2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 4 Ancient Period

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Karnataka 2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 4 Ancient Period

Vedic Culture

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What do you mean by the term Arya?
(or)
What is the meaning of the term Arya?
Answer:
Aryan means noble or master or a person dependent on agriculture.

Question 2.
From which word is the term veda derived?
(or)
From which language is the term veda derived?
Answer:
Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vid’ which means wisdom.

Question 3.
What is meant by veda?
Answer:
Veda means knowledge or wisdom.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Name the first veda. (or) Which is the earliest among the vedas?
Answer:
There are four vedas, and Rig veda was the first to be composed.

Question 5.
Who was accepted as the head of the family during the Vedic period?
Answer:
During Vedic period, the eldest male member was the head of the family. He was called KulapathiorGrihapathi.

Question 6.
What was the main occupation of the Aryans?
Answer:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Aryans.

Question 7.
What was ‘Kshetra’?
Answer:
Aryans called the cultivated land as ‘Kshetra’

Question 8.
What was considered as wealth by the Aryans?
Answer:
Cattle (cows) was considered as wealth by the Aryans.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
What was the ceremony performed to send a child to school?
Answer:
Upanayanam was the ceremony performed to send a child to school. Vedic education commenced with the ceremony called upanayanam.

Question 10.
Which part of India became the birthplace of Vedic culture?
Answer:
Saptha Sindhu (present Punjab) area, called as Brahmavarta or Aryavarta, which means “Country created by God for the Aryans” was the birthplace of Vedic culture.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name any two vedas?
Answer:
The four vedas are

  1. Rig veda
  2. Yajur veda
  3. Sama veda
  4. Atharvana veda

Question 2.
Which two political institutions assisted the King in the administration, during the vedic period ? (or)
Which were the two representative assemblies of the vedic age?
Answer:
Sabha and Samithi were the two politcal institutions which assisted the King in the administration of the land during the vedic period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Name any two varnas?
(or)
Which were the four varnas in the vedic age?
Answer:

  • Brahmanas
  • Kshatriyas
  • Vaisyas and
  • Shudras.

Question 4.
Name the ashramas of Aryans.
Answer:

  • Brahmacharya (acquiring education)
  • Gruhastya (house holder)
  • Vanaprastha (dwelling in the forest) and
  • Sanyasa (complete renunciation)

Question 5.
Mention some amusements of the vedic people.
Answer:
Gambling, chariot racing, horse racing, music, dancing etc., were the different forms of amusements.

Question 6.
Name a few learned women of the vedic period.
Answer:
Gargi, Maitreyi, Shashwati, Lopamudra, Apala, Arundhathi, Ghosha, Vishwavana were some of the famous learned women of the vedic period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What were the two intoxicants consumed by the vedic people?
Answer:
Soma and sura were the intoxicants consumed by the vedic people.

Question 8.
Which coins were used by the vedic people as the medium of exchange?
Answer:
Nishka (a piece of gold) and Shatamana were the coins used.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five mark Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Give an account of the political condition of Aryans.
Answer:
Political condition: During the early vedic age, their organization was tribal in character. Some of the important tribes were the Bharatas the Purus, Yadus, Anu etc. They were called ‘Janas’. The primary unit of the administration was the village (Grama) and Gramini was the head of the grama. Next administrative unit was the ‘Vis’ headed by ‘Vispathi’. The King (Rajan) was the head of the state.

Duty of the Kings: The tribes quarrelled with each other over cattle ownership and territories. The primary duty of the King was the protection of his tribe and he received gifts from the people. King (Rajan) was assisted by the purohita, sangrahatri, senapati, vispathis and graminis in the administration. Sabha (group of elders) and Samithi (group of experts) acted as a check on the possible misuse of power by the King. Sabha and samithi were two powerful bodies, who acted on democratic lines and decisions were taken by a majority of votes. The laws were based on customs and traditions.

During the later vedic period, the Kingdoms were divided into provinces and further subdivided into gopas, vishyas and gramas. Kingship became hereditary. Kura, Panchala, Kashi, Videha, Vidharbha etc., were the important Kingdoms. Imperialism came into existence. Kings began to perform (yagas) sacrifices like Rajasuya, Ashwamedha and Vajapeya for establishing their political supremacy. The Kings were assisted bby acouncil of ministers and officers. The sabha and samithi also continued to monitor.

The military consisted of infantry, elephant riders and the cavalry. Simple weapons of the early vedic age were replaced in the later vedic age by improved war weapons like bows and arrows, swords, spears, maces, axes etc. Helmets and armours used for protection made their appearance.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the social conditions of Aryans during the vedic period.
Answer:
Social conditions: The earlly vedic people developed a highly organised society, that was based on the principle of monogamy. Polygamy was practiced only among the royal families. The eldest male member was the head of the family and was called ‘Kulapathi ’ or ‘Grihapathi ’. There was no system of child marriage but widow remarriage prevailed. Marriage was considered a sacred bond and after marriage the bride lived in the house of the bridegroom. Usually a joint family system prevailed among the Aryans.

Social divisions: The social divisions, chaturvarnas were based on professions. They were Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. People could change professions and hence change their varnas. Thus, there was mobility among the varnas.

Position of the women: The status of women in the family and in the society was high and they had equal rights with men. Women were educated and highly civilized for e.g., Gargi, Maithreyi, Apala, Ghosha, Vishwavara and others. Girls had considerable freedom in selecting their life partners. Women freely moved out of their houses and attended public functions. A high standard of morality was maintained.

Food and entertainment: People consumed wheat, barley, rice, fruit, vegetables, fish and meat and intoxicating drinks like soma and sura. Aryans wore clothes made of cotton and wool. Ornaments were used by both men and women, made of gold, silver and flowers. Gambling, chariot and horse racing, hunting and dance were the popular entertainments. Education on the whole was oral. It aimed at the development of character and was religions in nature.

During the later vedic period, polygamy and polyandry came into practice. Patriarchal system still continued, and the joint family system was quite common. Women were still allowed to get higher education and participate in the religious rites. But the women were now under the protection of father or husband or a son. On the whole, position of the women had considerably come down.

Varnas turned into many castes. Caste system became hereditary and very rigid. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas enjoyed a higher status compared to Vaishyas and Shudras. Life of an individual was divided into four stages called ashramas. They were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness and devotion. Gurus enjoyed great respect.

Living standard of the people was usually the same as it was in the early vedic civilization. People still lived in villages and small towns. Agriculture was the main profession of the people.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Enumerate the religious condition of Aryans.
Answer:
Vedic religion is also known as ancient (sanatan) Hinduism and Brahmanical religion. The early vedic Aryans worshipped nature Gods. They worshipped Indra (God of Heaven), Varuna (rain), Agni (fire), Vayu (air), Surya (sun), Pruthvi (earth), Soma (plants), and Aditi and Usha the female Goddesses. There was no idol worship. The mode of worship was in the form of prayers and sacrifices.

The vedic people believed that God was most powerful, strong and moved the universe. Cow was considered a sacred animal and slaughter of cows was forbidden. Rig veda prescribed elaborate rules and procedures for the performance of sacrifices. Hotri, Adhvasya and Udgathri were the important priests to get favours from the God. Sacrifices were performed with milk, grains, ghee, soma and juice etc.

In the later vedic period, the practice of religion became highly complex and rigid. Idol worship came into existence. The number of Gods increased, and new deities like Brahma, Vishnu, Maheshwara, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Parvati, Laxmi, Kali, Durga etc. came to the worshipped. The practice of vedic religion became costly. They believed in magic and considered that with the help of magic and sorcery, many evils befalling could be prevented. New ideas had developed about soul. Vamas, Ashramas and Purusharthas (Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha) were an integral part of the vedic religion.

The entire life of a Hindu was guided by samskaras. It also believes in the concept of the transmigration of soul. The main objective of the soul is to attain salvation (Moksha). They developed the concept of monism-Atman (the true self) and Brahman (the ultimate reality). Knowledge was the best means of salvation. Bhakti, Jnana, Karma and Yoga were prescribed as the many paths to attain salvation. They also began to believe in the Karma theory. Karma must be rewarded in the next life. So Aryans lived a very pure, simple and contented life. The sacred books of Hindus are the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Smrithis. Ramayana and Mahabharata were also given much importance.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Write a short note on education and science during vedic age.
Answer:
There were no regular educational institutions in the present sense of the term. Education was imparted in Gurukulas, Pathashalas, Agraharas, Temples and Ghatikas. Education on the whole was oral. Education was imparted by learned teachers to the students, who stayed with the teacher throughout their educational career. The aim of education was to develop knowledge, character, truthfulness and devotion. The teacher enjoyed great respect. The Panchalaparishad was a great academy of learning.

Higher education was imparted at the universities like Kanchi andTaxila. Education commenced with a ceremony called upanayanam. Both men and women received education. Gargi, Maithreyi, Lopamudra, Shaswathi and others were important women scholars. Vedas, Puranas, philosophy, logic, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, medicine etc, were the important subjects taught. Sanskrit was the medium of instruction.

Science: Aryans achieved great progress in mathematics, geometry, medicine and metal Iurgy. Calculations like the distance between the Sun and Moon, Earth and Moon and Sun and Earth were known to them. They also had knowledge of the occurance of eclipses, movement of Comets etc. Cure of diseases was done by using herbs, roots, leaves, oils, salts and mud. They followed the lunar calendar. We can see in the manufacture of the chariots, textiles, metal goods, musical instruments, ornaments etc of these people, the progress made by them in technology.

KSEEB Solutions

Rise of new Religion

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Jainism?
Answer:
Rishabhanatha was the first Thirthankara who founded Jainism. (It is popularly believed that
Mahaveera, the 24th thirthankara, was the founder of Jainism).

Question 2.
Who was the 23rd Thirthankara of Jainism?
Answer:
Parshwanatha was the 23rdThirthankara.

Question 3.
Where was Vardhamana born? ‘
Ans.
Vardhamana was bom in 599 BCE at Kundagrama near Vaishali.

Question 4.
Where did Vardhamana attain enlightenment?
Answer:
Vardhamana attained enlightenment at Jrimbhi kagrama in Bihar.

Question 5.
Where did Mahaveera attain Nirvana.
Answer:
Mahaveera attained Nirvana at Pavapuri near Rajagruha in Bihar.

Question 6.
Who was the founder of Buddhism? (or) Who founded Buddhism?
Answer:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Where was Buddha born?
Answer:
Gautama Buddha was born in Lumbinivana (now in Nepal)

Question 8.
What was the original name of Buddha?
Answer:
Siddhartha was the original name of Buddha.

Question 9.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Buddha’?
Answer:
Buddha means the enlightened one.

Question 10.
In which place did Siddhartha attain enlightenment?
Answer:
Siddhartha attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Gaya.

Question 11.
Where did Buddha deliver his first speech (sermon)?
Answer:
Buddha preached his first speech in the Deer park at Saranath near Varanasi.

Question 12.
Where did Buddha attain Nirvana?
Answer:
Buddha attained Nirvana at the age of eighty in Kushinagar(U.P).

Question 13.
Which is the symbol of Jainism?
Answer:
Swastik is the symbol of Jainism. Swastik means auspiciousness. It represents the world wheel. *

Question 14.
Which is the symbol of Buddhism?
Answer:
Turning of the wheel of Dharma (Law) or Dharma Chakra Parivarathana is the symbol of Buddhism.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Mark Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the parents of Vardhamana?
Answer:
Siddhartha and Trishala were the parents of Vardhamana.

Question 2.
Mention the Trirathnas (Jewels) of Mahaveera.
Answer:
1. Right knowledge 2. Right faith 3. Right conduct are the trirathnas of Mahaveera.

Question 3.
Where were Jain councils held?
Answer:
The first Jain Council was held at Pataliputra in 300 B.C.E. (during Chandragupta Maurya’s reign). The second Jain council was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat in 512 B.C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Which are the two sects of Jainism?
Answer:
The Shwetambaras (who wear white clothes) and the Digambaras (who do not wear any clothes).

Question 5.
Who were the parents of Gautama Buddha?
Answer:
Shuddhodana and Mayadevi were the parents of Buddha.

Question 6.
Mention the noble truths preached by Buddha?
Answer:
Buddha preached four noble truths (Arya satyas). They are

  1. The world is full of sorrow, (pain or misery)
  2. Desire is the root cause for all sufferings, (sorrow)
  3. Sorrowing can be ended only by the elimination of desires.
  4. Desire can be overcome by following Asthangamarga or eightfold path.

Question 7.
Name any two Kings who patronized Buddhism.
Answer:
Great Emperors like Ashoka, Kanishka and Harshavardhana patronized Buddhism.

Question 8.
Mention any two of the Tripitakas.
Answer:
The teachings of Buddha are collected in Tripitakas. They are:

  1. Vinaya Pitaka
  2. Sutta Pitaka and
  3. Abhidamma Pi taka. Tripitakas are the holy or sacred books of Buddhism.

Question 9.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Answer:
Hinayana and Mahayana are the two sects of Buddhism.

Question 10.
Where were the Buddhist councils held?
Answer:
1 st Buddhist council was held circa 487 BCE at Rajagriha.
2nd Buddhist council was held circa 387 BCE at Vaishali.
3rd Buddhist council was held circa 251 BCE in Pataliputra.
4th Buddhist council was held circa 100 CE in Kashmir.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Which are the three Jewels (Triralnas) of Buddhism?
Answer:
Buddha, Dharma and Sangha are the three Jewels of Buddhism.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentence each

Question 1.
What.were the factors responsible for the rise of new religions?
Answer:
Introduction: 6th century B.C.E. was a period of religious movement in India. There were several factors which contributed to the social upheaval of that period. The irregularities (caste, injustice and rigid practices) in the existing social and religious systems were exposed and there was a growing awareness about the drawbacks if one’s own culture, and it led to the growth of new religions.

Factors responsible for the rise of new religions:

1. Complications in the Vedic religion: In the beginning, vedic religion was very simple. The Aryans worshipped nature. Religion was not costly and there were sacrifices. Later, due to the influence of priests, a number of rigidities crept into religion. People got dissatisfied and they wanted changes which they found in the new religions.

2. Supremacy of the priestly class: In the early vedic age, no priests were needed to perform Yajna, but gradually things became complicated. It became more or less impossible for the family people to perform Yajnas by themselves without the help of priests. The Brahmanas enjoyed a number of special privileges and regarded themselves as superiors to all others.

3. Costly rituals in religion: Earlier there were no rituals associated with religion. The performance of simple rituals gradually became expensive and elaborate. Moreover, the performance of meaningless rituals was regarded as a waste by rationalists of that age. People were seeking a religion which would emphasize on simple ethics and righteous code of conduct.

4. The performance of sacrifices: During the later vedic age, the practice of performing sacrifices got started. Animal sacrifices formed part of the rituals, which became very costly and meaningless. So, people became disenchanted with the existing religions. They wanted a change, which they found in the new religions.

5. Sanskrit Hymns (mantras): Vedic literature was in Sanskrit, which was mastered only by the priestly class. Common people were unable to understand Sanskrit. The popular belief was, that the recital of the hymns alone would ensure prosperity and health, but gradually people lost faith in chanting mantras (hymns) blindly and were looking out for a religion based on simple ethical principles.

6. The caste system: Social system was rigid. There was discrimination among the di fferent classes of people. Intercaste marriage and even interdining were prohibited. A person bom in a particular caste was forced to follow the profession of his caste irrespective of his interest and attitude. Brahmanas enjoyed high status, but shudras had to suffer untold miseries. People became discontented due to the inequality in the society.

7. Birth of Great personalities: When people were unhappy and discontented, there arose two great personalities, namely Mahaveera and Buddha. They preached simple principles of Life in the Language of the common people. The simple path of salvation preachead by the new religions attracted the common people towards the new faiths.

Conclusion: All the above factors led to the growth of discontentment among the common people. It led to the growth of rational outlook and the spirit of enquiry. It led to the establishment of new religions like Jainism and Buddhism.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Discuss the life and teachings of Mahaveera.
Answer:
Vardhaman Mahaveer : (599-527 B.C.E.) Life of Mahaveera: He was the 24th Thirthankara and the real founder of Jainism. He was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali in 599 BCE in a kshatriya family. His parents were Siddhartha and Trishala. Siddhartha was the head of a kshatriya clan called Janatrika. Vardhaman had a very comfortable early life. At the age of 18, he married Yashoda and subsequently a daughter was born. Her name was Anojja or Priyadarshini. Mahaveera was inclined towards spiritual life and renounced worldly life.

He left home and wandered naked in search of the truth and the real meaning of life. He lived the life of self-mortification (renunciation) and deep meditation. Finally one day in Vaishaka, he attained Supreme Knowledge (Enlightenment) of Kaivalya (Jnana) and became Kcvalin (omniscient) at Jrimbhikagrama in Bihar. Later he became also known as Jina, which means conqueror of all likings and dislikings. His followers came to be known as Jains. Vardhaman was hailed as Mahaveer or the Great Conqueror.

Propagation of the Religion: Mahaveera spent the rest of his life in preaching his doctrines to the people of Magadha, Anga, Mithila, Kosala and other parts of India. His religion attracted a large number of followers and also Kings like Bindusara and Ajatashatru. He accepted the teachings of Parshwanatha its the basis of Jainism. He lived till the age of 72 years and passed away at Pavapuri near Patna, in 527 BCE.

Teachings of Mahaveera: The main basis of Jainism is the belief in soul and karma. The main objective of Jainism is the attainment of salvation by freeing the soul from the earthly pleasures. Mahaveera preached five vows and three jewels for the attainment of salvation.

Three jewels or thiratnas:

  1. Right Knowleage is understanding the doctrines of Jainism.
  2. Right Faith is the firm belief in the omniscience of Mahaveera.
  3. Right action or conduct is the fulfilment of the five great vows.

The main teaching of Mahaveera was “Ahimsa Paramodharma”. He paid great importance to non-violence and rejected the authority of the vedas and the supremacy of the brahmins. He believed in establishing an order which would lead the people to the path of truth and salvation. To liberate the soul from the bondage of karma, it is necessary to destroy the latter. This can be achieved by an individual by practicing the five vows or principles.

Five vows (principles) or avoidance of the five evil karmas: Mahaveera preached the ethical code and insisted that the following five should be practiced.
They are:

  • Non – violence (Ahimsa): Jainism believed in an extreme form of non-violence. Ahimsa means that violence should not be caused by words, thoughts and actions. There should be no harm or ill-treatment to any living being.
  • Truth (Satya): One should not speak untruth, and should also avoid speaking a bitter truth.
  • Non-stealing (Asteya): One should never steal or pick up things that do not belong to them cither directly or indirectly.
  • Non-possession (Aparigraha): Aparigraha means one is to avoid the longing for worldly things, possession of wealtth and property.
  • Chastity (Brahmacharya): Chastity means control of passions, emotions and desires. Purity of thought, words and deed are to be cultivated.

All these five principles will lead to the path of salvation.
Mahaveera did not believe that the universe was created by God nor did he make any reference to Him. He preached that change was a natural phenomenon. Birth and death were natural and applicable to men and matter. He condemned the caste system and the sacrificial rituals. Nirvana should be the ultimate aim of a soul.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
Answer:
Life of Gauthama Buddha: Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was bom at Lumbinivana in 583 BCE. He was the son of a shakya chief Shuddhodhana and Mayadevi. Gauthama lost his mother and was brought up by his stepmother, Mahaprajapati Gautami. The early name of Gauthama was Siddhartha. He was brought up in great luxury and manned Yashodhara at the age of 16. A son was born to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one day when Siddhartha went out with his charioteer Channa, he saw for the first time in his life four ominous sights. Seeing an old man, a diseased (sick) person, a dead body and an ascetic (sage), resulted in bringing in him a realization of the miseries of the world.

He renounced the world to find a remedy to end these human woes. This event is known as “The Great Renunciation”. To find a solution to the problems of old age, sickness, and death, he left his home, went out to Uravcla forest near Gaya and spent six years wandering in that pursuit. During that period he seif inflicted maximum pain to his body and soul and finally came to the conclusion that hunger and starvation was not the way to find the truth. Thereafter he spent some period, meditating under a pipal tree at Bodhgaya. He got enlightenment at last, about the truths regarding life and death. Having received the light, Gauthama became Buddha or the Enlightened one. He was also called “Thathagatha” which means one who has realized the truth.

Gautama as a preacher: After attaining Knowledge (Enlightenment), he decided to spread his ideas among the suffering humanity. In the Deer park near Saranath (near Benaras), he delivered his first sermon and converted five disciples into Buddhism. This is known as the Dharma Chakra Pravarthan or turning of the wheel of law (Dharma). Dharma chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. Buddha went on preaching, travelling from place to place. His personality and simplicity attracted people towards Buddhism. Buddha attained parinirvana at Kushinagara (U.P.) at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold refers to him as ‘The light of Asia”. His birth day (ful 1 moon day) is famous and celebrated as ‘Buddha Poornima”.

Teachings orBuddha: Buddha wanted to prescribe a new code of conduct, which would lead to the spiritual development of the soul. He condemned the authority of the Vedas, superiority of Brahmins, meaningless performance of sacrifices and the caste system. He laid down the Principles of equality among all human beings. Buddha never wished to discuss about the Creator of the Universe or God.

Buddha taught his preachings through conversation, lectures and parables. His method of teaching was unique. He preached that the world was full of sorrow and ignorance. Ignorance produces desire, desire leads to action (karma), action leads to impulses, to be born again and again in order to satisfy the desires. Thus, he believed in transmigration and that the chain of rebirth can be stopped if the person realises that worldly things are not permanent. Buddha laid down the analysis of life with four different principles. His favourite sutra was ‘Four Noble Truths or Aryasatyas’, which emphasised the fact that life was full of pain (misery) which could be removed only by the removal of all desires.

His four noble truths are:

  1. Life is full of sorrow and pain. (Existence of sorrow)
  2. Desire is the root cause for sorrow. (Cause of sorrow)
  3. To destroy misery, desire must be destroyed first. (The removal of sorrow)
  4. Desire can be overcome by following the ‘ Asthangamarga or the Middle Path’.

When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and the soul can find peace and enjoy emal bliss. Buddha prescribed the Middle path or Asthangamarga, in order to achieve self control and salvation. The eightfold path or the midde path consists of

  1. Right faith
  2. Right thought
  3. Right speech
  4. Right conduct
  5. Right effort
  6. Right meditation
  7. Right livelihood and
  8. Right mindfulness.

This path is known as the middle path or eightfold path. Buddha ruled out completely self-indulgence and self-mortification. Buddhist teachings consitute the three pitakas.

Buddha prescribed several codes of conduct for his followers such as – not to steal other’s properties, not to kill (non-violence), not to use intoxicants, not to tell lies, not to accept or keep money, not to commit adultery, not to sleep on comfortable beds, always intent upon achieving their sacred goals. Nirvana is the final result of the end of all desires. Man is to be judged by his deeds rather than by his birth and family. IIe opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to non-violence. He did not refer to God. Buddha. Pharma and Sangha are the three gems of Buddhism.

Mauryans (320-180 BCE)

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder.

Question 2.
Which was the capital of the Mauryans?
Answer:
Pataliputra (present Patna) was their capital.

Question 3.
Which was the Royal emblem of the Mauryans?
Answer:
Dharmachakra was the Royal emblem of the Mauryans.

Question 4.
Who was the author of Mudrarakshasa?
Answer:
Vishakadatta was the author of Mudrarakshasa.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Who wrote Arthashasthra?
Answer:
Kautilya wrote Arthashasthra.

Question 6.
Who wrote the book ‘Indica’?
Answer:
Megasthanes the Greek Ambassador wrote the book Indica.

Question 7.
Who helped Chandragupta to establish the Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
Kautilya (Chanakya).

Question 8.
Who was the Nanda ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Dhanananda was the Nanda Ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Who sent Megasthanes as Ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Seleucus sent Megasthanes as Ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 10.
Name the Greek Ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
Seleucus was the Greek Ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 11.
Name the Mauryan Ruler who followed Jainism.
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 12.
Where did Chandragupta Maurya spend his last days?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka.

Question 13.
Who was the greatest Ruler of the Mauryan dynasty?
Answer:
Ashoka. .

Question 14.
Which edict of Ashoka tells us about the Kalinga war?
Answer:
Rock edict XIII gives us details about the Kalinga war.

Question 15.
Who embraced Buddhism after the Kalinga war?
Answer:
Ashoka embraced Buddhism.

Question 16.
Where was the Third Buddhist Council held?
Answer:
The Third Buddhist Council was held at Pataliputra in 250 BCE.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 17.
Which was the biggest stupa built by Ashoka?
Answer:
Sanchi Stupa in Madhya Pradesh was the biggest Stupabuiltby Ashoka.

Question 18.
Which is the National emblem of India.
Answer:
The Dharmachakra and on the abacus four Lions which are seated back to back is the National emblem of India.

Question 19.
Who was the founder of the Sathavahana dynasty?
Answer:
Simuka was the founder of the Sathavahana dynasty.

Question 20.
Which was the capital of the Sathavahanas?
Answer:
Prathisthana or Paithan was the capital of the Sathavahanas.

Question 21.
Who wrote the book ‘Gathasapthasati’?
Answer:
King Hal a wrote Gathasapthasati in Prakrit language.

Question 22.
Which was the inscription issued by Gautami Balashri?
Answer:
The Nasik cave inscription.

Question 23.
Which event (incident) was the turning point in the life of Ashoka?
Answer:
Kalinga war (261 B.C.) was the turning point in the life of Ashoka.

Question 24.
What was the advice given by Ashoka to his subjects in his edicts?
Answer:
Ashoka always wished for mutual reverence, toleration and morality.

Question 25.
Which inscriptions mention the name of Ashoka?
Answer:
The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to the King as ‘Devanampriya Ashokasa’.

Question 26.
Who converted Ashoka to Buddhism?
Answer:
Upa Gupta, the Buddhist monk converted Ashoka to Buddhism.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 27.
Which were the titles assumed by GautamiputraSathakarni?
Answer:
Tri SamudraToyaPithavahanaandShaka-Yavana-PahlavaNisudhana.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentence each

Question 1.
Name the important sources which help us to know’ about the Mauryan dynasty.
Answer:
Arthashasthra of Kautilya, Indica of Megasthanes, Mudrarakshasa of Vishakadatta, the Jain works (Parishishtaparva and Kalpasutra), Buddhist works (Deepavamsa and Mahavamsa), Ashokan edicts, Monuments etc.,

Question 2.
Where do we find Ashokan inscriptions in Karnataka?
Answer:
Ashokan inscriptions are found at Maski (RaichurDist), Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppala Dist), Brahmagiri, Siddapura and Jatingarameshwara (Chitradurga Dist), Nittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri Dist).

Question 3.
Which were the two types of courts that existed in the Mauryan period?
Answer:
Dharmastheyas (Civil cases) and Kantakashodana (Criminal cases).

Question 4.
In which district of Karnataka is Maski located? What is the importance of it?
Answer:
Maski is located in Raichur District. This ediet which refers to ‘Devanampriya Ashokasa’
confirms that Ashoka had the titles ‘Devanampriya’and ‘Priyadarshi Raja’.

Question 5.
Who was Megasthanes? Name his work.
Answer:
Megasthanes was the Greek Ambassador of Seleucus to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote the book called Indica.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Name any two works of Vishakadatta.
Answer:
Mudrarakshasa and Devi Chandraguptham.

Question 7.
Who was Kautilya? Which was his famous work? (or) For what was Kautilya famous?
Answer:
Kautilya was a Statesman, Scholar and teacher of Chandragupta Maurya. He is famous for his work Arthashastra which explains the art of governance of a country.

Question 8.
Which ruler appointed Dharmamahamathras? What was their duty?
Answer:
Ashoka appointed Dharmamahamathras to spread Buddhism among the people.

Question 9.
Name the important Rulers of Sathavahanas.
Answer:
Simukha, Hala, Gautamiputra Sathakami, Vashistiputra Pulamayi, Yajnashri and others were the important Sathavahana Rulers.

Question 10.
Name the important architectural centres of the Sathavahanas.
Answer:
Nasik, Ajantha, Amaravathi, Nagarjunakonda, Ghantasala, Karle, Kanheri, Kondane, Gudiwada, Jaggayapeta, etc., are the important architectural centres of the Sathavahanas.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Name the administrative provinces of Mauryans.
Answer:
The Mauryan Empire consisted of 5 provinces whose capitals were:

  1. Gimar
  2. Taxila
  3. Ujjain
  4. Suvamagiri and
  5. Tosali.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain (he achievements of Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya 324-300 BCE: Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan dynasty. There is very little information about his parents, his birth and early childhood, lie was born in the capital city of Pataliputra. Kautilya, better known as Chanakya, a brahmin from Takshashi la took the orphan under his care, educated him in all the princely requirements and trained him to be a worthy commander and Ruler. Chandragupta was fortunate to come under the influence of this great thinker, politician and statesman.

Military Achievements:

1. Conquests of Punjab: Chandragupta built a strong army under the guidance of
Chanakya and defeated the petty Rulers of Punjab and annexed their regions. He then marched against Magadha.

2. Defect of the Nanda ruler: Chandragupta made several attempts to defeat the Nandas. Chanakya had vowed to depose Dhanananda, because he had insulted Chanakya. Dhanananda was finally defeated and killed and Chandragupta Maurya became the King of Magadha and established the Mauryan dynasty. After overthrowing and ending Dhanananda’s oppressive rule, Chandragupta consolidated his power and freed the country from foreign occupation. The Greek Governors appointed by Alexander in the Sindh and Punjab provinces were defeated and the territories were annexed by Chandragupta.

3. War with Seleucus: After the death of Alexander, the eastern part of his Empire went over to Seleucus. A war ensued between Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya. Seleucus was defeated, and he had to sign a treaty with Chandragupta and had to surrender the provinces of Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar and Baluchistan. This victory of Chandragupta spread his Kingdom upto the frontiers of Hindukush (Afghanisthan)in the north west. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with the Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as his A mbassador to Patal i putra.

Assessment: Chandragupta was undoubtedly one of the greatest Rulers of India. He expelled the Greeks from the country. According to Jain tradition, in the last days of his reign, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and embraced Jainism under the influence of the Jain scholar Bhadrabahu. lie spent his last days at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka and died by performing ‘Sallekhana’ in 300 BCE.

Question 2.
What were the measures taken by Ashoka for the spread of Buddhism?
Answer:
The greatness of Ashoka is not only due to his territorial expansion, but for his moral greatness and the practical ethics which he propagated. The Kalinga war was a turning point in the life of Ashoka. Seeing the extent of the loss of human li fe and bloodshed, Ashoka was fi 1 led with sorrow and vowed to stop ‘Digvijaya or Bhcri Ghosha (Beating of war drums) and to take up ‘Dharmavijaya’ (Winning the hearts of the people). He declared “The Chief conquest is the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha and Dharmas.

The intention of Ashoka was to spread Buddhism not only in India but also outside India. He took many measures for the same. They were:

  • He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha such as Lumbini, Kapilavastu. Gaya, Saranath and arranged discourses on religion.
  • He constructed a large number of monasteries all over the Empire and gave liberal grants for such institutions.
  • He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the caves throughout his Empire.
  • Ashoka appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas and Rajjukas to spread Buddhism among people. He also appointed Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamalras to take care of women and bring religious awareness among them.
  • He organised the 3rd Buddhist Council at Pataliputra which was presided by Moggaliputra Tissa in 250 BCE. The purpose was to settle the differences among the Buddhists.
  • Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in Afghanisthan, Burma, Srilanka and Europe. He deputed his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamithra to Srilanka with a Bodhi Sapling as a symbol of peace.
  • He undertook many welfare activities like digging of wells, building rest houses, planting of fruit-bearing trees etc., He constructed hospitals for men and animals. He made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled persons. His aim was “Service and Sacrifice”.

Ashoka believed that a moral life was the pre-requisite for a happy life. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and a good moral life. On account of his extensive propagation, Buddism became a religion of the masses in India and it also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South-east Asian countries and thus became a world religion during his period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the contributions of Mauryans to Art and Architecture
(or)
What were the main contributions of Mauryans to Art and Architecture?
Answer:
Mauryans built several buildings, palaces and monuments. They used wood, bricks and stones as building materials.
Stupas: The stupas were dome like mounds of brick or stone, built in honor of Buddha. The purpose of erecting stupas was to enshrine some of the relics of Buddha. It is believed that Ashoka built about 84,000 stupas all over his Empire, The best of them are still surviving at Sanchi, Barahut and Saranath. Sanchi stupa is the biggest Stupa.

Rock-cut halls or Caves: Ashoka and his grandson Dasharatha built caves for meditation for the Buddhist monks. The Sudhama cave which was dedicated to the Ajivika monks and Lamasha Rishi Cave at the Barabar hills near Gaya (Bihar) were built by Ashoka. The largest cave of Dasaratha’s time was the Gopi cave at the Nagarjuna hills.

Monolithic Pillars : Stone pillars of various designs were erected during the reign of Ashoka. Such pillars were generally installed in front of places of worship. Each pillar weighs about 50 tons and measures 30 feet in height. The pillars consist of a base, a shaft and on top of these pillars there are figures of animals such as lion, elephant or horse on an inverted lotus called Capitals.

The most important among them is the pillar at Saranath. It consists of an inverted lotus, the Dharmachakra and on the abacus four lions which are seated back to back. The Chakra and the Animals all have a deep symbolism and are connected with the life and teachings of Buddha in some form. The Saranath Capital was adopted as our national emblem by the Indian Government on 26th January 1950.

Palaces: The palaces in Pataliputra were renowned for their beauty. Megasthenes has given a good description of this city. According to them, the Royal Palace was one of the best in the world. The Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien has also given us a good description of that period.

Question 4.
Describe the administration of Mauryans.
Answer:
Mauryan Administration: The Mauryans established an efficient.system of administration.
Their administration was benevolent in nature. They followed certain principles of Dharma to establish an uniform administrative system. The basic principle of administration was the promotion of welfare of the people.

The Central Government:

1. King: King was the supreme authority in the state. Kings did not enjoy absolute monarchy. They followed certain principles of Dharma. The main duty of the King was to work for the welfare of the people. Kautilya always considered the King as a “Dharma Pravartaka and Public servant”.

2. Mantri Parishad (The Council of Ministers): The Mantri Parishad was an important organ of the administration in the Mauryan Empire. The Mantri Parishad was established to assist the King in the administration. The ministers were appointed by the King on the basis of their merits and abilities. Each minister was in charge of a department. The mantris were higher officials like Prime Minister, Purohit, Senapati, Yuvaraja, Amatya and others. All matters were considered and discussed in the Mantri Parishad.

3. Secretarial: Administrative matters of the Central Government were divided into 30 departments, each under a superintendent. They dealt with the activities of the state such as irrigation, market, education, famine relief etc.,

4. Judicial Administration: King was the supreme authority in the Judiciary. His court was the final authority of appeal, There were two kinds of courts called Dharma Stheyas which dealt with Civil cases and Kantakashodanas which dealt with Criminal causes. A uniform system of law was introduced throughout the Kingdom. Justice was imparted without any delay. Village heads solved the cases within the villages. The Mauryan Penal Code was very severe.

5. Revenue (Finance) Administration: Land tax was the main source of income of the state. of the annual produce was fixed as the tax. Taxes were collected both in cash and kind. Samahart was the in charge of Revenue. Taxes were also levied on professions, houses, cattle, sales tax forest products etc.,

Provincial Administration: Mauryan Empire was divided into Five provinces with their capitals at Gimar, Taxi la, Ujjain, Tosaii andSuvamagiri. Princes (Kumaras) or Governors were incharge of the provinces. Each province was divided into a number of Mandalas or Districts that were governed by Sthanikas. Village was the Primary unit of administration. Gramika was its head. The official in charge of ten villages was called as ‘Gopa’

Pataliputra Administration: The Greek Ambassador Megasthanes gives us a very good account of the administration of the Pataliputra. According to him, administrative work was earned by a council of 30 members divided into 6 boards of five members each. Each board was in charge of a particular branch of Municipal work.

Military Administration: The Mauryans had developed a well organised Military system. Kautilya gives us an elaborate account of the Mauryan army. It was very large, well equipped and disciplined. Kautilya speaks of four kinds of Forts (Duigas) for security. The King personally led the army during wars. The army of Chandragupta consisted of 6,00,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry and 9000 elephants. The war office was administered by six boards, each consisting of five members. They were: 1) Navy, 2) Transport, 3) Infantry, 4) Cavalary, 5) Chariots and 6) Elephant force. ‘Senapati’ was the highest officer of the army.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
Answer:
Ashoka the Great: Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned Rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as ‘Devanampriya’ and “Priyadarshi’. He considered his subjects as his own children and considered that the Primary duty of the King was to promote the welfare of the people. He came to power in 273 BCE, but his coronation was celebrated only in 269 BCE.

Kalinga War (261 BCE) : Ashoka waged a war against the Kalinga Kingdom as he considered war and annexation as the rightful duty of a King. It was this imperialistic consideration that prompted Ashoka to conquer Kalinga. Rock Edict XIII of Ashoka tells us that the war ended with bloodshed and misery. One lakh people died, 1.5 lakh were taken as prisoners of war. This event had a deep impact on his mind. Kalinga War was the turning point in the life of Ashoka becuase after the war he embraced Buddhism by the influence of Upagupta and followed the principles of non-violence.

Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of all that bloodshed, that this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. He changed his foreign policy from ‘Digvijaya or Bherighosha’ (Beating of war drums) to ‘Dharmaghosha orVijaya (winning the hearts of the people). He declared that ‘The real conquest was the conquest by right path and love and not by might and sin”. Ashoka did not wage any war further and dedicated his whole life for the propagation of Dhairna and Peace.

Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanisthan in the North to Karnataka in the South, from Bengal in the East to Sindu and Baluchis than in the West.

Edicts of Ashoka: Ashoka issued a number of Inscriptions which throw light on the religion, society and administration of the Mauryans. Ashokan inscriptions are found throughout the extent of his Empire. The languages of these edicts were Pali and Prakriti and the script used was Brahmi and Kharoshti. Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a long time was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. Ashokan inscriptions are found in places like Pataliputra, Rampurava, Rummindei, Sravasti, Bodhgaya, Bhabru, Barabara, Sanchi, Kausambi, Maski, Taxila etc., The edicts are classified into 1) Major rock edicts, 2) Minor rock edicts, 3) Pillar inscriptions and 4) Cave inscriptions.

Edicts in Karnataka: A number of Ashokan edicts have been discovered in Karnataka. They have been found at Maski (Raichur dist). Gavimatha and Palkigonda (Koppal Dist), Siddapur, Brahmagiri and Jatingarameshwar(Chitradurga dist) Nittur and Udayagollam (Bellary Dist) and Sannathi (Yadagiri). Most of the edicts of Ashoka, preach moral values to the people and about the teachings of Buddha. The Maski and Calcutta edicts refer to King Ashoka as ‘Devanampriya Asokasa’. Thus these edicts helped in identifying the other edicts of Ashoka. He wanted to inculcate the virtues of practical morality, compassion to animals, reverence and obedience to teachers, elders and parents, truthfulness etc.,

Religion: Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. He believed that a moral life was a pre-requisite of happy life. He propogated the ideas of developing virtues like truthfulness, purity of thought, kindness, honesty, gratitude, self-restraint and compassion. He laid emphasis on simple living, high thinking and leading a good moral life. The Bhabru edict clearly indicates Ashoka’s faith in Buddha, Sangha and Dharma. Ashoka took many measures for the spread of Buddhism.

He visited the holy places from the life of Buddha. He constructed monasteries and gave liberal grants to them. He followed the policy of religious tolerance. He assumed the title ‘Devanmapriya’ (beloved of the Oods). He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rock edicts throughout the Empire. He appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras, Yukthas, Rajjukas and Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatras to spread Dharma among the people. Ashoka organised the 3rd Buddhist council at Pataliputra in 250 BCE, to settle the internal differences among the Buddhists. He took much interest and adopted special measures to propagate Buddhism. He sent
Buddhist missionaries to far off lands to preach the Gospel of Buddha.

He deputed his son Mahendra amd daughter Sanghamitra to Sri Lanka to spread Buddhism. It was on account of his extensive propagation that Buddhism became a religion of the masses in India and also spread to Nepal, Tibet, China, Japan, Burma and many South¬East Asian Countries. He took many welfare activities and made arrangements to feed the poor and physically disabled people. He was concerned with the moral and spiritual welfare of his people. H.G Wells remarks that “Amidst the tens of thousands of Majesties and Royal Highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines and shines along like a Star”.

KSEEB Solutions

Kushanas

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which was the original home of the Kushanas?
Answer:
China was the original home of the Kushanas. They originally belonged to a nomadic race known as ‘Yueh-chi’.

Question 2.
Who was the first ruler of the Kushanas?
Answer:
KujulaKadphisis was the first ruler of the Kushanas.

Question 3.
Who was the greatest King of the Kushanas?
Answer:
Kanishka was the greatest ruler of the Kushanas.

Question 4.
Name the Chinese general who defeated Kanishka.
Answer:
Kanishka was defeated by the Chinese general Pan-Chao.

Question 5.
Which was the capital of Kanishka?
Answer:
Purushapura (Peshawar in Pakistan) was the capital of Kanishka.

Question 6.
Who influenced Kanishka to embrace Buddhism?
Answer:
Ashwaghosha influenced Kanishka to embrace Buddhism.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
When and why was the fourth Buddhist council held?
Answer:
The main aim of the 4th buddhist council was to patch up the differences existing in Buddhism at that time. But, ultimately Buddhism divided into Hinayana and Mahayana schools of thought. The 4th council was held in 102 C.E., during the reign of Kanishka, at Kundalavana in Kashmir..

Question 2.
Write any two measures of Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
Answer:

  1. Kanishka gave royal patronage to Buddhism and it was also extended to the buddhist monks.
  2. A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries like Japan, Tibet and Central Asia for spreading Buddhism.
  3. Kanishka conducted the 4th buddhist council in Kashmir in 102 C.E., presided by
    Vasumithra. The purpose of this council was to settle the disputes that were existing in Buddhism at that time. .

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentence each

Question 1.
Explain the achievements of Kanishka
(or)
What were the contributions of Kanishka to the indian history?
Answer:
Kanishka was the greatest of the Kushana Emperors. There are controversies about the date of Kanishka’s accession. The most probable date is 120 C.E. Another school of thought projects Kanishka as the founder of the Saka era (78 CE). Purushapura (present Peshawar in Pakistan) was his capital.

Conquests (Expeditions): Kanishka was a great warrior, ambitious and imperialistic Ruler. He extended his Empire in different directions very rapidly. His Empire consisted of Baclria, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab and a large portion of Sindh.

Kashmir: Kanishka annexed Kashmir during his early reign and founded a city called Kanishkapura (the present day Srinagar), where he built many monuments.

Expeditions on Magadha, Saka and Sathrapas: He conquered Kashmir, occupied Punjab, . Mathura, Saketa and Benaras. Then he turned towards the famous city of Pataliputra (Patna). After a glorious victory, he returned to his capital Purushapura along with the famous buddhist scholar, Ashvaghosha. Towards the west, Kanishka marched against the Parthians and got victory over them, and established his supremacy over a very large area.

War with China: After the conquest of the northern India, Kanishka turned his attention towards China. Kadphises-II (Kushana) had suffered defeat at the hands of the Chinese general Pan-Chao and as a result of this defeat, the Kushanas had to pay a heavy annual tribute to the Chinese King. Kanishka stopped paying the tribute and invaded China, but the Chinese general Pan-chao defeated him.

After making renewed preparations, he attacked China once again but the Chinese general Pan-Chao had died by then and his son Pan-Chanang, the new general was defeated by Kanishka and he annexed three Chinese provinces into his Empire. Kanishka was the first Indian ruler who established territories outside India. His Kingdom extended to Kashgar in the north, Sindh in the south, Benaras in the East and Afghanistan in the west.

Religion (Kanishka’s religious policy): The Kushanas who belonged to the Yuch-Chi tribe, followed tribal religious customs. After their settlement in India, they adopted Indian culture and Hinduism. Kanishka was also a follower of Hinduism. In course of time, he was attracted towards Buddhism by the influence of Ashwaghosha. Kanishka attempted to serve and spread Buddhism in China, Tibet, Japan and other central Asian countries. He organized the 4lh buddhist council in Kashmir. The main purpose of the council was to settle the dispute existing in Buddhism at that time. During his rule, Buddhism split into Hinayana and Mahayana Sects.

Patronage to art (Gandhara art): Kanishka was a great lover of art and literature. He patronished Sanskrit language and had great scholars like Ashwaghosha, Vasumitra, Nagarjuna and Charaka in his court. Ashwagandha wrote Budda charita and Sutralanara. Nagarjuna wrote Madhyamika sutra and Charaka wrote a treatise on Ayurveda.

Kanishka was a great builder, and fine buildings of architectural beauty are found at Gandhara, Mathura, Kanishkapura and Taxila. The Kushana period was important for the growth of Gandhara art. it became the meeting ground of eastern and western cultures, known as the Greco-buddhist style. Combining Indian and Greek styles, there arose a new school of art called ‘The Gandhara School of Art’. This style originated in the Gandhara region, now in Afghanistan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Describe the chief characteristics of the Gandhara school of art.
Answer:
Gandhara art: The Kushana period was famous for the growth of Gandhara ait. The important centres of this art were Jalalabad, Hadda and Baniyan in Afghanistan. Peshawar became the meeting ground^of the eastern and western cultures. Greek and roman sculptors and artists were brought to construct buildings, Viharas and Chaityas.,This art was a combination of the Indian and Greek (Greco-Buddhist) styles. This new school of art called the Gandhar school of art originated in the Gandhara region, now in Afghanistan.

Main characteristics of the Gandhara art:

  1. In this school of art, the life size statues of Buddha were carved. Until then, the Buddhist existence was shown only in the form of symbols like lotus, umbrella etc.
  2. While carving the statues, utmost care was given to the symmetry of the body including the muscles and moustaches which were shown in a natural setting.
  3. In the specimens of the craftsmanship of this art, the folds and turns of the clothes were exhibited with minute care and skill.
  4. In this art, the ornaments that were carved on the statues received much attention which added to the physical beauty of the statues.
  5. Polishing the statues was an important feature of this ait.
  6. The specimens were mostly prepared in stone, terracotta and clay.

The technique used in making the statues was greek but, the idea, inspiration, and personality were all indian. According to Dr. R.C. Mazumdar – ‘The Gandhara artist had the hand of a Greek but the heart of an indian. It is for this reason, that in the statues and images made under this art, an attempt was made to carve Lord Buddha like the Greek God Appolo. The Gandhara style spread to south east Asian countries as the parent of the Buddhist art.”

Guptas (300-600CE)

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty?
Answer:
Sri Gupta was the founder of the Gupta dynasty.

Question 2.
When did the Gupta era commence?
Answer:
The Gupta era began in 320 CE during the reign of Chandragupta-I

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Who composed the Allahabad pillar inscription?
Answer:
Harisena who was the commander-in-chief and court poet of Samudragupta, composed the Allahabad pillar inscription.

Question 4.
Which inscription of Samudragupta throws light on his expeditions?
Answer:
The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, informs about his expeditions.

Question 5.
Who was the author of Kavyamimamse?
Answer:
Rajashekarawas the author of Kavyamimamse.

Question 6.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty?
Answer:
Samudragupta was the greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty.

Question 7.
Which Gupta ruler performed Ashwameda sacrifice? ,
Answer:
Samudragupta performed Ashwameda (horse) sacrifice.

Question 8.
Who had the title ‘Kaviraja’?
(or)
Which Gupta King was called as Kaviraja?
Answer:
Samudragupta was called as Kaviraja.

Question 9.
Who wrote Shakunthala?
Answer:
Kalidasa wrote the famous drama Shakunthala.

Question 10.
Who wrote Aryabhata? (or) Who was the author of Aryabhata?
Answer:
Aryabhatta was the author of Aryabhata.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Who had the title Vikramaditya?
Answer:
Chandragupta-II had the title Vikramaditya.

Question 12.
Who wroteAmarakosha?
Answer:
Amarasimha wroteAmarakosha.

Question 13.
Who was the author of Brihathsamhithe?
Answer:
Varahamihira wrote Brihathsamhithe.

Question 14.
Who wrote‘Gho-ko-ki’?
Answer:
The Chinese traveller Fa-hien wrote the book ‘Gho-ko-ki’.

Question 15.
Name the author of Kiratarjuneeyam.
Answer:
Bharavi was the author of Kiratarjuneeyam.

Question 16.
Who is called ‘The father of Indian Medicine’?
Answer:
Dhanwanthri is called ‘The father of Indian Medicine’ (Ayurveda).

Question 17.
Where is the iron pillar of the Gupta age found?
Answer:
Their on pillar of the Gupta age is found at Mehrauli near Delhi.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Who is called as the Indian Napolean’?
Answer:
V.A. Smith the historian called Samudragupta as the ‘Indian Napolean’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Who was the Chinese Pilgrim who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta-II (Vikramaditya-II)?
Answer:
Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien (399-414 CE) visited India, during Chandragupta – II’s period. He wrote a book ‘Gho-ko-ki’ which throws light on the administration of Guptas.

Question 20.
Who is called as the ‘Indian Shakespeare’?
Answer:
Kalidasa is called as the Indian Shakespeare.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Which were the two capitals of the Guptas?
Answer:
Pataliputra was the first capital and Ujjain became the second capital during Chandragupta- II’s reign.

Question 2.
Which inscription describes the conquests of Samudragupta? Who composed it?
Answer:
The Allahabad pillar inscription describes the conquests of Samudragupta. Harisena composed the Allahabad pillar inscription.

Question 3.
Name some poets of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Kalidasa, Shudraka, Bharavi, Dandi, Vishakadatta, Vishnusharma, Amarasimha and Shanku were some important poets of the Gupta period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Mention some works of Kalidasa.
Answer:
The famous works of Kalidasa were Abhijnana Shakuntala, Raghuvamsha, Meghadhoota, Kumarasambhava,Vikramorvashiya, Malavikagnimitra, Ritusamharaetc.

Question 5.
Who was Fa-hien? Why did he come to India?
Answer:

Fa-hien was a Chinese pilgrim, who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta-II. He came to India to study Buddhism.

Question 6.
Which sources are helpful to us in the study of Gupta history?
Answer:
Some important sources that help us to study the Gupta history are:

  • The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta.
  • Mudrarakshasa and Devi Chandraguptam of Vishakadatta.
  • Works of Kalidasa and Kavyamimamse by Rajashekara.
  • Writings of Fa-hien and Itsing.

Question 7.
Name the northern Rulers defeated by Samudragupta.
Answer:
The nine northern Rulers of Aryavartha defeated by Samudragupta were, Nandin, Balavarman, Chandravarman, Nagadatta, Nagasena, Ganapathinaga, Achyathanaga, Mathila and Rudradeva.

Question 8.
Name the southern Kingdoms defeated by Samudragupta.
Answer:
The twelve southern Kingdoms defeated by Samudragupta were, Mahendra of Kosala, Vyagraraja of Mahakanthara, Mantharaja of Kowrala, Mahendra of Pistapura, Swamydatta of Kottura, Damana of Yarandapalli, Vishnugopaof Kanchi, Hasthivarman of Vengi, Neelaraja of Avamuktha, Ugrascna of Palakkad, Kubcra of Devarasthra and Dhananjaya of Kustalapura.

Question 9.
Name any two well known Universities of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Taxila, Nalanda, Ujjain, Ajantha, Saranatha, PataliputraaridVallabhi were the well known educational centres of the Gupta period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Name any two works of Varahamihira.
Answer:
Panchasiddantika (astronomy), Brihadjataka andLaghujataka (astrology) and Brihatsamhita were the famous works of Varahamihira.

Question 11.
Name any two architectural centres of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc. were the architectural centers of the Gupta period.

Question 12.
What is the importance of the Allahabad inscription?
Answer:
The author of this edict was Harisena. It is made of 33 lines of Sanskrit prose and verse. This inscription is in the nature of a prasasti. It throws light upon personal qualities and conquests of Samudragupta.

Question 13.
Who were the important scientists of the Gupta period?
Answer:
The well known scientists of the Gupta period were, Aryabhatta, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Vriddh Vagbhata, Dhanvantari, CharakaandShushrutha.

Question 14.
Which Gupta ruler patronized the nine gems (Navaratnas) in his court? Name them.
Answer:
Vikramaditya-II (Chandragupta-II) patronized the nine gems in his court. They were, 1) Kalidasa
(Poet) 2) Varahamihira (Astronomer), 3) Shanku (Architect), 4) Dhanvantari (Physician), 5) Amarasimha (Lexicographer), 6) Kshapanaka (Astrologer), 7) Vararuchi (Grammarian), 8) Vethalabhatta (Magician) and 9) Ghatakarpara (Poet).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Name the works of Aryabhatta.
Answer:
Aryabhatta wrote Surya siddhanta, Aryabhata, and Dasagitika (Trigonometry).

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the conquests of Samudragupta (or)
Samudragupta is called as the Indian Napolean. Explain why?
Answer:
Samudragupta (335 to 375 CE): The most outstanding ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta, who was the son and successor of Chandragupta-I. He was an ambitious, ablest and most distinguished ruler and wanted to be an ‘Emperor’ (Chakravarthi).

The Allahabad pillar inscription (Prayag) throws much light on his conquests and personal qualities. The author of this edict was Ilarisena, the court poet as well as the commander – in – chief of Samudragupta. It is in Sanskrit prose and verse and contains 33 lines. The inscription is in the nature of a prasasti (ponegric). The military conquests mentioned in the inscription may be divided into four distinct campaigns.

1) Northern campaign (Aryavartha): The early yearssof his reign were spent in subduing the provinces of the Gangetic plain called ‘Aryavartha’. According to the inscription, he defeated nine Kings in his northern campaign and annexed their territories into his Empire. The Rulers who were defeated by Samudragupta were i) Nandin, ii) Balavarman, iii) Chandravarman, iv) Nagadatta, v) Nagasena, vi) Ganapathinaga, vii) Achyutanaga, viii) Mathila and ix) Rudradeva. After the conquest, he performed Ashwamedha yaga and became the master of Aryavartha.

2) Conquest of the Forest Kingdoms (Central India): Samudragupta conquered the forest Kingdoms of Abhiras, Madrakas, Kakas, Reva, Jabalpur, Nagapur and Bhaghelkhanda in the upper Vindya regions, many of whom surrendered to him voluntarily.

3) Southern Campaign: After consolidating his authority in the north, he turned his attention towards the South and took an expedition. Samudragupta derived hisjiame and fame by his compaigns in South India and he did not extend his direct rule over this region. The inscription refers to the twelve Kings of the south who were defeated and later reinstated to rule under him. They were: i) Mahendra of Kosala, ii) Vyagraraja of Mahaknathara, iii) Mantaraja of Kowrala, iv) Mahendra of Pistapura, v) Swamydatta of Kottura, vi) Damana of Yarandapalti, vii) Vishnugopa of Kanchi, viii) Hasthivarman of Vengi, ix) Neelaraja of Avamuktha, x) Ugrasena of Palakkad, xi) Kubera of Devarashtra and xii) DhananjayaofKustalapura.

The southern states were far away from his capital Pataliputra, and so they could not be brought under his direct control. The defeated rulers accepted his sovereignty and paid him tributes. No territory was annexed.

4) Annexation of the frontier Kingdoms: The frontier area also came under the control of Samudragupta. They accepted his authority and paid tributes to him. They were Kamarupa (Assam), Samataka (Bengal), Karthripura (Punjab), Devaka (Nepal) and Rohilkhanda.

5) Extended the Kingdom: Samudragupta’s Empire had extended from Bengal in the east to Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and upto the Vindya mountains in the south. The fame of Samudragupta reached far and wide. He maintained friendly relations with Ceylon. He was triumphant everywhere in India. Hence, Dr. V.A. Smith, the historian has called him as the ‘The Indian Napolean’. After his conquests, he performed ‘Ashwameda Yaga (horse sacrifice) to commemorate his victories. He also issued gold coins of various denominations. He composed many poems and thereby earned the title ‘Kaviraja’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
What were the contributions of Guptas to the Held of literature and science ?
Answer:
Literature: The Gupta age was also the golden age of Sanskrit literature. Guptas were not only warriors, but also patronized literature and science. Harisena’s prasasli as recorded on the Allahabad pillar, is in chaste Sanskrit prose and verse. Itcontains 33 lines and is a remarkable example of the poetry of the Gupta age. Samudragupta himself was a poet and scholar and he got the title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II patronized the ‘Nine Gems’ (navarathnas), the Sanskrit scholars in his court.

They were i) Kalidasa (Poet), ii) Dhanvantari (Physician), iii) Varahamihira (Astronomer), iv) Amarasimha (Lexicographer), v) Shanku (Architect), vi) Kshapanaka (Astrologer), vii) Vararuchi, (Grammarian), viii) Vetalabhatta (Magician) and ix) Ghatakarpara (Poet).

The most outstanding literary figure of that age was Kalidasa. He wrote a number of excellent works like Shakuntala, Malavikagnim’itra, Raghuvamsha, Kumarasambhava, Meghadhoota, Ritusamhara, Vikramorvashiyam etc. Both in drama and poetry, he stands unsurpassed and unrivalled even today. Kalidasa emerged as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare’.

Bhasa was another Sanskrit dramatist of this period. He was the author of 13 dramas, which are considered as the treasure in Sanskrit literature. The important dramas include Swapnavasava, Charudatta and Urubhanga. Vishakadatta wrote Mudrarakshasa and Devi Chandraguptam. Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika. Bharavi was the author of Kirathaijuneeyam. Dandi wrote Dashakumaracharita and Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha composed Panchatantra and Amarasimha wrote Amarakosa.

The Nitisara of Kamandaka and the smritis of Yagnavalkya are also noteworthy. Some of the buddhist scholars of this period were Asanga, Vasubandhu, Dignaga, Chandragomin and others, who wrote many works in Sanskrit. The literary standard of this period was high. Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature. The development of Sanskrit reached its zenith.

Development of science: The Gupta age made tremendous progress in the field of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Medicine, Astrology, Mathematics and Metallurgy. Dhanvantri and Vagbhatta were great physicians. Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta were the great astronomers and mathematicians of that age.

1) Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period. He wrote two great works on astronomy namely, Aryabhata and Suryasiddhanta. His major contributions : i) To find the place value of numbers from 1 to 9, ii) The discovery of the exact value of 22pi (TC) viz or 3.14159, iii) The formula to calculate the area of a triangle, iv) The true 7 cause of why solar and luner eclipses occur, v) The rotation and revolution of Earth on its axis, vi) The decimal system of notation. An indian satellite sent into space has been named Aryabhatta in his honour.

2) Varahamihira wrote Brihathsamhithe, Panchasiddantika, Brihadjataka and Laghujataka. He studied and wrote about the movements of the heavenly bodies. He was an authority on Astronomy, Botany, Mathematics and Geography.

3) Brahmagupta was the great astronomer who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra Siddhanta’. He declared that all things fall to the Earth, by a law of nature. He showed the importance of zero.

4) Bhaskaracharya was a renowed mathematician.

5) Vridha Vagbhata was the great physician and author of Ashtanga sangraha.

6) Dhanvantari was a great physician and he wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He is regarded as the ‘Father of Indian medicine’ (Ayurveda).

7) Charaka and Sushrutha were physicians, and wrote samhithes.
The iron pillar near the Kutb minar atMeharauli (Delhi) is the best example of the progress in metallurgy achieved by the Guptas. That pillar’s weight is about 6 tonnes, height 23.8 ft and a diameter of 16.4 inches at the base. It is still free from rust, even though it is exposed to the elements, like wind, rain, sun etc., all these years.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following question in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Why is the Gupta age called ‘The golden age’ in Indian history?
Answer:
Introduction : Gupta period was a unique phase in the Indian history, due to the all round development during this age. It has been described as the ‘Golden age’ and the “Classical period of Indian history”. Dr. R.N. Saletore has compared it with the ages of Augustus Caesar of Rome and Queen Elizabeth of England. Dr. L.D. Barnet compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece. The achievements in the fields of religion, education, literature, art, architecture, science and technology were extraordinary.

Religion: Revival of Hinduism (Hindu renaissance) was one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. Guptas followed vedic religion, but they were tolerant towards the other religions. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. Pashupata sect of Shaivism became very popular. Worship of the Saptamatrikas became widespread. The Shiva temple at Deogadh, the temple of Bhumara and the Mahakal temple ofUjjain were built in the Gupta age.

The Gupta Rulers performed vedic rites and sacrifices. Samudragupta and Chandragupta-II, were worshippers of Vishnu. They assumed the titles ‘Parama Bhagavatha’ (Devotee of Vishnu). Image worship, rites and ceremonies became very common. The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Rajasuya yagas were performed with all splendour. Buddhism also enjoyed great popularity during the Gupta age The Buddhist caves at Ajantha, Ellora, Kanheri and Karle belong to the Gupta period. Some of the Gupta rulers followed Buddhism and extended patronage to it. In fact, Buddha was adopted into Hinduism and he was regarded as one of the Avataras of Vishnu.

Education: Education flourished well under the Guptas. The rulers themselves were great scholors. They paid special attention to education. Taxila, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Universities of the Gupta era. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great educational centres. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmatic, Astrology and Science.

Literature: The Gupta age is called ‘the Golden age of Sanskrit literature’. Samudragupta has been described as a King among poets in the Allahabad inscription. He got a title of ‘Kaviraja’. Chandragupta-II (Vikramadhitya-II) partronized the ‘Nine gems’ (navaratnas) of Sanskrit scholors in his court. Among them, Kalidasa was the most outstanding literary figure of that age. He wrote a number of excellent works like Malavikagnimithra, Vikramorvashiya, Shakunthala, Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambhava, Meghaduta, Rithusamhara etc., Kalidasa emerges as the King of all poets and hailed as the ‘Indian Shakespeare”.

Other important writers and their works: Sudraka wrote Mrichchakatika, Bharavi – Kirataijuneya, Dandhi – Kavyadhara, Vishnusimha – Panchatantra, Amarasimha- Amarakosa, Vishakadatta – Mudrarakshasa, Bhavabuthi-Uttararamacharithe, Charaka-Charakasamhithe, Shanku – Shilpashastra, Kshapanaka – Jyothishashastra, Vethalabhatta-Manthrashaslhra and others. The literary standard of this period was high and Sanskrit became the common as well as the official language. Naturally, this led to a renaissance in Sanskrit literature.

Development of science: The Gupta age made a tremendous progress in the Held of science, especially in the disciplines of Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was one of the greatest scientists of this period. He wrote two great works- Aryabhatia and Surya siddhantha. He gave very valuable contributions to indian science. Brahmagupta was the great astronomer and mathematician, who wrote the book ‘Brahmaputra siddhantha.

He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was the astronomer, who wrote Brihatsamhithe. Vridha Vagbhata (physician) wrote Ashtanga Sangraha. Dhanvantari (physician) wrote Ayurveda Nighantu. He was regarded as the father of indian medicine. Charaka and Sushrutha were the physicians who wrote Samhithes. The Meharauli iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example of the metallurgical skill of that period. It is still free from rust, even though it has been exposed to the elements like wind, rain, sun etc., all these hundreds of years.

Art and Architecture: The basic structural features of the Indian temple architecture were developed during the Gupta period. The Gupta art is famous for its simple expression and spiritual purpose. The art of the Guptas was purely Indian in nature. Naturalism, beauty, spiritualism and realism were the main features of their art. Mathura, Benaras, Pataliputra, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc were the centres of their artistic activities.

The Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples. The temples have pyramidal roofs and the walls are decorated with scenes from Hindu mythologies. The Dashavatara temple of Devgarh (MP), has a tower of about 40 feet. It’s doorway is excellently carved and decorated.

Many images of Shiva such as the Ekamukhi and Chaturmukhi Shi valings were also carved during this period. The Ardhanarishwara i.e., oneness of Shiva and Shakti is also a remarkable

Cholas

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentences each.

Question 1.
What is meant by Sangam?
Answer:
Sangam refers to the Tamil literary union. The period of the three literary unions between 200 B.CE to 500 C.E. is called the Sangam age.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Who was the first Chola King of the Sangam age?
Answer:
Ilain Chola was the first Chola King and Uraiyur was his capital.

Question 3.
Who built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore?
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola-I built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore.

Question 4.
Which inscription tells about the Chola village administration?
Answer:
Uttarameruru inscription of Paranthaka -1, tells about the Chola village administration.

Question 5.
What is meant by‘Kuduvalai’?
Answer:
The representatives of the people (members) for the village administration were elected through a lucky draw system which was called “Kuduvalai.”

Question 6.
What is meant by ‘Variyam’?
Answer:
Elected representatives for the village administration had to work in the Annual, Garden and Tank Bund commitees which were called as variyams.

Question 7.
Which dynasty patronized Sangam literature?
Answer:
The Pandyas of Madurai, patronized Sangam literature.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Cholas?
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola-I (985-1014 C.E) was the greatest Chola ruler.

Question 9.
Who was the last ruler of the Sangam age?
Answer:
Sengunnian was the last Chola ruler of the Sangam age.

Question 10.
Which battle led to the decline of the Chola Empire?
Answer:
The Takkolam battle between Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E. led to the collapse of the Chola Empire.

Question 11.
Which was the capital of the Cholas?
Answer:
Tanjore was the capital of the Cholas.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name some famous works of the Sangam Age.
Answer:
Tirukkural, Silappadigaram and Manimekhalai are the famous works of the Sangam age.

Question 2.
When and between whom did the battle of Takkolam take place?
Answer:
The battle of Takkolam was fought between Cholas and Rastrakutas in 949 C.E.

Question 3.
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola-I.
Answer:
Rajendra Chola had assumed titles like Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola and Kedarukonda Devaetc.,

Question 4.
Name the powerful rulers of the cholas.
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola-I and Rajendra Chola-I were the powerful rulers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which temple in India has the biggest and tallest shikhara? Who built it?
Answer:
Brihadeshwara or Rajarajeshwara temple in Tanjore has the biggest and tallest shikara in India. It was built by Rajaraja Chola I.

Question 6.
Mention the titles assumed by Rajaraja Chola -I
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola -1 assumed titles like Shivapadashekhara, Cholendra Simha, Mummadi Chola deva, Jayagonda, Chola Martanda etc.,

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Rajendra Chola-I.
Answer:
Rajendra Chola -1 (Reign 1014 to 1044 C.E.): Rajendra Chola was the son and successor of Rajaraja Chola -1. He came to the throne in 1014 C.E. He was also known as Gangaikonda Chola or Ultama Chola. Under him, the Chola Empire became the most extensive and powerful Empire. He gained a number of victories over the Ceylonese, Pandyas, Cheras and Eastern Chalukyas.

Conquests: Rajendra Chola defeated Mahendra – V, the King of Ceylon in 1018 C.E. After the death of Mahendra- V in prison at Tanjore, Ceylon became a part of the Chola empire. War with Chalukyas of Kalyana: Rajendra Chola declared war on Jayasimhall of Kalyana Chalukyas in 1021 C.E. and defeated him in Masangi (Maski). Vijayaditya of Vengi who came to the support of Jayasimha was defeated and expelled from the Empire. Rajendra Chola placed RajarajaNarendra on the throne of Vengi.

Northern expedition: Rajendra marched towards Orissa and defeated King Mahipala of Bengal. The Chola army marched onwards till the Ganga river. His northern expedition was successful. To commemorate this event, he assumed the title of ‘Gangaikonda Chola’ and built a new capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram near Tiruchirapally in honour of this conquest.

Expedition towards south east: In 1025 C.E. Rajendra Chola took an expedition to Shailendra in South east Asia, with his powerful army. Crossing the Bay of Bengal, he conquered Jawa, Sumatra and defeated Sangrama Vijayottunga Varman, the King of Shai lendra. He built the Gangaikonda Chola Shiva temple at Shailendra, in memory of this victory.

Rajendra Chola -1 was an able administrator and also a patron of learning. He established a higher education centre at Ennayiram (South Arcot) in 1025 C.E. Free boarding and lodging facility was arranged for 340 students, who were studying at this educational centre. Rajendra Chola -1 had many titles like ‘Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola and Kedarakonda Deva etc. He increased his dignity and honour by sending his Ambassadors to China in 1033 C.E.

Question 2.
Describe the village (local) Administration of the Chola rulers.
Answer:
Village (local sell) Administration: An important feature of the Chola administration was the village autonomy. People of a village looked after administration through their own elected bodies. The Chola inscriptions mention the existence of two types of villages Ur and Brahmadeya Villages. Ur had its own local assembly, consisting of all the male members of the village excluding untouchables. It looked after all aspects of the village administration. The Brahmadeya villages (Agraharas) were granted by the King to learned brahmins. They had their own assemblies called Mahasabhas, which had complete freedom in governance.

Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka -1, gives us a detailed information about the village administration. (Uttarameruru is in the Chengulpet district of Tamilnadu). The villages enjoyed complete independence in the management of local affairs. Two kinds of assemblies existed which were 1. Ur or Urar (kuri) and 2. The Mahasabha.

According to the Uttarameruru inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into 30 parts (Kudumbu). One member from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The representatives of the people were elected through a lucky draw (Kuduvalai) system. Vil lagers assembled in the temple and conducted an election through a lucky draw. The names of the candidates were written on palm leaves and put in a pot. Then a small boy was asked to pick out the leaves one after the other in the presence of the people and thus the representatives were elected.

Elected representatives had to work in the Annual, Garden (Tottavariyam) and Tank Bund (Erivariyam) committees called ‘Variyams’. The representatives were called ‘Variya Perumakkal’. The village assemblies were autonomous and democratic institutions.

Duties of the committees: The village committees performed duties like the protection of the village properties, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves and forests etc. The resolutions of the committees were written down. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration.

Minimum qualifications of members: The Uttarameruru inscription deals with rules and regulations regarding the election, the qualifications and disqualifications of members. These committees worked for 360 days when fresh elections were held.

Qualifications needed for a member to be elected:

  1. The candidate should possess a minimum of 1/2 acre of taxable land.
  2. He should reside in his own house built on his own site.
  3. Candidate should be more than 35 years old and less than 70 years of age.
  4. Candidate should have knowledge of Vedas, Brahmanakas and Commerce.
  5. Candidate should possess a good character.

Disqualifications of members:

  1.  A member was disqualified for re-election if he had been a member of any committee continuously for the previous 3 years.
  2. Those who were in the committee and who had not submitted accounts and their close relatives.
  3. Persons who were wicked, cheats, alcoholics, thieves, accused of murdering brahmins and committing adultery.

This way, certain minimum qualifications and disqualifications were enforced in the village administration. Scholars have termed the Chola village administration as “Small Democratic States”.

KSEEB Solutions

Vardhanas and Early Chalukyas – Pallavas

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the greatest Ruler of the Vardhanas?
Answer:
Harshavardhana was the greatest Vardhana Ruler.

Question 2.
Which was the capital of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Thaneshwar was the capital of Harshavardhana.

Question 3.
Who was the sister of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Rajashri was Harshavardhana’s younger sister.

Question 4.
Who wrote Ilarshacharite?
Answer:
Banabhatta was the author of ‘Harshacharite’.

Question 5.
Who was famous as ‘Ultarapatheshwara’?
Answer:
Harshavardhana was famous as ‘Uttarapatheshwara’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who presided over the religious conference at Kanauj?
Answer:
Hieuntsang presided over the religious conference at Kanauj.

Question 7.
When was the Buddhist council at Prayag held?
Answer:
Harashavardhana organized a Buddhist council at Prayag in 643 C.E.

Question 8.
Who was the founder of the Kadamba dynasty?
Answer:
Mayuravarma was the founder of the Kadamba dynasty.

Question 9.
Which was the first Kannada inscription?
Answer:
Halmidi inscription issued by Kakusthavarma in 450 CE, was the first Kannada inscription.

Question 10.
Who was the most famous ruler among the Ganga Kings?
Answer:
Durvinitha was the most famous ruler of the Ganga dynasty.

Question 11.
Which was the capital of the early Chalukyas?
Answer:
Badami (Vatapi) was the capital of the early Chalukyas.’

Question 12.
Who was the most famous ruler among the Chalukyas of Badami?
Answer:
Pulikeshi – II was the most famous ruler among the Chalukyas of Badami.

Question 13.
Which was the royal emblem of the Chalukyas of Badami?
Answer:
Varaha (Pig) was the royal emblem of the Chalukyas of Badami.

Question 14.
Who was famous as ‘Dakshina Patheshwara?
Answer:
Pulikeshi – II was famous as ‘Dakshina Patheshwara’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Who composed the Aihole Inscription?
Answer:
Aihole inscription was composed by Ravi Keerthi.

Question 16.
Name the work composed by Vijayabhattarika.
Answer:
Vijayabhattarika wrote ‘Kaumudi Mahotsava’.

Question 17.
What was the name of the book written by Hieun Tsang?
Answer:
Hieun Tsang wrote a book “Si-Yu-Ki.”

Question 18.
Who was the originator (founder) of the Vardhana dynasty?
Answer:
Pushyabhuthi was the originator of the Vardhanas.

Question 19.
Whose capital was Banavasi?
Answer:
Banavasi (Vanavasi) was the capital of the Kadambas.

Question 20.
Which was the royal emblem of the Kadamba dynasty?
Answer:
Lion and a flag with a picture of a monkey, was the emblem of the Kadambas.

Question 21.
Who were the founders of the Ganga dynasty?
Answer:
Dadiga and Madhava were the founders of the Ganga dynasty.

Question 22.
Which was the capital of the Gangas.
Answer:
Talakadu was the capital of the Gangas.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
Whose emblem was the musk Elephant?
Answer:
Musk elephant was the royal emblem of the Gangas.

Question 24.
Which place is called as the museum of Jainism?
Answer:
Shravanabelagola (Hassan dist) is called as the museum of Jainism.

Question 25.
Which Chalukyan King assumed the title ‘Parameshwara’?
Answer:
Pulikeshi-II assumed the title‘Parameshwara’.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the parents of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were the parents of Harshavardhana.

Question 2.
Name the literary works of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Harshavardhana wrote dramas like Rathnavali, Priyadarshika and Nagananda in Sanskrit.

Question 3.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
Answer:
Chavundaraya erected the Gommateshwara statue at Shravanabelagola in 983 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Mention the titles assumed by Pulikeshi – H. (What were the titles of Pulikeshi)?
Answer:
Pulikeshi – II assumed the title ‘Parameshwara’ after the battle of river Narmada. Other titles
were “Sri Prithvivallabha, Dakshinapatheshwara, Satyashraya, Kanchigonda, Paramabhaghavata” etc.

Question 5.
Name any two temples at Aihole.
Answer:
Durga temple (Sun God), Meguthi Jain temple, Jyothirlinga, Mallikarjuna, Siddeshwara etc.,

Question 6.
Name any two temples of Pattadakallu.
Answer:
Virupakshatemple, Kasi Vishwanatha, Papanatha, Jambulingeshwara, Sangamcshwara and Mallikarjuna temples.

Question 7.
Name any two important architectural centres of Pallavas.
Answer:
Kanchi and Mahabalipuram were the important architectural centres of the Pallava period.

Question 8.
Name the Chinese pilgrims, who studied at the Nalanda University?
Answer:
Hieun Tsang and Itsing studied at the Nalanda University.

Question 9.
Name the important centres of education during the Kadamba period.
Answer:
The Agraharas, Ghatikas, Brahmapuris, Mathas, Buddhist and Jain monasteries were the important centres of education.

Question 10.
Name the art and architecture centres of the Gangas.
Answer:
Varuna, Manne, Talakadu, Nandi, Aralaguppe, Kolar, Javagal, Kuppatture, Chikkahanumanasoge, Shravanabelagola, etc.,

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Who issued the Aihole inscription? Whose achievements are recorded in it?
Answer:
Pulikeshi – II issued the Aihole inscription. It gives the details about the campaigns of Pulikeshi – II.

Question 12.
What is Vesara or new style? Name the art and architectural centres of Badami Chalukyas.
Answer:
A combination of Nagar and the Dravidian style of architecture is called Vesara or new style. Badami, Aihole, Mahakuta, Pattadakallu and other places, were the noteworthy centres.

Question 13.
Who was the founder of Pallava dynasty? Which was his capital?
Answer:
Pallava dynasty began with Shivaskanda Varma and Kanchi was his capital.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Harshavardhana (606-647 C.E): Harshavardhana was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas. He came to power in 606 C.E. Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were his parents. He had an elder brother Rajavardhana and a younger sister Rajyashri. Prabhakara Vardhana was succeeded by Rajavardhana. Yashomathi pained by the death of her husband, committed Sati in 605 C.E. Devagupta of Malwa killed Rajyashri’s husband Gruhavarma and imprisoned her at Kanauj. Rajavardhana who went to get her released, was killed by Shashanka of Gaudadesha. Harshavardhana came to power under such painful circumstances.

Immediate tasks and conquests : The immediate task of Ilarsha was twofold One to crush his enemies and the other to save his sister from the ememy’s prison. King Shashanka of Bengal was responsible for the murder of Harsha’s brother and even for imprisoning Rajyashri. Harsha marched against Shashanka and won a diplomatic victory by concluding a treaty of friendship with Bhaskaravarma of Kamarupa, then attacked Shashanka and took revenge. Harsha’s first act was to rescue Rajyashri.

She had escaped from prison (Kanauj) and went towards the Vindhya forests. Harsha searched for her with great difficulty, saved her and brought her back to Kanauj. Rajyashri did not agree to rule Kanauj. Harsha was compel led to accept that and he united the Kingdoms of Thaneshwar and Kanauj. Later he shifted his capital to Kanauj. Later, he defeated Devagupta of Malwa and annexed his Kingdom. By 612 C.E., he achieved complete control over the five sindus of Punjab, Kanauj, Goudadcsha, Mithila, Orissa and other places and annexed them to his Kingdom.

Annexation of North India: HaVshavardhana won Orissa, Magadha, Vodra, Ganjam and Bengal. Later he defeated the ruler of Nepal and received tributes from him. He established his supremacy by defeating most of the north Indian Kingdoms. In commemoration of these achievements, he took the title‘Uttarapatheshwara’.

War with Pulikcshi – II : After the northern campaign, Harsha turned his attention towards south. However, he received resistance from the Chalukyan ruler, Pulikeshi – II when he tried to extend his Empire in the south. Armies of the two Emperors met on the banks of Narmada, in 634 C.E. In the battle of Narmada, Harshavardhana was defeated. Pulikeshi – II won the battle and took the title ‘Parameshwara’. As a result, the river Narmada became the boundary line of both the Empires. Aihole inscription says, that Harsha’s Harsha” (happiness) flew away, ^ seeing his war elephants falling in the battle field.

Extent of the Kingdom: I larsha exchanged Ambassadors with China. The credit for uniting north India after the Guptas, goes to I Jarshavardhana. His Empire extended from Bengal and Orissa in the east, Punjab in the west, Himalayas in the north and Narmada river in the south.

Religion: Harsha was a devotee of Lord Shiva and called himself ‘Parama Maheshwara’. Later, he embraced Buddhism due to the influence of Hieun Tsang. He built stupas at a few prominent places of Buddhism. He conducted a Buddhist council at Kanauj for a religious debate in 643 C.E. 3000 Buddhist monks, 1000 scholars, 20 Kings, 3000 brahmins and Jains attended the conference. A golden statue of Buddha, as well as that of the King were installed in the Auditorium. Hieun Tsang explained the philosophy of Mahayana in this council. Harshavardhana organised the Mahamoksha Parishat, at Prayag in 643 C.E. Hieun Tsang was invited to it and a procession of Buddha’s idol along with that of Shiva and Surya was taken out.

Literature: Harsha was an able administrator, patron of literature and cared for the welfare of his people. He wrote the following dramasRatnavali, Nagananda and Priyadarshika in Sanskrit. He patronised the famous poet Biinabhatta, author of Harshacharite. The celebrated Chinese pilgrim and scholar Hieun Tsang adorned his court. Nalanda University, which was established by Kumara Gupta, spread Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy and received the patronage and reached the zenith of its glory, during the reign of Harshavardhana.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the Chalukya and Pallava conflict.
Answer:
The Chalukyas and Pallavas were contemporary Rulers in the south. So, for the establishment of supremacy over each other, there was an ongoing conflict between them from the 6th to the 8th century C.E. Pandyas played an important role in this conflict. The conflict was to establish control over the Krishna – Tungabhadra doab region.

In the first stage of the conflict, Pulikeshi – II defeated Mahendravarman -1 in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed Kanchi. Later, Narasimhavarman -1, son of Mahendravarman -1 defeated Pulikeshi -II and seized the Chalukyan capital, Badami in 642 A.D.

Vikramaditya -1 (son of Pulikeshi II) conquered Badami back from the Pallavas. He defeated the Pallava rulers Narasimhavarman I, Mahendravarman II and Parameshwaravarman -1. Later, his son, Vinayaditya defeated Mahendravarman – II and conquered Kanchi. His grandson Vijayaditya, defeated Parameshwaravarman – V. Finally, there was peace with Narasimhavarman – II, and many temples were built at Kanchi.

Pallava and Chalikya conflict started once again, during the reign of Vikramaditya – II. He invaded Kanchi, defeated the then Pallava ruler Parameshwaravarman – II at Vilanda in 731 C.E., and invaded Kanchi again in 735 C.L. and conquered it by defeating Nandivarman. He donated a lotto the Rajasimha temple at Kanchi and got an inscription composed about his victory; When the Rashtrakutas reduced the influence of the Chalukyas, the continuous conflict between the Chalukyas and Pal lavas came to an end. ,

3. Write about the contributions of Chalukyas of Badami to art and architecture.
Answer:
Art and Architecture: The Chalukyas of Badami, have given some noteworthy contributions to the Indian art and architecture. Building of Sthambha, Navaranga arid Sukhanasi along with the Garbhagruha (Sanctum) were the unique contributions of the Chalukyas in temple architecture. The Chalukyas developed their own style of architecture known as Vesara or new style or Chalukyan style of architecture, which was a combination of the Nagara style and Dravidian style.

They built many temples. The chalukyan art took its birth at Aihole and developed in Badami and Pattadakallu. The great art critic Percy Brown remarked that Aihole was “The cradle of Indian temple Architecture” and Dr. Shivarama Karanth has commented about Chalukyan period as the “Golden age of Karnataka Art”.

Important Characteristics of Chalukyan Architecture:

Chalukyas adopted the following features in their constrution of temples. They are:

  1. Small base design
  2. Horse shoe base
  3. Square sanctum (Garbhagruha)
  4. Inner pradakshanapatha
  5. Mukhamantapa, Navaranga, Sukhanasi and Pyramidical Tower on the Sanctum
  6. Ekakuta, (one cell) Dwikuta and Trikuta temples.

The Chalukyan monuments could be broadly classified into two majar categories viz.,

  1. Rock – cut (Cave) temples
  2. The structural temples.

1. Rock-cut (cave) temples: Mangalesha and Kirthi varma built the 4 rock-cut temples on the hill at Badami. Two of them are dedicated to Vishnu, one to Shiva and the other is a Jain temple. These are connected to one another by a causeway. These caves contain a varanda with stone pillars, a hall with columns and small deeply cut garbhagrihas. These temples have gigantic images of Ardhanarishwara, Harihara, Mahishasuramardhini, Vishnu seated on the serpent, Narasimha, Trivikrama and Nataraja.

The Jain cave has the sculptures of Mahaveera and the 23rd JainThirthanakara. Probably, the ceillings of the caves had paintings, which have faded away over time. In fact, the Chalukyas were the first to construct rock-cut temples in south India.

Rock-cut temples at Aihole: There are two rock cut temples at Aihole. One is for Shiva and other is a Jain one. These rockcut temples have a square mantapa and have a special plan of their own.

2. The structural temples: The Chalukyas have built more than 100 temples. Badami, Aihole, Pattadakallu, Mahakuta etc, are religious as well as architectural centres of the Badami Chalukyas. The Shiva temple at Gokak, Mahalakshmi temple at Kollapura are examples of early Chalukyan architecture.

The Chalukyan temples, in the beginning, had flat or slightly inclined rooftops. Later, tower-like structural levels appeared. A big prayer hall, sanctum and an intervening room (Sukanasi) were included in the temple structure. ,
Aihole: Aihole contains over 70 temples. The structural temples of Aihole, represent the best of Chalukyan temple architecture. Thus Percy Brown rightly called Aihole as the cardie of Indian temple architecture.

Ladhkan temple: Among the most important temples, Ladhkhan Temple is one of the earliest. A muslim saint by name Ladhkhan lived here for a long time and so people started calling it as Ladhkhan temple. It contains a Mukhamantapa and a Garbhagruha with a Nandi idol. The tower lies not above the Sanctum, but over the centre of the temple.

The Durga temple: This temple is designed like a horseshoe and a Buddhist Chaityalaya. There is a Rangamantapa with two rows of pillars and the verandas on the two sides go till the Garbhagruha and merge in a semicircle. The temple is surrounded by a fort wall and so it is called the fort (durga) temple. The back view of the temple resembles the posterior view of an elephant. The Shikara resembles the Shikara of the Orissa temples.

The Huchimalii temple: This temple contains the Shikara (Tower) of the Nagara style, It has square pillars and simple construction details. This is a very special feature of Chalukyan architecture.

Meguthi Jain temple built by Ravikirthi near Aihole, has a sanctum and two platforms built in the dravidian style. The other important temples of Aihole are Jyothirlinga, Mallikarjuna and Siddheswara etc.,

Pattadakallu: The ancient name of Pattadakallu was ‘Kisuvolalu’. 10 temples of Badami Chalukyas are here. The Virupaksha or Lokeshwara temple is quite a famous one. This was built by Lokamadevi. (Queen of Vikramaditya – II). The architect of this temple was Anirvathachari Gunda. It contains two main entrances at the east and west. In front of the Nandi mantapa, on either side of the big platform, there are two Sanctums. Next is the main garbhagruha, where a Shivalinga is installed with a pradakshanapatha. Above these, there is a tower built in the Dravidian style. The temple is 224 ft long and 150 ft broad.

Mallikarjuna or Trilokeshwara Temple was built by Trilokamadevi, the other queen of Vikramaditya – II. Papanatha, Karisiddeshwara, and Jambulingeshwara temples are in the Nagar style. Sangameshwara, Virupaksha, and Mallikarjuna temples are in the Dravidian (Pallava) style.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi – II.
Answer:
Pulikeshi – II (609-642 C.E.): Pulikeshi – II was the most outstanding personality among the Chalukyas of Badami. He was a benevolent monarch and people enjoyed plenty and prosperity under him. Pulikeshi – II was the son of Keertivarma – I. He was still a boy when Keertivarma died. Hence, Mangalesha (Brother of Keertivarma) took over the charge of administration. Mangalesha planned to pass on the throne to his son instead of Pulikeshi – II, the rightful heir. This led to a civil war between the two.

Finally, Mangalesha was defeated and he died in the battle.  Pulikeshi came to the throne in 609 C.E. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-Ki, Bana’s – Harshacharite, Aihole inscription etc, give information about Pulikeshi – II. This civil war was an unfortunate incident, but became inevitable for Pulikeshi, and the throne inherited by him was not a bed of roses. This indicates that the civil war had caused a confused situattion in the Kingdom. Many chiefs wanted to take advantage of the situation and become independent. Hence they rebelled against Pulikeshi – II.

Conquests of Pulikeshi – II :

1. Attack on the Rashtrakuta chiefs : The Rashtrakutas were following a policy of aggression and expansion during the time of Pulikeshi. The Rashtrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda rebelled against Badami rule. Pulikeshi crushed them in a battle on the banks of river Bhima. Appayika ran away from the battle field, while Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi.

2. Subjugation of the Kadambas, Mauryas, Alupas and Gangas : After strengthening his power and resources, Pulikeshi – II adopted a policy of conquest. He took an expedition against the Rulers of places surrounding Badami. He subjugated the Kadambas of Banavasi, Mauryas of Konkan, Alupas of south Canara and Gangas of Talakadu.

3. Attack on Lata, Malwa and Gurjaras : Pulikeshi – II set his eyes towards the North –  west, on Lata, Malwa and Gurjaras. As a result, these Rulers were also defeated and he extended his territories upto Malwa. He appointed his brother, Jayasimha as the Governor of Gujarath.

4. War with Harshavardhana: The most significant and memorable of his military career was  his victory over Harshavardhana of Kanauj. A powerful Kingdom had been established by Harsha who had conquered most of north India, and was making an attempt to extend his reign in the south also. Pulikeshi took an expedition towards north, and Harsha came into conflict with Pulikeshi – II. But Pulikeshi who had camped on the banks of the river Narmada, did not allow Harsha to cross the river.

Harshavardhana was defeated by Pulikeshi in the battle of Narmada in 634 C.E. Narmada became the common frontier of the two Kingdoms. After the battle, Pulikeshi assumed the title of ‘Parameshwara and Dakshinapatheshwara’. Hieun : Tsang’s record and the Aihole inscriptions give testimony to this victory of Pulikeshi – II.

5. Expedition towards East: After the Northern campaign, Pulikeshi turned his eyes towards  east and conquered Kosala and Kalinga regions and the important fort of Pistapura (Godavari). He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Governor of these provinces. Kubja Vishnuvardhana became the founder of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.

6. Expedition in South: The Pallava ruler Mahendravarma -1 had become powerful in the south. Pulikeshi invaded the Pallava Kingdom and defeated Mahendravarma -1 in the battle of Pallalur. Then he annexed other Pallava territories also and seized Kanchi in 632 C.E. After these successful military campaigns, Pulikeshi returned to his capital and reigned in peace for quite some time. His name and fame began to spread far and wide. He performed the ‘Ashwamedha Sacrifice’ to commemorate his victory and assumed titles like ‘Sathyashraya, Vikrama, Parameshwara, Dakshinapatheshwara, Pruthvi Vallabha, Maharajadhiraja etc.,

Extent of his Kingdom : The Kingdom of Pulikeshi – II extended from the Kosala and Kalinga (Bay of Bengal) in the east, to Konkana in the west, the river Narmada in the north and upto river Cauveri .in the south.

Due to the campaigns of Pulikeshi, his name and fame began to spread far and wide. He maintained cultural and commercial contacts with Persia and exchanged Ambassadors with the Persian Emperor Khusru – II (Ajantha cave paintings depict this scene). The Chinese pilgrim Ilieun Tsang visited the court of Pulikeshi – II in 641 C.E. He has given us afactual and reliable description about the King and his Empire.

In his last days, Pulikeshi – II had to face the attack of the mighty Pallava forces under Narasimhavarman -1. Pulikeshi was defeated in the battle, and Narasimhavarman seized the Chalukyan capital in 642 C.E. In memory of this victory, Narasimhavarman assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’.

RASHTRAKUTAS (753-978 C.E)

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Marks Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What was the Royal Emblem of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Eagle (Garuda) was the Royal Emblem of the Rashtrakutas.

Question 2.
Which was the capital of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Manyakheta or Malakheda was the capital of the Rashtrakutas.

Question 3.
Who was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty?
Answer:
Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Amoghavarsha I (814-878 C.E.).

Question 5.
Who was the Arab traveller who visited the court of Amoghavarsha?
Answer:
The Arab traveller Sulaiman visited the court of Amoghavarsha.

Question 6.
Which was the earliest kannada literary work?
Answer:
Kavirajamarga was the earliest kannada literary work.

Question 7.
Who is called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi? (or) Who received the title ‘Ubhaya Kavi Chakravarthi’?
Answer:
Ponna is called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi’, patronised by Krishna – III.

Question 8.
Who patronised Ponna?
Answer:
Krishna III.

Question 9.
Who is called ‘Adikavi’ of Kannada? (or) Who is famous as Adikavi?
Answer:
Pampa is called the Adikavi of Kannada, patronised by Arikeshari-II.

Question 10.
Who patronised Pampa?
Answer:
Arikesari -II,

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What does the word Rashtrakuta denote?
Answer:
In the word Rashtrakuta, ‘Rashtra’ means country and ‘kuta’ means head.

Question 12.
What are the other names of Amoghavarsha?
Answer:
Sharva, and Sreevijaya were some other names of Amoghavarsha.

Question 13.
Who was the eminent commander of Amoghavarsha?
Answer:
Bankesha was the eminent commander of Amoghavarsha.

Question 14.
Why was Bankapura built by Amoghavarsha?
Answer:
In the memory of his North Karnataka campaigns and to honour Bankesha, Bankapura was built by Amoghavarsha.

Question 15.
Who was honoured with the title ‘Kavi Chakravarthi’?
Answer:
Ranna was honoured with the title ‘Kavi Chakravarthi’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Which book is called the first prose work of old Kannada?
Answer:
Vaddaradhane is called the first prose work of old Kannada.

Question 17.
Name the literary work by Amoghavarsha.
Answer:
Amoghavarsha wrote Prashnottara Ratnamala in Sanskrit.

Question 18.
Which was the first capital of the Rashtratutas?
Answer:
Latur was the first capital of the Rashtrakutas.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Where was it built?
Answer:
Krishna-I built the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora.

Question 2.
Name any two titles of Dhruva.
Answer:
Dharavarsha, Srivallabha, Narendrasena, Kalivallabha.

Question 3.
Write any two titles of Govinda-III.
Answer:
Govinda – III was honoured with the titles like Jagattunga, Prabhuthavarasha. Sri Vallabha andTribhuvanadhavala.

Question 4.
Mention the titles of Amoghavarsha.
Answer:
Amoghavarsha had titles like Athishayadhavala, Nrupatunga, Veeranarayana, Sri Vallabha, Rattamarthanda etc.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Name any two works of Ponna.
Answer:
Ponna wrote Shanthinathapurana, Bhuvanaikya Ramabhyudaya and Jinaksharamale.

Question 6.
Name any two works of Pampa.
Answer:
Pampa hailed as the first poet (Adikavi) of Kannada, wrote Adipurana, Pampabharata or Vikramaijuna Vijaya.
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Question 7.
Who were the famous Rulers of the Rashtrakuta dynasty?
Answer:
Dantidurga, Krishna-I, Govinda – II, Dhruva, Govinda – III, Amoghavarsha, and Indi a – III, were some great Rashtrakuta Rulers. ‘

Question 8.
Who were the trinity (Three Gems) of Kannada literature?
Answer:
Pampa, Ponna and Ranna were considered as the trinity of Kannada literature.

Question 9.
Who was Sulaiman? In whose reign did he visit?
Answer:
Sulaiman was an Arab traveller. He visited the Rashtrakuta Empire during the period of Amoghavarsha in 851 C.E.

Question 10.
Which was the first Kannada literary work? Who wrote it?
Answer:
Kavirajamarga was the first Kannada literary work. Srivijaya was the author of this treatise.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Who wrote the first prose work in old Kannada? Which was his work?
Answer:
Shivakotyacharya wrote the first prose work in old Kannada. Vaddaradhane was his work.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Govinda – III
Answer:
Govinda – III (793-814 C.E.) He was the third son of Dhruva and he ascended the Rashtrakuta throne in 793 C.E. His rule was marked by splendid military achievements. He had to face the revolt of his brothers (Sthamba andlndra). Sthamba, who lost the chance of succeeding his father, was unhappy and broke out in revolt. Govinda – III successfully subdued his brother’s rebellion. Govinda treated his rebellious brothers leniently and allowed them to continue as the Governors of Gangawadi and Gujarath.

Northern Victories: Govinda – HI turned his attention towards north. He defeated Nagabhatta – II, successor to Vatsaraja of Prathihara near Bundelkhanda. Dharmapala of Bengal and Chakrayudha of Kanauj were also forced to accept the sovereignty of Govinda – HI. His . campaign Went as far as the Himalayas.

Sanjan copper plates remark that his horses drank the flowing waters at the foothills of the Himalayas and his war elephants bathed in the Ganga waters.

Southern campaign: The Northern victories brought him wealth and fame, but he did not , annex those territories to his.Kingdom. In the south, Pallavas, Pandyas, Cholas, Cheras and Gangas had formed an alliance to fight against Govinda. But they could not withstand his attacks in the battle.

Inscription of 805 C.E. remarks that Govinda snatched away ‘Fish’ from the Pandyas, the ‘Bull’ from the Pallavas, the ‘Tiger’ from the Cheras and the “Varaha” from the Chalukyas. (they were the respective emblems of those Kingdoms). On coming to know about this, the King of Ceylon voluntarily surrendered to Govinda – III, The whole of India from Kanauj to Kanyakumari and from Broach to Benaras accepted his supremacy. The Rashtrakuta pow&r reached the zenith of its glory under Govinda – III. He assumed titles like Srivallabha, Prabhutavarsha, Jagattunga,Tribhuvanadavala, Janavallabha and Kirthinarayana.

Question 2.
Explain the life and achievements of Amoghavarsha.
Answer:
Amoghavarsha (814-880 C.E.) After Govinda – III, his son Amoghavarsha came to the throne in 814 C.E. lie was the greatest ruler among Rashtrakutas. His early name was Sharva, and Sreevijaya was another name by which he was known. He was only 14 years old, when he ascended the throne. His uncle Karkasuvamavarsha became his guardian. Taking advantage of this, many subordinate Kings under the Rashtrakutas, rose in rebellion against Amoghavarsha.

Achievements: The Ganga ruler Shivamara – II rose against Amoghavarsha and after His death his son Rachamalla continued the war against the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha’s commander Bankesha fought against the Gangas. Neither side could achieve superemacy. At hist, Amoghavarsha gave his daughter Chandralabbe in marriage to the Ganga Prince Bhutuga -1.

This matrimonial alliance between them, finally brought peace with the Gangas.
In 830 C.E., Amoghavarsha declared war against Vijayadhitya of the Vengi Chalukyas. He defeated the Chalukyas finally-at Vingavalli. Later, he developed matrimonial relations with the Chalukyas by giving his daughter Sheelamahadevi to the Chalukyan prince Vishnuvardhana – V (son of Vijayadhitya) and brought peace in that front.

Amoghavarsha had similar relations with the Pallavas too, by giving his daughter Sankha in marriage to Nandivarma – III of the Pallava dynasty. Thus, Amoghavarsha achieved much peace by matrimonial alliances with the Gangas, Chalukyas and Pallavas.

According to the inscriptions of Neelagunda and Sinir, Amoghavarsha was respected in Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Malwa and Vengi Kingdoms. In his last days, he had to face the rebellion of his own son.

The Arab traveller Sulaiman, visited his court in 851 C.E. He remarked that ‘The Kingdom of Amoghavarsha was one of the four great Empires of the world”. (The others being the Roman Empire, the Chinese Empire and the Khalifa of Baghdad).

During his last days, Amoghavarsha had to face the rebellion of Yuvaraja Krishna. Banks faced this rebellion ably. In memory of this victory, Amoghavarsha built the city of ‘Bankapura’ to honour Bankesha and made him the Governor of Banavasi. He built the new Rashtrakuta capital of Malakheda. Inscriptions have described that “Amoghavarsha’s capital was so great and grand, that it would put to shame even the capital of Lord Indra”.

Religion and Literature : Even though Amoghavarsha was the follower of Jainism, he extended equal respect and importance to other religions. He granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions. He was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalakshmi of Kolhapur. Sanjan inscription says that he cut off his left thumb as a sacrifice to Mahalakshmi, to protect his subjects from plague and famine.

Amoghavarsha was peace loving, a patron of literature and a scholar himself. He wrote Trashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jinasenacharya, Mahaveeracharya, Shakatayana, Srivijaya and others, Srivijaya wrote “Kaviraja Marga” in Kannada. Kaviraja’marga was the first literary work in Kannada. It refers to the fact that Karnataka was extending from Cauvery to Godavari. Amoghavarsha had titles like Nrupatunga, Athishayadhavala, Veeranarayana, Nitinirantara, Rajasimha, Rattamarthanda, Laxmi Vallabendra, Sri Vallabha etc., vested on him.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Explain the cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas to the Indian culture.
Answer:
Cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas: Religion: Rashtrakuta rulers practised religious tolerance towards all religions. Even though they were followers of the vedic religion, they also patronised Jainism and Buddhism. Amoghavarsha was a great devotee of Goddess Mahalaxmi. They granted liberal grants and endowments to all religious institutions. Rashtrakutas constructed a number of temples in Malkehda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwar, Naregal, Jogeshwar, Ellora etc., in different parts of their Kingdom. Brahmanas were engaged to perform yagnas and yagas. Kings respected them and gave them money generously.

Development of literature: The Rashtrakuta period witnessed great literary activity in both Kannada and Sanskrit. Amogahavarsha himself was a scholar and he wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit. He patronised scholars like Jinasenacharya who wrote Adipurana and Parshwabhyudaya, Mahaveeracharya who wrote Ganita Sara Sangraha and Shakatayana who was the author of Shabdanushasana. Srivijaya wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, which was the earliest work of Kannada literature. It refers to the fact that Karnataka extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Asaga wrote VardhamanaPurana, Halayudha wroteKavirahasyaandMruta Sanjeevini andTrivikrama wrote Madalasachampu.

Pampa was given patronage by Arikeshari – II. Pampa is respected as the ‘Adikavi ’ of Kannada. He wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya (Pampabharatha) and Adipurana (Champu Work). Ponna was called ‘Ubhaya Kavichakravailhi’ and he lived in the court of Krishna – III. He wrote Bhuvanaika Ramabhyudaya, Jinaksharamala and Shanthinathapurana. Pushpadantfaa wrote Mahapurana and Nayakumar Charite. Shivakotyacharya wrote Vaddaradhane, which is accepted as the first prose work of old Kannada. Harisena and Gunabhadra were other well known writers.

Art and Architeture: The contributions of the Rashtrakutas to the field of art and architecture are memorable. The architectural monuments of the Rashtrakutas are found at Ellora, Elephanta, Naregal, Malkheda, Mudhola, Lakshmeshwara, Jogeshwari, Mandapcshwaraetc.,The Pallava (Dravidian) style of architecture was adopted by the Rashtrakutas. Temples were built consisting of Pradakshanapatha, Mukhamantapa, Sabhamantapa, Antarala and Garbhagruha. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock cut (Cave) shrines at Ellora, Ajantha and Elephanta. There are 34 cave temples at Ellora. They belong to Buddhist, Hindu and Jain deties. .

The Kailasanatha Temple: The most extensive temple is the Kai Iasanatha temple at Ellora, (Aurangabad Dist) built by Krishna -1 in the 8th century C.E. The temple is divided into four main parts. It was carved out of a single rock. This storied temple is supported by life-size elephants at the base. It is 276 ft long, 154 feet wide and 107 feet deep. On the walls of the temples are the figures like Ravana lifting mount Kailasa, adorned with Nandi, Vishnu, Bairava, Laxmi, Shiva and Parvathi which attracts one’s attention. There are other such scenes of carvings in bas relief like Shiva in dancing pose and Vishnu and Lakshmi listening to the music. Some other noteworthy and famous rock cuts are Ravana’s cave, Rameshwara cave No. 21, Neelakhantacave, Jagannatha sabha, Dasavatharacave -15 etc.,

Dashavatara Cave: It consists of two storeys and the underground hall measures 97 ft x 50 ft. The sculptured figures of Vishnu and Shiva and the scene of death of I Hiranyakashipu are excellent.

Elephanta Caves (Trimurthi Temple): Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It has a big hall, 130 feet long and 129 feet wide. It has three enttrances leading to the hall. At the end of this hall is the garbhagruha with Linga. Opposite to the central hall at the back, is the gigantic image of Thrimurthi which is 25 feet high. Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareshwara, Shiva – Parvathi and other bas – reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that the Rashtrakutas patronised paintings.

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Later Chalukyas and Hoysalas

2nd PUC History Ancient Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana?
Answer:
Tailapa-II was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana.

Question 2.
Which was the first capital of the Chalukyas of Kalyana?
Answer:
Manyakheta was their first capital. Someshwara-I, shifted the capital to Kalyana.

Question 3.
Who was the patron of Ranna?
Answer:
Ranna was patronized by Sathyashraya.

Question 4.
Who was conferred with the title ‘Kavichakravarthi’?
Answer:
Ranna was conferred with the title‘Kavichakravarthi’.

Question 5.
Which work is considered as ‘The first Encyclopaedia’ of Sanskrit?
Answer:
Someshwara-III’s ‘Abhiiashithartha Chintamani or Manasollasa’ is considered as the first Encyclopaedia of Sanskrit.

Question 6.
Who was the founder of the Iloysala Kingdom?
Answer:
Sala was the founder of the Hoysala Kingdom.

Question 7.
What was the Royal Emblem of the Iloysalas?
Answer:
A depiction of Sala killing a tiger, was the Royal Emblem of the Hoysalas.

Question 8.
Who was the greatest Ruler of the Chalukyas of Kalyana?
Answer:
Vikramaditya-VI was the greatest Ruler among the Chalukyas of Kalyana.

Question 9.
Which was the first work in Kannada on Astrology?
Answer:
Sreedharacharya wrote ‘JatakaTilaka’, the first work in Kannada on Astrology.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Which was the first work in Kannada on Veterinary science?
Answer:
Kirthivarma wrote ‘Govaidya’ the first Kannada work on Veterinary science.

Question 11.
Who was the author of Panchatantra in Kannada?
Answer:
Durgasimha was the author of Panchatantra in Kannada.

Question 12.
Who was the court poet of Vikramaditya-VI?
Answer:
The Kashmiri poet Bilhana was the court poet of Vikramaditya – IV.

Question 13.
Whose feudatory were the Hoysalas?
Answer:
Hoysalas were the feudatories of Chalukyas of Kalyana.

Question 14.
Who converted Vishnuvardhana to Vaishnavism?
Answer:
Vishnuvardhana was converted to Vaishanavism by the influence of Ramanujacharya.

Question 15.
Who possessed the title ‘Talakadugonda’?
Answer:
Vishnuvardhana assumed the title ‘Talakadugonda”.

Question 16.
Who was called as ‘AbhinavaPampa’?
Answer:
Nagachandra was called as‘AbhinavaPampa’.

Question 17.
Which temple is considered as the jewel of Indian architecture?
Answer:
Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebeedu is considered as the jewel of Indian architecture.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 18.
Who was the general of Allauddin Khilji who invaded the Iloysala Kingdom?
Answer:
Malik Kafur invaded the Hoysala Kingdom, during the reign of Ballala-III.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who started the ‘Vikrama Era’? When did it begin?
Answer:
Vikramaditya-VI started the Vikrama era in 1076 CE.

Question 2.
Mention any two titles of Vikramaditya-VI.
Answer:
Vikramaditya assumed titles like Permadideva andTribhuvanamalla. He is called as the ‘Moon of Karnataka’. (Karnataka Chandra).

Question 3.
Name any two works of Ranna.
Answer:
Ranna wrote Ajitanatha Purana and Sahasa Bhima Vijaya (Gadhayuddha).

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Who was the court poet of Vikramaditya- VI? Name his work.
Answer:
Bilhana was the court poet of Vikramaditya-VI. He wrote Vikraman ka Deva Charitham (Biography of Vikramaditya-VI).

Question 5.
Name the capitals of the Hoysalas.
Answer:
Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu), Belur, Bankapura, Hakkundi and Kannanur were the capitals of the Hoysalas during different periods under different rulers.

Question 6.
Name some titles of Vishnuvardhana (or) What were the titles assumed by Vishnuvardhana?
Answer:
Talakadugonda, Kadanaprachanda, Kanchigonda, Viraganga, Maleperulganda, Mahamandaleshwara, Satyaratnakara, Veeranarayana were the titles of Vishnuvardhana.

Question 7.
Name any two famous temples of the Hoysala period.
Answer:
Channakeshava temple at Belur built by Vishnuvardhanain 1117 C.E., Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebeedu built by Narasimha-I in 1121C.E., Keshava temple at Somanathapura built by
Narasimha-III in 1268 C.E.

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Question 8.
Which temple is called as ‘Emperor of temples’? Who built it?
Answer:
Mahadeva temple at Itagi (Gadag)MahadevaDandanayaka built it.

Question 9.
Name the important art and architectural centres of the Hoysala period.
Answer:
Gadag,Bankapura, Arasikere,Harihara,Belur,Halebeedu, Somanathapura, Haradanahalli, Bhadravatietc., .

Question 10.
Who was the famous Queen of Vishnuvardhana? Which was her faith?
Answer:
Shantaladevi (called as Natya Saraswati) was the Queen of Vishnuvardhana. She was a follower of Jainism.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the cultural contributions of the Chalukyas of Kalyana.
Answer:
Cultural contributions: Literature: The Chalukyas of Kalyana followed the great tradition of the Chalukyas of Badami and made rich contributions to the culture of Karnataka, espectially in literature, art and architecture. Kannada and Sanskrit literature developed during this period. The famous Kannada poet Ranna was the court poet of Satyashraya.

He wrote Sahasabhimavijaya (Gadhayuddha) and Ajithanatha purana. He was bestowed upon with the title ‘Kavichakravarlhi’ and was honoured in the court of Tailapa II. Nagavarma-I wrote Karnataka Kadambari and Chandombudi. Chavundaraya – II wrote Lokopakara which deals with Astronomy, Astrology, Sculpture and Medicine. Sreedharacharya wrote Jaatakatilaka which was the first work in Kannada on Astrology.

Kirti varma wrote Govaidya, a work on Veterinary science. King Someshwara-III wrote Manasollasa or Abhilashithartha Chinthamani, which is considered as the first encyclopedia in Sanskrit. The great court poet of Vikramadithya- VI, Bilhana wrote Vikraman ka Devacharitam. Vijnaneshwara another great scholar, wrote Mitakshara Samhita, Nayasena wrote Dharmamrutha, and Durgasimha wrote Panchatantra in Kannada. Shantinatha wrote Sukumara Charithe. Vikramaditya’s Queen Chandralekha was a great exponent of dance and music, and she had the titles Nritya Vtdyadhari and Abhinaya Saraswati.

Art and Architecture: Chalukyas of Kalyana were great patrons of art and architecture. They continued the architectural style of the Chalukyas of Badami. The Kalyana Chalukyas’ period consists of certain distinctive, features of architecture. They are: i) The tower of the temple was pyramidical in shape, the Garbhagriha (Sanctum) was enclosed by the inner pradakshinapatha. (ii) The doorways of the temples were richly carved, (iii) The decorations of the exterior walls of the temples were an amalgam of both Nagara and Dravidian styles, (iv) The pillars of the temples added to the artistic beauty of the whole structure.

The earliest examples of the Kalyana Chalukyan style are found at Kukkanur. Kalleshwara and Navalinga temples at Kukkanur resemble the temples of Aihole and Pattadakallu. The Jai n temple at Lakkundi (Gadag) forms the next step in the improvement of their style, introducing a greater ornamental effect in the treatment of the surface.

The Shiva temple at Jalasanghvi (near Humnabad), has the most wonderful sculpture of dancing Ganapathi on the wall of the temple. The Doddabasappa temple at Gadag has been built in star-shape. Kashivishweshwara temple at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna temple at Kuruvatti, Someshwara temple at Laxmeshwara, Kalleshwara temple at Hirehadagali, Dambala – Doddabasaveshwara, Hanagal-Tharakeshwara, and Mahadeva temple at Itagi etc are fine examples for the later Chalukyan architecture. The Mahadeva temple at Itagi (near Gadag) built by Mahadeva, the Dandanayaka of Vikramaditya-VI is called as the ‘Emperor of Temples’. Chalukyas contributed immensely to the culture of Karnataka and have left an indelible impression on the style of architecture in India.

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Question 2.
Describe the achievements of Vishnuvardhana.
Answer:
Vishnuvardhana 1108-1152 CE: Bittideva or Vishnuvardhana was the greatest Hoysala ruler. He was the son of Ereyanga, and he ascended the throne in 1108 CE. He had taken part in many wars during his brother Ballala-I’s reign. He gained a lot of experience in administration, as the Governor of Nanjangud province. He had ambitions of making the Kingdom independent. He was the first Hoysala King to revolt against the Chalukyas of Kalyana and tried to establish an independent Kingdom. But, he was defeated by Vikramaditya-VI. By his ability and might, he became a powerful ruler.

Military achievements of Vishnuvardhana:

(1) War with Cholas: The aim of Vishnuvardhana was to defeat and expel the Cholas from Gangavadi. He sent an army to conquer Talakadu, Kolar and Mysore. He completely routed the Cholas from Gangavadi in the battle of Talakadu in 1114 CE and took the title ‘Talakadugonda’. In commemoration of this victory, he built the K’irtinarayana temple at Talakadu and the Channakeshwara temple at Belur.

According to the Malavalli inscription, Vishnuvardhana himself chased the Cholas and occupied Kolar. Later, he drove back the Cholas upto Kanchi and earned the title Kanchigonda. From there, he raided Madurai and defeated Pandyas. After conquering Pandyas of Uchchangi in 1117 CE in the ‘Battle of Dumme’, he marched upto Rameshwara. He defeated the Nidugal Cholas and Cheras also.

(2) Defeated the Kongalavas and Alupas: According to the Belur inscription, Vishnuvardhana defeated the Kongalava King and married his daughter Chandala Devi. While returning, he defeated Rattar of Halasagi and Alupas of South Canara.

Chamarajanagar inscription of 1117 CE, infers that Vishnuvardhana threatened the Todas, destroyed the Pallavas by killing their King Kala and made the Kongas run away.

War with the Chalukyas of Kalyana : Vishnuvardhana wanted to free his Kingdom from the yoke of Chalukyan imperialism. But, he was defeated by Vikramaditya – VI in 1118 CE in the battle of Kannegala. The Chalukyan sovereign continued till the death of Vikramaditya- VI.

Titles of Vishnuvardhana: He had titles like Mahamandaleshwara, Chalukyamani, Mandalika Chudamani, Maleperolganda, Talakadugonda, Kanchigonda, Veeraganga, Nolambagonda, Kaliyaga Partha, Kirthinarayana, Vikramaganga etc.,

Religious Policy: Vishnuvardhana became a great follower of Ramanuja and embraced Sri Vaishnavism. During his rule, Jainism had also attained the highest position. His Queen Shantala and general Gangaraja were devout jains. Gangaraja was given enough grants to renovate all the basadies in Gangavadi. Vishnuvardhana practised religious tolerance towards Basadies and temples atTalakadu, Belur, Melukote,Tonnur, Gadag, Bankapura etc.,

Art and Architecture: Vishnuvardhana was a great patron of art and architecture. During his regime, a unique style of temple building began. His period was called ‘the golden age of temple building’ and he laid the foundation for the Hoysala architecture.
Important temples built by him were the Channakeshwara and Kappechanniga temples at Belur, Kirtinarayana temple of Talakadu, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag andTonnur, Chaluvanarayana temple at Melukote, Mahalakshmi temple of Doddagaddavalli and Gangadhareshwara temple at Shivaganga etc.,

Literature : Vishnuvardhana encouraged literature too. Jain scholar Rajadhitya wrote, Kshetraganitha, Vyavaharaganitha andLeelavathi in Kannada. Nayasena wrote Dharmamrutha, Ramanujacharya wrote Vedanthasara, Vedanthadeepika and Vedanthasangraha.

Question 3.
Illustrate Hoysala contributions to religion and literature.
Answer:
Hoysala rulers have contributed a lot in the fields of religion, literature, art and architecture. A unique style of architecture and sculpture was developed during this period. It is known as ‘The golden age of temple architecture’.

Religion: The Hoysala period witnessed great religious activities. Hoysalas patronised Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism. Most of the Hoysala rulers were devout Jains and patronised Jainism. Bittideva (Vishnuvardhana) was initially a Jain, but by the influence of Ramanujacharya, he embraced Srivaishnavism. He changed his name from Bittideva to Vishunardhana. His Queen Shantaladevi and his general Gangaraja were Jains.

Shaivism was encouraged by the Hoysala Kings like Ballala-II and Someshwara. Sivacharya wrote commentaries on the Gita and Brahma sastras. By the 12th century, a dynamic form of Saivism known as Virasaivism came into existence. Ramanujacharya’led the spread of Srivaishnavism in Karnataka. People had complete freedom in their religious activities. This led to the construction and renovation of a number of temples and basadies in different parts of the Kingdom.

Literature: Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished during this period. Nagachandra was patronised by Ballala-I. He was called as ‘Ahinava Pampa’ or ‘Kavita Manohara’. He was the author of books like Mallinathapurana, Ramachandra charitha and Pampa Ramayana. Janna was in the court of Ballala-II, and he received the title ‘Kavichakravarthi’. Janna wrote Yashodacharitre and Ananthanatha Purana. Keshiraja wrote Shabdamanidarpana, the first Kannada grammer treatise. Nayasena was the author of Dharmamrutha.

Among the several other celebrities were Harihara who wrote Girija Kalyana, Pampashataka and Shivaksharamale and Raghavanka, who wrote Harischandrakavya and Siddaramapurana. Rajaditya was the author of Kshetra Ganitha, Vyavahara Ganitha and Leelavathi. Thrivikramapanditha wrote Ushaharana, Narayanapanditha wrote Mandhava Vijaya and Manimanjari and Sakala, Vidyachakravarthi-III wrote Rukmini Kalyana. All these were in Sanskrit.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Explain the main features of the Hoysala architecture.
Answer:
Hoysala art and architecture: Hoysalas occupy a unique place in the Indian architectural history. Hoysalas adapted the Vesara and Dravidian styles and developed a new style of architecture. So, it is nothing but the culmination of the Chalukyan architecture and is called ‘The Hoysala style’ of architecture. The great sculptors who built most of the Hoysala temples were Dasoja, Chavana, Kedaraja, Nagoja, Jakkanna, Mallitamma, Byroja and others.

The main characteristics (Salient features) of the Hoysala temples:

  1. Hoysala temples are star-shaped. The temples have a tower (sikhara) above the sanctum (Garbhagriha). This tower is in the form of a pyramid.
  2. Hoysala temples are constructed on a raised platform (jagati) of 4 to 5 feet. The walls of the basement are covered with stone carvings.
  3. Just above the platform, space is left all around the temple, to do pradakshana of the temple, which is called Pradhakshinapatha.
  4. The temples have carved stone windows with apertures and the walls are covered with ornamental sculptures.
  5. The outer walls of the temples have stone carvings, The bottom portion consists of a row of elephants, horses, flower designs, swans, stories from the epics and puranas.
  6. The doorways of the temples have beautiful carvings in stone and a pair of dwarapalakas stand on either side.
  7. The centreof the ceiling of the hall has intricate carvings of Bhuvaneshwari. Above the
    pillars, on the brackets stand the statues of dancing girls in different poses.
  8. Hoysala temples have been classified as per the number of cel ls'(kutas)e.g., One cell (ekakuta) temples to five cells (panchakuta) temples. The sanctums (Garbhagriha) are small and simple square chambers.

Hoysala temple constructions : Hoysalas built more than 100 temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Vishnuvardhana period was the ‘Golden age’ of temple building in the Hoysala Kingdom. Vishnuvardhana built, Kiithinarayana temple atTalakadu, Cheluvanarayana temple at Melkote, Channakeshava temple and Kappechenniga temples at Belur, Mallikaijuna and Rangantha temples at Huliyur, Veeranarayana temples at Gadag and Bankapura.

Channakeshava temple (Ekakuta) at Belur is the epitome of the Hoysala style. Ballala-III (1173-1220 CE) built Amrulheshwara and Ballaleshwara temples at Arasikere and Kedareshwara temple at Halebeedu. Narasimha-I and his deputy Ketamalla built the Hoysaleshwara (Dwikuta) temple (1121 CE) at Halebeedu.

Narasimha II built the Harihareshwar temple at Harihara, Lakshminarasimha temple at Bhadravati, and Someshwara and Keshava temples at Haradanahalli. Narasimha-III built Keshava temple (Thrikuta) at Somanathapura in 1268 CE., Lakshmi temple (chathuskuta) at Doddagaddavalli andPanchalingeshwara temple (Panchakuta) at Govindanahalli.

The Channkeshava temple (1117 CE) built by Vishnuvardhana at Belur, The Hoysaleshwar temple (1121 CE) built by Ketamalla at Halebeedu and the Keshava temple (1268 CE) built by Narasimha – III at Somanathapura are the best examples of the best variety. According to Fergusson the famous historian, Hoysaleshwara temple can be termed as the ‘Jewel of Indian Architecture’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Describe the achievements of Vikramaditya-VI.
Answer:
Vikramaditya-VI (1076-1126 CE): He was the most outstanding ruler of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. He was the Governor of Gangavadi during the reign of his brother Someshwara-II. Vikramaditya-VI overthrew his brother and proclaimed himself as the King of Chalukyas of Kalyana in 1076 CE. To commemorate his accession to the throne, he started a new era known as the Vikrama era from 1076 C.E.

1) The revolt of Jayasimha-IV: In 1080 CE, Jayasimha-IV (younger brother) who had been appointed as the Governor of Banavasi rose in revolt and made an attempt to seize the throne. Vikramaditya-VI defeated him and kept him in prison.

2) Interference in Paramara politics: The Paramara ruler Udayaditya passed away and a conflict for the throne began amongst his sons. Vikramaditya-VI helped Jayadeva to secure the throne. As a result, Jayadeva remained the most trusted feudatory of Vikramaditya-VI.

3) Conquest on Hoysalas: The Hoysalas were feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kaylana, but under the leadership of the ambitious Vishnuvardhana, they wanted to overthrow the Chalukyan yoke. In 1117 C.E., Vishnuvardhana invaded and occupied, the Chalukyan territory of Nolambavadi. But in 1118 C.E., Vishnuvardhana after a bitter struggle lost in the battle of KannegalatoVikramaditya-VI.

4) War with Cholas: Vikramaditya-VI marched against the Cholas and captured Kanchi. Kulottunga Chola had captured Vengi, but it was reconquered by Vikramaditya-VI in 1118 CE. He turned his attention towards north. The northern rulers like Gurjaras, and later Malwa and Sindhe were all routed by him and accepted the supremacy of Vikramaditya-VI.

5) Expedition to south: Southern rulers like the Kadambas of Hanagal, Pandyas of Uchchangi, Shiiaharas of north Konkan, Alupas, Sevanas and others were also defeated and accepted the sovereignty of Vikramaditya-VI.

6) Extention of the Kingdom: Vikramaditya extended his Kingdom towards east upto Godavari, west upto Konkana, north upto river Narmada and in south upto southern Karnataka.

Vikramaditya was an able ruler and well-known patron of learning. He patronized scholars like Bilhana, Vijananeshwara and others. Vikramaditya assumed titles like Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla. He was also called as the ‘Moon of Karnataka’. He maintained cordial relations with Ceylon. He started the ‘ Vikrama era’ in 1076 C.E.

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