The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister.
Kingdom was divided into a number of. provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar. Province was divided into Sarkars. Paraganas and, Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
d. Mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status, and salary, etc.
This army was at the service of the – Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavaliy, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a -mansabdar in charge of 10 to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.
The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, they were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries.
There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers . was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
e. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar.
The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’.
The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land,’ ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
f. Literature, Art, and Architecture:
Akbar was a patron of 1 literature. Abdul FazI wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer.
The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana(Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion, Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh, and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’.
Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were –
- Abdul Rahim
- Abul Fazal,
- Hamid Human
- Raja Mansingh
- Shaikh Mubarak
- Raja Todarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were but It with red sandstone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri.
The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘BulandDarwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i- Am, Diwan – i – Klias, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.
ii. Given an explanation about impact of British rule on Indian Economy.
a. Economic Impact:
Land revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were :
1. Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars.
The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.
Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:
a. The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
b. In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
c. Zamindars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
d. Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.
2. Ryotwari or Munro system:
This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in the 1820 C.E. Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.
The land revenue fixed was about 50% the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,
a. The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
b. The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
c. The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.
3. Mahalwari system:
This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North – western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E. The Company entered .into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue. Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Why is Gupta age called “The Golden Age” in the Indian History?
Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all-round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age and Ahe “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England.
Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.
Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed Vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular.
Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple of Ujjain were built in the Gupta age. The Gupta Rulers performed Vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta- II, were worshippers of Vishnu.
They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites, and ceremonies became very common. The Vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya, and Rajasuya yagas-were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period.
Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.
Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholars. They paid special attention to education. Taxi la, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well-known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmetic, Astrology, and Science.
The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II) patronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholars in his court.
Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumara sambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara, etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.
5. Other important writers and their works:
Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kiratarjuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararam achari the, Charaka- Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manth rashasthra, and others.
The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.
6. Development of science:
The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine, and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to Indian science.
Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu.
He was regarded as the father of Indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun, etc., all these hundreds of years.
7. Art and Architecture:
The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism, and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh, etc were the centres of their artistic activities.
The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.
Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shivalings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable piece of work. Some temples were flat-roofed and square in shape with a shallow porch in front. For example, the Shiva temple at Bhuniara, the Vishnu temple at Tigawa, the Buddhist Shrine at Sanchi, etc., follow this design.
In the field of painting, the artists of the Gupta age excelled in bringing out the emotions in a realistic manner. Many jataka stories have been illustrated. The scene of “Mother and child before Buddha” in the Ajantha cave no. 16, the great Bodhisatva in cave no. 1 and the paintings on the ceilings of cave no. 2 are remarkable. Thus, it has been known as the ‘Cradle of Asian art’.
Describe the achievements of Alla-Uddin Khilji.
1. Allauddin Khilji (1296-1316 C.E.):
Allauddin Khilji’s early name was Aligurshap. He lost his father in his boyhood and was brought up in the care of Jalaluddin. Allauddin married Jalaluddin’s daughter and was appointed as the Governor of Khara province. He was highly ambitious and aspired to become the ruler of Delhi. In 1294, he set his eyes on Devagiri. It’s ruler Ramachandradeva was defeated by him.
Allauddin returned to Khara with a heavy amount of booty. Jalaluddin was unaware cf the evil intentions of Allauddin. He went to receive Allauddin with only a few unarmed guards and was murdered by the supporters of Allauddin. Thus, Allauddin became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296 C.E.
Military Achievements of Allauddin:
a. The conquests of North India:
i. Conquest of Gujarat in 1297 C.E.:
Allauddin sent Ulugh Ki an and Nazarath Khan, his generals to conquer Gujarat in 1297 C.E. Raja Karnadeva – II was defeated and he fled to Devagiri along with his daughter Devaladevi. The generals captured Kamaladevi (Queen of Karnadeva) and she was taken to Delhi and Allauddin married her. The Delhi troops plundered the rich ports of Gujarat.
ii. Conquest of Ranathambore in 1301 C.E.:
Allauddin turned his attention towards Ranathambore. Hamira Deva, the ruler of Ranathambore, had given shelter to a few muslims (Neo muslims) who were enemies of Allauddin. So, Allauddin invaded and took over Ranathambore.
iii. Expedition on Mewar (Chittor) in 1303 C.E.:
Allauddin led an expedition against Rana Ratan Singh of Chittoor (Mewar). He desired to possess Rani Padmini of Mewar, Queen of Ratan Singh, renowned for her beauty and talent. The fort of Chittor was captured with great hardship. Padmini and other rajput women committed ‘Jauhar’. Chittor was captured and Khizer Khan (son of Allauddin) was made the Governor of Chittor.
iv. Other conquests:
Allauddin took an expedition to Malwa in 1305 C.E. Mahakaladeva, the ruler of Malwa was defeated by him. The territories of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhara, Chanderi and Jolur were subjugated to Allauddin. He became the master of the whole of north India.
b. The Mongol Invasion (Raids):
In 1299 C.E., Mongols attacked Delhi under Qutlugh Khwaja Frequent raids by the Mongols were a constant threat to the Empire. Allauddin and his general Malik Kafur successfully drove back the Mongols. He defeated them and imprisoned many of them.
c. South Indian compaign:
Allauddin turned his attention towards south India. He sent an expedition under his eminent general, Malik Kafur to conquer the south. He coveted the enormous wealth of south India and its temples. The four main southern rulers were defeated.
i. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 CE):
Ramachandradeva, the ruler of Devagiri, had not paid tribute for nearly three years and he had given shelter to Karnadeva-II of Gujarat. For that reason, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri and defeated Ramachandradeva and collected a lot of booty.
ii. Conquest of Warangal (1309 CE):
The Delhi forces marched via Devagiri and attacked Telangana. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal, put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and he had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur.
iii. Expedition to Hoysalas in 1310 C.E.:
Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra, when Veera Ballala-III was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and Ballala-III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin.
iv. Conquests of Madhurai in 1311 C.E.:
A civil war was raging between Sundrapandya and Veerapandya, when Malik Kafur attacked the capital of Pandyas (Madhurai) and plundered the city. The wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a herd of elephants.
Administrative achievements of Allauddin:
Allauddin followed an independent policy towards political matters. He set up a strong central administration. He did not permit the interference by religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine rights of Kingship (Shadow ofGod).
He established an elaborate spy network, to get the information regarding all the activates of his nobles. He also tried to prevent the outbreak of rebellions within the Empire. He deprived his nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the nobles, even in their houses.
c. Prohibition of drinking:
He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs at Delhi. He knew that, gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds. of sedition.
d. Military reforms :
The Standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal law and order and to prevent the invasions of the Mongols. Ariz-i- Mumalik was the in charge for the appointment of soldiers. The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system.
e. Revenue reforms :
Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land for the assessment of land revenue. He appointed a special officer called ‘Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants. To check bribery and corruption among the revenue officials, their salaries were increased. Steps were taken to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials.
f. Market regulation :
The most remarkable of all these was an attempt to control the market prices by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all the articles of common use were fixed. Separate officers were appointed to regulate the market prices on a daily basis.
g. Personality of Allauddin :
He is renowned not only for his conquests but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. H:s resourcefulness, energy, capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.
Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence.
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.
The spark of patriotism was kindled in a military unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt:
1. Political causes:
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes:
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus; and Muslims. Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes:
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India economically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods.
Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot. Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation’’.
4. Social causes:
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices, etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes:
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.
Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs. The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt:
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far-reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule:
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858:
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858). Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army:
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians:
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration:
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
PART – F
VI. Match the following: (5 × 1 = 5)
1 – Kailasanatha Temple.
2 – Aligarh Movement.
3 – Karnataka Kesari.
4 – Aihole Inscription.
5 – Navakoti Narayana.
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
b. Arrival of Aryans to India.
c. Non-Cooperation Movement.
d. Establishment of Vijayanagara Empire.
e. Brahmo Samaja.
b. Arrival of Aryans to India.
d. Establishment of Vijayanagara Empire.
e. Brahmo Samaja.
c. Non-Cooperation Movement.