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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2016
Time: 3 hrs 15 minutes
Max. Marks: 100
PART – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or one sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Name the work that mentions the extent of ancient Karnataka.
Name the stone used by Paleolithic Man.
Paleolithic (old stone age) people used rough and undressed stones fitted to a stick. These hard stones were called quartzite and so they were also known as quartzite men.
Who is called ‘The Father of Indian Medicine’?
Dhanwanthri is called ‘The father of Indian Medicine’ (Ayurveda).
Which inscription tells about the Chola Village Administration?
Uttarameruru inscription of Paranthaka – I, tells about the Chola village administration.
Name the Philosophy of Ramanujacharya.
Sri Vaishnava or Vishistadvaitha Philosophy was expounded by Ramanujacharya.
Who shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Mohammad – bin – Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in 13256 C.E.
Who is called ‘Navakoti Narayana’?
Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704 C.E).
When was the ‘British East India Company’ established?
The British East India Company was established in 1600.
Who gave the call ‘Go back to Vedas’?
It was the famous call of Swami Dayananda Saraswathi.
Who was the Chairman of States Reorganisation Committee?
PART – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Mention any two causes which brought an end to Indus Civilisation.
1. The natural calamities such as widespread floods or serious earthquakes might have rocked the cities and ruined them.
2. The conquest and destruction of the important cities by much more powerful set of people.
Which are the sects of Jainism?
The Shwetambaras (Who wear white clothes) & the Digambaras (Who do not wear any clothes).
Which were the two types of courts that existed in the Mauryan period?
Dharmastheyas (Civil cases) and Kantakashodana (Criminal cases).
Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Where was it built?
Rashrakuta King Krishna-I built it at Ellora.
Who started ‘ Vikrama Era’ and When?
Vikramaditya -VI started the Vikrama Era in 1076 CE.
Who was Mohammad Gawan and where did he build the Madrasa?
Mahmud Gawan was a chief minister of Mahammad Shah – III. He built the Madarasa at Bidar.
Name two persons who influenced Shivaji.
Mother Jijabai, teacher Dadaji Kondadeva, Saints like Ramdasand Tukaram influenced Shivai.
Name any two important Maths established by Shankaracharya.
- Govardhana Peethe at Puri (East)
- Kalikamatha at Dwaraka in Gujarat (West)
- Jyothirmatha at Badarinath in U.P (North)
- Sharada Peetha at Sringeri (South)
Name any two trading centers of Portuguese in India.
Goa, Diu, Daman, Calicut, Cochin, Santhome, Bombay, Bassein, Machalipattanam, etc. were the trading centers of the Portuguese in India.
Mention any two famous Mughal Monuments at Delhi.
Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Diwan-i-Khas, and Diwan-i-Am.
Name two important Commissioners of Mysore.
Mark Cubbon and L.B. Bowring were two important Commissioners of Mysuru.
When and Where was the first session of the Indian National Congress held?
On the 21st December 1885, the first session of the Indian National Congress was held at Bombay, and W.C. Banarjee presided over it.
PART – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (6 × 5 = 30)
‘Unity in Diversity’ is the unique feature of Indian History. Explain.
India is a vast country (32,87,782 sq.km) with different cLimatic conditions and customs. There are diversities in the form of worship, way of life and mode of thinking. At the same time, we find an underlying cultural unity in the country. India is a land where we sec unity in diversity.
1. Geographical diversity:
India possesses diverse geographical features. The Himalayan region has a cold climate, the Indo-Gangetic plain has a temperate climate and the Deccan plateau has a tropical climate. The hot desert of Rajasthan, coastlines, evergreen forests, heavy (Assam) and low (Rajastan) rainfall areas, etc., have added to the variety of our flora and fauna.
2. Racial and linguistic diversities:
People belonging to different races and ethnic groups like Dravidian, Negroids, Alpines, Mongoloids, etc., inhabited this country. No wonder, India has been described as ‘an ethnological museum’. Linguistic diversity is also another unique feature of India. There are more than 1600 minor dialects and 15 major languages in India.
3. Social and religious diversity :
India is a land of different religions, castes, cults, faiths, customs, racial types, languages, variety of food habits and costumes. It has both patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. Monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry are also practiced.
Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism have originated in this land. People belonging to Christianity, Islam, Jewism, Zoroastrianism (Parsees) and the innumerable sub-sects of all these religions, co-exist here with great harmony.
4. Economic and Political diversities :
The political history of India shows a lack of political unity. The whole of India never came under a single administration. Indian resources are also unevenly distributed. On one hand, we find some regions highly prosperous and well developed and on the other hand, certain areas very poor and underdeveloped. The urban parts of India are highly developed and modem compared to the rural sectors.
In spite of all these diversities, there are many unifying factors that have kept India united. Important among them are the following ones:
1. Geographical unity :
India has well-defined boundaries which provide a permanent shape with the Himalayas to the north and oceans below surrounding the southern parts. This has isolated India from the rest of the world and formed a separate geographical unit.
2. Administrative unity:
The administrative system of ancient India was mostly identical and uniform, and followed the set of rules laid down by Chanakya in his ‘ Arthashastra’. The King who brought different parts of the country under his sovereignty came to be called as Chakravarthi.
Mouryas, Guptas, Vardhanas, Chalukyas, Moghuls, etc., have all tried unsuccessfully to bring political unity in the country, by expanding their territories and bringing larger areas under a single ruler.
3. Uniformity of education and literature:
Sanskrit, the divine language, Vedic literature including Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgeetha have instilled the feelings of oneness and also added to the unity of India. Knowledge of Sanskrit had enabled persons to move freely across India and exchange their views with people from other parts of the country.
Languages like Pali, Prakriti, Persian, and English also played an important role. A composite culture evolved during Muslim and British rules. Hence, Indians have developed the spirit of tolerance and co-existence.
4. Religious and social ceremonies:
India is a land of various religions, castes, creeds, and sects. People here lead a life of harmony. They participate in the religious and social ceremonies of each other. This has inculcated a feeling of oneness.
5. Recent changes:
Indian constitution and the Government, the present economic and social conditions, the effects of globalization, etc., have reduced the differences further. Global unity transcends the innumerable diversities of race, skin colour, language, dress, customs, and traditions. This again has ushered in unity among the people.
Explain the social conditions of Aryans.
1. Social conditions:
The early vedic people developed a highly organised society, that was based on the principle of monogamy. Polygamy was practiced-only among the royal families. The eldest male member was the head of the family and was called ‘Kulapathi’ or ‘Grihapathi’.
There was no system of child marriage but widow remarriage prevailed. Marriage was considered a sacred bond and after marriage the bride lived in the house of the bridegroom. Usually a joint family system prevailed among the Aryans.
2. Social divisions:
The social divisions, chaturvarnas were based on professions. They were Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra. People could change professions and hence change their vamas. Thus, there was mobility among the vamas.
3. Position of the women:
The status of women in the family and in the society was high and they had equal rights with men. Women were educated and highly civilized for e.g.: Gargi, Maithreyi, Apala, Ghosha, Vishwavara, and others.
Girls had considerable freedom in selecting their life partners. Women freely moved out of their houses and attended public functions. A high standard of morality was maintained.
4. Food and entertainment:
People consumed wheat, barley, rice, fruit, vegetables, fish and meat and intoxicating drinks like soma and sura. Aryans wore clothes made of cotton and wool. Ornaments were used by both men and women, made of gold, silver, and flowers.
Gambling, chariot and horse racing, hunting and dance were the popular entertainments. Education, on the whole, was oral. It aimed at the development of character and was religions in nature.
During the later vedic period, polygamy and polyandry came into practice. Patriarchal system still continued, and the joint family system was quite common. Women were still allowed to get higher education and participate in the religious rites.
But the women were now under the protection of father or husband or a son. On the whole, position of the women had considerably come down. Varnas turned into many castes. Caste system became hereditary and very rigid. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas enjoyed a higher status compared to Vaishyas and Shudras.
Life of an individual was divided into four stages called ashramas. They were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha, and Sanyasa. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness, and devotion. Gurus enjoyed great respect.
Living standard of the people was usually the same as it was in the early vedic civilization. People still lived in villages and small towns. Agriculture was the main profession of the people.
Explain the main features of Hoysala architecture.
1. Hoysaia art and architecture:
Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysaia style’ of architecture.
The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysaia temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.
The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples :
1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a, raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
7. The centre of the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cells (kutas) e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.
2. Hoysala temple constructions:
Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom.
Vishnuvardhana built, Kirthinarayana temple at Talakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikarjuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.
Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-Ill (1173-1220 CE) built AmrutheshWara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.
Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli and Panchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.
The Channkeshava temple (1117CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.
Explain the reforms of the Alauddin Khilji.
Administrative reforms :
1. Kingship (Sultan) :
Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures. He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters.
He believed in the divine origin of Kingship and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.
He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent out break of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the Nobles of all pensions and endowments. Heforbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.
3. Prohibition of drinking:
He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.
4. Military reforms:
The standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevent the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly.
The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the in-charge for the appointment of soldiers.
5. Revenue reforms:
- Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the asssessment of land revenue.
- He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
- He imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – muslims.
- He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
- In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.
6. Market regulation:
The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.
7. Evaluation of Allauddin:
He is renowned not only for his conquests, but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.
Discuss the socio-religious reforms of Basaveshwara.
1. Socio-religious reforms of Basavesh wara :
Basaveshwara was a revolutionary reformer. He wanted to build a classless and casteless society. The first step to him was integration of the people on equal status, regardless of caste. He advocated equality of all human beings. He strongly opposed blind beliefs, superstitions, image worship, ritualism, pilgrimage and taking holy baths in the river.
He tried to wipe out the evil practice of untouchability and encouraged intercaste marriages. He made it clear that caste system does not have the base of Dharmashastra. He encouraged interdining and gave lingadeeksha to the untouchable Nagadeva and accepted his hospitality. Encouraging inter-caste marriage, he performed the marriage of Brahmin Madhuvaiah’s daughter with Harijan Haralaiah’s son.
Orthodox people were disturbed by these revolutionary acts of Basaveshwara and gave a complaint to King Bijjala that he was spending the money from the treasury to benefit his followers and that he was spoiling Hinduism. Bijjala gave death sentence to Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah.
When the news of the death of Madhuvaiah and Haralaiah spread, Basaveshwara was upset and gave up his post as minister and went to Kudalasangama. This led to a revolt by his followers and in this revolt Bijjala was murdered.
Disapproving animal sacrifice, Basavesh wara said “Kindness is the source of religion” (Dayave dharmada moolavaiah). He gave the concept of ‘work is worship’. This was the main message of Basaveshwara to mankind. He tried to propagate purity, morality and humanistic approach through his vachanas.
He rejected the idea of building temples. He questioned the need and purpose to build temples when our own body is a temple, where God resides. He felt that his body was the temple, his legs were its pillars and his head was its golden tower.
What were the causes and results of Battle of Plassey?
Battle of Plassey in 1757:
The battle of Plassey was fought between the British (Robert Clive) and Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. This battle led to the British supremacy in India.
Causes for the battle of Plassey :
1. Misuse of the concession pass (Dastaks):
The British had received tax concessions from the Mughal Emperors. But, servents of the East India Company were misusing the concessions by openly indulging in private trade for profit. They refused to pay any taxes to the Nawab. This resulted in the loss of income to the state, and was opposed by the Nawab of Bengal. This was the main cause for the battle of Plassey.
2. Shelter to the French and demolition of fortifications of factories:
The British and the French were rivals. The British captured Chandranagore from the French. Siraj-ud-Daula gave shelter to some Frenchmen, which angered the British.
Siraj-ud-Daula tried to develop cordial relations with the British, but soon the relations got strained because the British fearing the French attack began to fortify their factories in Bengal which was counter to the interest of Bengal, when Siraj-ud-Daula protested and demanded for the demolition of all fortifications of factories.
3. Political cause – Encouragement to the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daula:
Siraj-ud-Daula had many rivals. Soon after his succession to the throne, it was opposed by Shaukath Jung, Ghasti Begum and Rajavallabha who put forward their claims to the throne. The British fully supported the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daulah and ultimately succeeded in bringing his downfall.
4. The black hole incident or tragedy :
During ap attack on Kasim Bazar, the forces of Nawab besieged Fort William (Calcutta). The 146 civilians comprising of women and children who surrendered to the Nawab’s army were taken prisoners and forced into a small dark cell (15’ × 18’) within the fort and killed in the most inhuman manner. This incident called ‘The Block hole episode or Tragedy’ took place on 20th June 1757.
5. Course of the Battle:
Peace was concluded between the British and Siraj-ud-Daula and the treaty of Aligarh was signed in February 1757. Robert Clive hatched a conspiracy with the commander Mir Jafar against Siraj-ud-Daula. When the arrangements were complete, Clive took position at Plassey (Bhagirathi river). However, when the war broke out, the troops under Mir Jafar remained inactive and Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated and he fled and got killed while trying to escape.
Results of the battle of Plassey :
1. British domination over Bengal:
The British established domination over the political life of Bengal. Mir Jafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. He was called a Sovereign but in actual practice he was nothing more than a puppet of the company. He could be removed from the throne any time, by the Company.
2. Territorial gains for the British:
As a result, the British gained both in territorial as well as in finances. The Company received the 24 Parganas and other grants. The trade of the British Company greatly flourished and it made huge profits. Robert Clive was appointed as the Governor of Bengal.
3. Establishing political supremacy:
The battle of Plassey left a deep impact on the course of Anglo-French conflict in Deccan. This battle laid the foundation for the British supremacy in India.
Discuss the personality of Swami Vivekananda.
1. Swami Vivekananda:
He was born on 12th January 1863 in Calcutta. Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari Devi were his parents. His original name was Narendranatha Datta. He was the disciple of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
He studied both Indian and western philosophies, but did not get intellectual satisfaction. He came under the spiritual influnce of Sri Ramakrishna. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda took up the cause of spreading his messages (Ideas).
2. World religious conferance at Chicago- 31st May 1893:
Vivekananda travelled widely, spreading the divine message of his master in the World. In 1893, he attended the ‘World Religious Conference’ at Chicago, representing Hinduism, which was being misrepresented in the western countries. His Chicago address began as “Brothers and sisters of America….’’ This won over the hearts of the people.
He described Hinduism as the mother of all religions. He declared the superiority of Indian culture and civilization. He influenced Americans by his speeches and thoughts. For the purpose of spreading the message of Hinduism, he founded ‘Vedanta Samaja’ in America and other European countries.
3. Ramakrishna Mission – 5th May 1897 – Calcutta:
The Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1897 at Belur Mutt near Calcutta. The Mission works for religious and social upliftment of the people. Its objective is to create cordial relations among the followers of different religions and to help the poor in the society.
The Mission started several Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages and old age homes across the country. It also serves people in times of natural calamities like floods, famines, epidemics, earthquakes, etc., Its branches have been established all over the world.
Swami Vivekananda succeeded in making Hindus conscious of their strengths and weaknesses. He remarked “I do not believe in a religion that cannot wipe out the widow’s tear or bring a piece of bread to the orphan’s mouth”.
4. Social and religious reforms:
Viveka Nanda condemned the caste system, rituals, ceremonies, and superstitions. He stressed the need for social reforms. He preached tolerance, equality, and co-operation among the people of all faiths. He gave importance to education, emancipation of women and eradication of poverty.
5. National Awakening:
Vivekananda was a great nationalist. He roused the national consciousness of Indians by his famous call “Awake, Arise, stop not till the goal is reached”. He wanted India to be a great nation.
He has been popularly called as the Patriotic Saint of India, Vedantha Kesari and Cyclonic Monk of India. He edited and published two newspapers, Prabhuddha Bharata (English) and Udbhodhan (Bengali).
Sketch the role of Mirza Ismail in making Mysore ‘A model State’
Sir Mirza Ismail, who served as the Dewan from 1926 to 1941, is also considered one of the Makers of Modern Mysore. He encouraged the development of industries by establishing many industries.
Hindusthan Aeronautics Ltd., the Glass Factory, Porcelain Factory at Bengaluru, the Chemical Factory at Belagola, Sugar Factory at Mandya, Match Factory at Shivamogga and Steel and Paper Factory at Bhadravati were started by him. An airport was constructed at Jakkur. Radio stations at Bengaluru and Mysore were started.
He encouraged village industries. He established a Khadi production centre at Badanavala. The Irwin canal was constructed which irrigated more than 1,20,000 acres of land in Mandya District. He had a sense of beauty and made Mysore a city of parks and gardens. Parks and gardens were also laid in Bengaluru and other cities. The Brindavan garden at K.R.S. was built.
It was during his period that the Silver Jubilee of the Maharaja’s rule was celebrated. To commemorate this event many hospitals, temples and reading rooms were constructed. The NlMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Nuero Surgery) at Bengaluru, the Narasimharaja hospital at Kolar, Meggan hospital at Shivamogga and Vanivilasa hospital at Mysore were started.
Government aid to private schools was provided to encourage education by passing the Primary Education Act. Kannada medium education was introduced in high schools. Thus Mirza Ismail played an important role in the development of Mysore.
PART – D
IV. Answer the following questions as indicated. (5 + 5 = 10)
Question 31. A.
Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of ancient India provided to you and write an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
Out of the 20 places any 8 will be asked of which students have to mark 5 places on the outline map of India. Five marks will be awarded for marking the places correctly and five marks for writing the historical importance of each marked place in two sentences.
It is one of the important sites of Indus Civilization. It is located on the banks of the river Ravi, now in Montegomary district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dayarapi Sahani excavated this site in 1921. The great granary is an important building found here.
2. Kanchi (Kanchipuram):
It is near Chennai in TamilNadu. It was the capital of the Pallavas. The city is famous for Shaiva and Vaishanava temples. The famous Kamakshi temple is located here.
It is presently the capital of India, located on the banks of river Jamuna. It was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Marty monuments like Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Jami Masjid, etc., are located here.
It is located in the city of Amritsar in Punjab. During the freedom movement, General Dyer massacred here unarmed people who were protesting the Rowlatt Act on 13th April 1919.
Dandi is a coastal town in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous Dandi March in 1930. Gandhi and his followers collected seawater and made salt and deliberately violated the salt law.
It is situated on the banks of river Tungabhadra (Bellary). It was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. Virupaksha temple, Vijayavittala Swamy temple, Stone chariot, etc., are the noteworthy monuments here.
It is located on the banks of river Cauvery and is in the Mandya district. It was the capital of the early Wodeyars of Mysore, Hyder Ali and Tippu sultan. The town contains many historical monuments like the Fort, Daria Daulat place, Lalbag, Tombs of Hyder and Tjppu, Ranganatha Temple, etc.
It’s early name was Dhwarasamudra and it was the capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleshwara and Shantaleshwara temples are found here. It is in Hassan district of Karnataka.
For Visually Challenged Students only.
Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences: (1 x 10= 10)
Describe the achievements of Pulakeshi – II.
a. Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.):
He was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma -1. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration.
Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two. Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle. Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription, etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II.
This civil war was an unfortunate incident but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situation in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.
b. Conquests of Pulikeshi – II:
1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs:
The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika. ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.
2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupasand Gangas:
After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.
3. Attack on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras:
Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North-west, on Lata, Malwa, and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories up to Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasiniha as the Governor of Gujarath.
4. War with Harshavardhana:
The most significant and memorable of his military career was his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II.
But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river. Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapathesh wara. Hieun Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.
5. Expedition towards East:
After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.
6. Expedition in South:
The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma – I in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E.
After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapathe¬shwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja, etc.,
7. Extent of his Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and up to river Cauveri in the south.
Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E.
He has given us a factual and reliable description about the King and his Empire. In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimha- varman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Give an explanation about the impact of British rule on Indian Economy.
a. Economic Impact:
Land revenue was the main source of income to the Government. The British had incurred huge expenditure on administration, maintenance of army and waging many wars. To make up the burden of expenditure, they introduced some new systems of revenue collection in different provinces in India. They were :
1. Zamindari system (or) Permanent land revenue settlement:
Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and U.P. According to this system, the East India Company entered into an agreement with the Zamindars.
The Zamindars were given permanent ownership of Land, which they cultivated with the help of tenants. Out of the total revenue collected, the Zamindars had to pay regularly the land revenue at 89%.
Merits and demerits of the Zamindari system:
a. The company was assured of a regular and fixed income.
b. In due course the Zamindars became a strong political force and the Company secured the loyalty of the Zamindars to support its colonalism.
c. Zamindars exploited the peasants by collecting high rates of revenue.
d. Zamindars led a life of comfort in cities. There came into being agents in between the landlords and the tenants.
2. Ryotwari or Munro system:
This system was introduced by Governor Sir Thomas Munro in the Bombay and Madras presidencies in the 1820 C.E. Ryotwari system established direct settlement between the Company and the cultivator. The peasant (Ryot) was recognized as the owner of land on the condition, that he paid the land revenue regularly.
The land revenue fixed was about 50% the value of the yield. It was fixed on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crops grown. The land revenue was fixed not on a permanent basis but was revised periodically every 20 to 30 years. Under this system,
a. The farmers were exploited by the Company because the land revenue assessment was very high.
b. The cultivator had to pay revenue even when his produce was destroyed by drought or floods.
c. The farmers had to take loans from moneylenders to pay the land revenue. It they failed to pay the land tax, farmers forfeited ownership of their land.
3. Mahalwari system:
This system was introduced by Lord William Bentinck in North-western India and the central parts of India in 1828 C.E. The Company entered into settlements with the Estate or Mahal (village). The farmers within the village were collectively considered to be the owners of the land and were also collectively responsible for the payment of land revenue. Mahalwari was a mixture of both Zamindari and Ryotwari systems.
PART – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
1. Life of Gauthama Buddha:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a Shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha.
He was brought up in great luxury and married Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.
He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravela forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit.
During that period he self-inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth.
Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realised the truth.
2. Gautama as a preacher:
After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer Park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma).
Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara(U.P.)at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as “The light of Asia”. His birthday (full moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.
3. Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system.
He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.
Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures, and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires.
Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent.
Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different priniciples. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Atyasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery ) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.
His four noble truths are:
- Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
- Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow) ,
- To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
- Desire can be overcome by following the ‘Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.
When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace arid enjoy eternal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self-control and salvation. The eightfold path or the middle path consists of
- Right faith
- Right thought
- Right speech
- Right conduct
- Right effort
- Right meditation
- Right livelihood and
- Right mindfulness.
Ibis path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings constitute the three pitakas. Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals.
Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.
Describe the achievements of Akbar
a. Military achievements of Akbar:
1. The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
2. Conquest of Malwa:
He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior, and Jaunpur effortlessly because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
3. Conquest of Gondwana:
In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.
4. Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567:
Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. But Udaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were killed in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568.
But Ranapratap Singh (Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
5. Conquest of Gujarat in 1572:
The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat,, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
6. Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir:
Ranathambore from Roy Surjenhara and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir, and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
7. Extent of the Kingdom:
The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
8. Conquest of Deccan:
Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
b. Religious policy of Akbar:
Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.
He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali, and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions.
Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and. openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Allahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
c. Administration :
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state. The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers.
The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Ali, Mir Bakshi, Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister.
Kingdom was divided into a number of. provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar. Province was divided into Sarkars. Paraganas and, Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
d. Mansabdari system:
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status, and salary, etc.
This army was at the service of the – Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavaliy, and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a -mansabdar in charge of 10 to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.
The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, they were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries.
There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers . was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
e. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar, and Banjar.
The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. Raja Todarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’.
The state maintained the documents, Patta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
f. Literature, Art, and Architecture:
Akbar was a patron of 1 literature. Abdul FazI wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer.
The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana(Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi, etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion, Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh, and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’.
Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were –
- Abdul Rahim.
- Abul Fazal,
- Hamid Human
- Raja Mansingh
- Shaikh Mubarak
- Raja Todarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Humayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were but It with red sandstone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri.
The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘BulandDarwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i- Am, Diwan – i – Klias, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.):
Krishnadevaraya of the Tuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of Tuluva Narasanayaka and Nagaladevi. He came to the throne in 1509 G.E.
The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.
Military achievements of Krishnadeva- Raya:
1. The war of 1510 C.E. :
Krishna- devaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field.
Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces up to Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna- Tungabhadra doab area.
2. Siege of Ummatturu – 1513 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasamudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a. new province with its headquarters at Srirangapattana.
3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition- 1513 – 1518 C.E.:
Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapathi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he seiged the Fort of Kondavidu and defeated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma.
Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathigg King Pratlaparudtadeva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.
4. Battle of Raichur-1520C. E.:
When Krishnadevaraya was busily engaged in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapura recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishna-devaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.
5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga – 1523:
Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishtapanacharya’.
6. Relation with the Portuguese:
Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. He gave permission to the Portuguese to build a Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) visited the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanagara trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.
7. Peace in Ceylon:
There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There were revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.
8. Extend of his Empire:
The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea – in the West to the Bay of Bengal in the East.
9. Patronage to Literature:
Krishnadeva- Raya was not only a great Ruler but also a great scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu. Jambavathi Kalyanam, Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Chari the and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eight Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’.
He honoured the great scholar Vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘Andra Kavi Pitamaha’. Krishna- devaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.
He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati.
He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakan dhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishtha panacharya, etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524C. E., Krishnadeva- Raya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.
Explain the causes and results of the first war of Indian Independence.
The revolt of 1857 set the tone for India’s Independence struggles. The period between 1757-1857 was marked by the plunder of Indian wealth, by East India Company. Political, social and cultural changes led to the rebellion against the British rule. This was the first united revolt and it was the outburst of accumulated discontent of Indians against the policies of East India company.
The spark of patriotism was kindled in a millitary unit at Meerut which soon burst into a terrific flame and spread to other parts of the country and shook the British rule. British called this as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, but the nationalists called it as the first war of Indian Independence.
Causes for the revolt:
1. Political causes:
The conquests and annexations of the British not only affected the ruling class, but also gave a rude shock to the sentiments of the people. The British interfered in the internal affairs of the Indian states and followed the policy of divide and rule.
Implementation of the subsidiary Alliance and the Doctrine of Lapse, using the pretext of misrule to annex the Kingdoms and Princely states were the reasons for the Indian Kings, Princes, Soldiers, Zamindars to be disappointed with the actions of the British East India Company.
2. Administrative causes:
The British introduced a new system of administration which replaced the traditional system. The introduction of ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality before law’ developed suspicion in the minds of the orthodox (traditional) Hindus; and Muslims.
Indians were not given higher posts in the administration and were paid much less than the British officers with no promotions. This was contrary to the British policy of equality before law.
3. Economic causes:
Economic exploitation was an important cause for the revolt. The huge drain of wealth made India economically poor. The British trade policy had established a monopoly on trade. They converted India into a supplier of raw materials and a market for their finished goods.Indian native handicrafts suffered a lot.
Indian goods could not be sold in England due to heavy taxes imposed on their export. The Land tax was also raised, due to which many of them were compelled to mortage their lands to moneylenders and consequently found themselves in deep debts. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks “India became a milk cow for England, while her own children died of starvation’’.
4. Social causes:
Many social and religious reforms caused (Social Reforms Act) serious discontent among Hindu and Muslim orthodox sections. The British thought that they belonged to a superior race and humiliated Indians. The abolition of Sati, permission for widow remarriages, curb on child marriages, purdah, animal sacrifices, etc., caused a lot of unrest among the orthodox people.
The introduction of telegraph and railways were seen as efforts to chain the country and were clear signs of westernization. The British treated Indians as unworthy of trust, incapable of honesty and fit to be employed only where they could not do without them. They were rude and arrogant towards Indians and were very racial in their nature and spirit.
5. Religious causes:
The British activities affected the sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. The Chritian missionaries were seen everywhere in the schools, hospitals, prisons and at the market places. They tried to convert Indians to Christianity by various devious methods. The spread of English education and culture through missionaries and convents created suspicion among Indians about their religions.
Hindu soldiers were forced to cross the sea against their belief. Forced intermarriages became a means to convert the natives to Christianity. Cartridges greased with Cows / Pigs fat affected the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims alike. The Europeans treated Indians as untouchables.
6. Military causes:
Indian solidiers were paid very low salaries compared to the British soldiers of the same grade, and were not promoted to any rank higher than that of a subedar. According to the Enlistment Act of 1856 of Lord Canning, it required the sepoys to serve overseas also. Hindus believed that crossing the sea was a sin (Kalapani).
The soldiers were often treated with contempt by their British officers. There were rumours among the sepoys that the British were trying to break their caste and convert them to Christianity. There were more than 75000 soldiers in the British army from Oudh. When Oudh was annexed by the British Empire citing maladministration, these soldiers were angry.
7. Immediate causes:
The British introduced new Enfield rifles. The top of the cartridges had to be removed by biting it off. A rumour spread that the cartridges were smeared with the fat of cows and pigs.
The Indian sepoys felt that the British were trying to spoil their religion. They refused to use these rifles and the British forced and threatened the soldiers to use them. This was the spark, which later spread all over the country.
Results of the revolt:
The first war of Indian Independence marks a very important turning point in the history of India and its far-reaching results. They are :
1. End of the Company rule:
The East India Company rule was abolished and the British Crown took over the administration of India. Viceroy was the representative of the Crown in India and Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
2. The Queen’s proclamation (or) Magna carta of India in 1858:
Queen Victoria issued her famous proclamation known as the Magna carta of the Indian people (Lord Canning announced it on 1st November 1858).
Indians were promised that their rights, self-respect, honour and religious traditions would be safeguarded and Government jobs would be offered to all without any favouritism. The British Government will not annex any more Indian states.
3. Reorganization of the Army:
The Indian Army was reorganized. Number of the British soldiers in the army was increased, growth of sentiment of national unity among the sepoys was checked, but communal loyalties were encouraged.
4. Unity among Indians:
The revolt brought unity among Hindus and Muslims, as they came together to fight the British.
5. Source of Inspiration:
The revolt gave British a taste of Indian patriotism. It served as a source of inspiration in India’s struggle for freedom. The heroes of the revolt soon became household names in the country. The Mughal rule also came to an end.
PART – F
VI. Match the following : (5 × 1 = 5)
1. (c) Arab traveller
2. (a) Kushana ruler
3. (d) Kiteb – e – Navras
4. (e) Bharata Ratna
5. (b) Karntaka Kesari
Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. (5 × 1 = 5)
a) Brahmo Samaj
b) First Battle of Panipat
c) Belgaum Congress Session
d) Commencement of ‘Gupta Era’
e) Birth of Mahaveera.
e) Birth of Mahaveera.
d) Commencement of ‘Gupta Era’
b) First Battle of Panipat
a) Brahmo Samaj
c) Belgaum Congress Session