2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 5 Medieval Period

You can Download Chapter 5 Medieval Period Questions and Answers, Notes, 2nd PUC History Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Karnataka 2nd PUC History Question Bank Chapter 5 Medieval Period

Delhi Sultanates -1206-1526

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who were the first among the muslims to invade India?
Answer:
Arabs were the first among the Muslims to invade India. Mohammad – bin – Quasim, the Governor of Basra invaded India in 712 C.E.

Question 2.
Which was the famous book of Alberuni? (or) Name the famous book of Alberuni.
Answer:
Alberuni, a Persian scholar wrote the famous book Kitab – ul – Hind.

Question 3.
Who was the founder of the Slave (Mamuluck) dynasty?
Answer:
Qutub- ud-din-Aibak was the founder of the Slave dynasty.

Question 4.
Who founded the Khilji dynasty?
Answer:
Jalaluddin Khilji was the founder of the Khilji dynasty.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Who was the commander of Allauddin Khilji who led the southern expedition?
Answer:
Malik Kafur was the commader (General) of Allauddin Khilji.

Question 6.
Who was called‘The Parrot of India’?
Answer:
Amir Khusrau, a great poet and singer was called as the “Parrot of India”.

Question 7.
Who was the founder of the Tbghalak dynasty?
Answer:
Ghiyasuddin Tughalak founded theTughalak dynasty in 1320C.E.

Question 8.
Who was the famous Sultan of (he Ibghalak dynasty?
Answer:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was the famous Sultan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Who shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Answer:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in 1326 C.E.

Question 10.
Who introduced token currency?
Answer:
Mohammad – bin – Tughalak introduced token currency.

Question 11.
Who commenced the construction of Qutub Minar at Delhi?
Answer:
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak commenced the construction of Qutub Minar.

Question 12.
Who was the famous Sultan from the Khilji dynasty?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji was the famous Sultan of the Khilji dynasty.

Question 13.
Who was the IToysala King, when Malik Kafur invaded Deccan?
Answer:
ViraBallala – III was the HoysalaKing, when Malik Kafur invaded Deccan in 1310 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Who introduced the Market reforms?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji introduced the Market reforms.

Question 15.
Who was the first Sultan of Delhi to introduce Land survey and settlement?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji was the first to introduce land survey and settlement.

Question 16.
Which types of currencies were introduced by Mohammad – bin – Tughalak?
Answer:
Token currency (Copper and Brass token currency) in 1329 to 1332 C.E.

Question 17.
What was the name given to Devagiri?
Answer:
Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.

Question 18.
Which place was called a monument of misdirected energy?
Answer:
Lane Poole remarked, that Daulatabad remained a monument of misdirected energy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Name the two capitals of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak.
Answer:
Delhi and Devagiri (Daulatabad) were the two capitals of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
In which year did the second battle of Tarain take place? Between whom was it
fought?
Answer:
The second battle of Tarain was fought between Prithviraj Chouhan and Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori in 1192 C.E.

Question 2.
How many Sultan dynasties ruled Delhi? Which are those?
Answer:
Five Sultan dynasties ruled Delhi. They were

  1. The Slave dynasty
  2. The Khilji dynasty
  3. The Tughalak dynasty
  4. The Sayyid Dynasty
  5. The Lodhi dynasty.

Question 3.
Name any two important monuments constructed by Alla-ud*din Khilji
Answer:
Palace of HazarSitum, Fort of Siri,Jamait Khan Masjid and Alai Darwaza.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Why did Allauddin Khilji called himself as ‘Sikandar – II’?
Answer:
Allauddin had become the master of India by 1312 C.E. His ambition was to conquer the whole world, but had to be satisfied with conquering only India. Even then, he issued coins with the title Sikandar (Alexander – II).

Question 5.
Name any two famous generals of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Ulugh Khan, Nazarath Khan and Malik Kafur were Allauddin Khilji’s famous generals.

Question 6.
Name any two reasons for the transfer of capital by Mohammad – bin – Tughalak.
Answer:

  1. Devagiri occupied a central location in India, and it was nearly equidistant from Delhi and other important cities in his Empire.
  2. He wanted his capital to be secure from the mongol invasions.

Question 7.
Name two historians from the Tlighalak period.
Answer:
Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were the great historians of that time.

Question 8.
Who started the writing of Tarik -i- Firozshahi? Who completed it?
Answer:
Barani started writingTarik – i – Firozshahi and Shams – i – Si raj Afif completed the work.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 9.
Who was Amir Khusrau? Name his famous works.
Answer:
Amir Khusrau the great poet and singer, who was in the court of Allauddin was also called as the “Parrot of India”. He wroteTughalak Namah, Khazyan – ul-Futuh and Tarkish – i- Alai.

Question 10.
Who built Qutub Minar? Where?
Answer:
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak started construction on the Qutub Minar at Delhi.

Question 11.
Mention the two officers appointed by Allauddin to control the markets?
Answer:
Divan – e – Riyasat and Shahan – e – Mandi were the two officers appointed by Allauddin to control the market prices.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the South Indian expedition of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
South Indian expedition of Allauddin: Allauddin Khilji was the first muslim ruler to attempt to the conquest of south India. He deputed his able general Malik Kafur to conquer south India. His ambition was to conquer the enormous wealth of south India and that was the reason for his southern campaign.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 C.E.): Ramachandradeva was the King of Devagiri, who had given shelter to King Kamadeva – II of Gujarat and his daughter Devaladevi. He had also not paid the annual tribute to the Sultan for three years. For these reasons, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri, defeated Ramachandradeva, captured Devaladevi and collected immense booty in 1307 C.E. Devaladevi was married to Khizer Khan, son-of Allauddin.

2. Conquest of Warangal (1309 C.E): In 1309 C.E., Malik Kafur marched through (via) Devagiri, secured the help of Ramachandradeva and attacked Warangal. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and had to surrender a lot ofwealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur. The Ruler of Warangal had to accept Delhi Sultan’s sovereignty.

3. Expedition to Iloysalas in 1310 C.E : Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu) when Veera Ballala – III was away from the capital and was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and plundered the rich temples in the surrounding areas and looted gold, silver, pearls, diamonds and jewels. Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin Khilji.

4. Conquest of Madhurai (1311 C.E.) The forces of Delhi under Malik Kafur attacked the capital of the Pandya Kings (Madhurai) and plundered the city. Civil war arose between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya. Malik Kafur razed down the famous temple at Ramcshwara. All the wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a large herd of elephants.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Explain the reforms (political and economic) of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Administratibr reforms:
1. Kingship (Sultan): Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures. He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine origin of Kingship and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.

2. Espionage: He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent outbreak of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the Nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevent the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly. The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers.

5. Revenue reforms :

  • Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the assessment of land revenue.
  • He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
  • ITe imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – muslims.
  • He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
  • In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.

6. Market regulation: The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.

Evaluation of Allauddin: He is renowned not only for his conquests but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.

Question 3.
Why is Mohammad-bin-Tbghalak called as a “Mixture of opposites”?
Answer:
Administrative experiments of Mohammad -bin-Thghalak:

1. Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he en forced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation. Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

2. Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.: Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his Kingdom. He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat ora dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.

The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan having, at last, realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen P( ol, operation – Daulatabad of was a “Monument of misdirected energy”.*This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.

3. Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.: Mohammad – bin – Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of Silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government.

Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneycrs’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to minting of the coins. People started minting their own coins.  Hence, the Empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange. Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realized his error in judgment and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.

Mohamnad – bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. Pie lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that “Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji (1296-1316 C.E.) Allauddin Khilji’s early name was Aligurshap. He lost his father in his boyhood and was brought up in the care of Jalaluddin. Allauddin married Jalaluddin’s daughter and was appointed as the Governor of Khara province. He was highly ambitiousandaspircdtobccometherulerofDelhi.In 1294,he set his eyes on Devagiri. It’s ruler Ramachandradeva was defeated by him. Allauddin returned to Khara with a heavy amount of booty. Jalaluddin was unaware of the evil intentions of Allauddin. He went to receiveAliauddin with only a few unarmed guards and was murdered by the supporters of Allauddin. Thus, Allauddin became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296C.E.

Military Achievements of Allauddin:

A) The conquests of North India :

1. Conquest of Gujarat in 1297 C.E.: Allauddin sent Ulugh Khan and Nazarath Khan, his generals to conquer Gujarat in 1297 C.E. Raja Kamadeva – II was defeated and he fled to Devagiri along with his daughter Devaladevi. The generals captured Kamaladevi (Queen of Kamadeva) and she was taken to Delhi and Allauddin married her. The Delhi troops plundered the rich ports of Gujarat.

2. Conquest of Ranathanihore in 1301 C.E.: Allauddin turned his attention towards Ranathambore. Hamira Deva, the ruler of Ranathambore, had given shelter to a few muslims (Neo muslims) who were enemies of Allauddin. So, Allauddin invaded and took over Ranathambore.

3. Expedition onMevvar (Chiltor) in 1303 C.E.: Allauddin led an expedition against Rana Ratan Singh of Chittoor (Mewar). I Ie desired to possess Rani Padmini of Mewar, Queen of Ratan Singh, renowned for her beauty and talent. The fort of Chittor was captured with great hardship. Padmini and other rajput women committed ‘Jauhar’. Chittor was captured and Khizer Khan (son of Allauddin) was made the Governor of Chittor.

4. Other conquests: Allauddin took an expedition to Mai wa in 1305 C.E. Mahakaladeva, the ruler of Malwa was defeated by him. The territories of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhara, Chanderi and Jolur were subjugated to Allauddin. He became the master of the whole of north India.

B) The Mongol Invasion (Raids): In 1299 C.E., Mongols attacked Delhi under Qualugh Khwaji. Frequent raids by the Mongols were a constant threat to the Empire. Allauddin and his general Malik Kafur successfully drove back the Mongols. He defeated them and imprisoned many of them.

C) South Indian compaign: Allauddin turned his attention towards south India. He sent an expedition under his eminent general, Malik Kafur to conquer the south. He coveted the enormous wealth of south India and its temples. The four main southern rulers were defeated.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 CE): Ramachandradeva, the ruler of Devagiri, had not paid tribute for nearly three years and he had given shelter to Kamadeva-II of Gujarat. For that reason, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri and defeated Ramachandradeva and collected a lot of booty.

2. Conquest of Warangal (1309 CE): The Delhi forces marched via Devagiri and attacked Telangana. Pratapa Rudradeva, the tuler of Warangal, put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and he had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur.

3. Expedition to Iloysalas in 1310 C.E: Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra, when Veera Ballala-III was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and Ballaia – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin.

4. Conquests of Madhurai in 1311 C.E.: Acivil war was raging between Sundrapandya and Vecrapandya; when Malk Kafur attacked the capital of Pandyas (Madhurai) and plundered the city. The wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a herd of elephants.

Administrativeachievementsof Allauddin:

1. Sultanship: Allauddin followed an independent policy towards political matters. He set up a strong central administration. He did not permit the interference by religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine rights of Kingship (Shadow of God).

2. Espionage: He established an elaborate spy network, to get the information regarding all the activities of his nobles. He also tried to prevent the outbreak of rebellions within the Empire. He deprived his nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs at Delhi. He knew that, gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The Standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal law and order and to prevent the invasions of the Mongols. Ariz-i- Mumali k was the incharge for the appointment of soldier’s. The state maintained a record of the Iluliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system.

5. Revenue reforms: Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land for the assessment of land revenue. He appointed a special officer called ‘Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants. To check bribery and corruption among the revenue officials, their salaries were increased. Steps were taken to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials.

6. Market regulation : The most remarkable of all these was an attempt to control the market prices by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all the articles of common use were fixed. Separate officers were appointed to regulate the market prices on a daily basis amount of booty. Jalaluddin was unaware of the evil intentions of Allauddin. He went to receive Allauddin with only a few unarmed guards and was murdered by the supporters of Allauddin. Thus, Allauddin became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296C.E.

Military Achievements of Allauddin:

A) The conquests of North India :

1. Conquest of Gujarat in 1297 C.E.: Allauddin sent Ulugh Khan andNazarath Khan, his generals to conquer Gujarat in 1297 C.E. Raja Kamadeva- II was defeated and he fled to Devagiri along with his daughter Devaladevi. The generals captured Kamaladevi (Queen of Kamadeva) and she was taken to Delhi and Allauddin married her. The Delhi troops plundered the rich ports of Gujarat.

2. Conquest of Ranathambore in 1301 C.E.: Allauddin turned his attention towards Ranathambore. Hamira Deva, the ruler of Ranathambore, had gi ven shelter to a few muslims (Neo muslims) who were enemies of Allauddin. So, Allauddin invaded and took over Ranathambore.

3. Expedition on Mevvar (Chittor) in 1303 C.E.: Allauddin led an expedition against Rana Ratan Singh of Chittoor (Mevvar). lie desired to possess Rani Padmini of Mewar, Queen of Ratan Singh, renowned for her beauty and talent. The fort of Chittor was captured with great hardship. Padmini and other rajput women committed ‘Jauhar’. Chittor was captured and Khizer Khan (son of Allauddin) was made the Governor of Chittor.

4. Olherconquests: Allauddin took an expedition to Mai wa in 1305 C.E. Mahakaladeva, the ruler of Mai wa was defeated by him. The territories of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhara, Chanderi and Jolur were subjugated to Allauddin. He became the master of the whole of north India.

B) The Mongol Invasion (Raids): In 1299C.E., Mongols attacked Delhi under Qualugh Khwaji. Frequent raids by the Mongols were a constant threat to the Empire. Allauddin and his general Malik Kafur successfully drove back the Mongols. He defeated them and imprisoned many of them.

C) South Indian compaign: Allauddin turned his attention towards south India. He sent an expedition under his eminent general, Malik Kafur to conquer the south. He coveted the enormous wealth of south India and its temples. The four main southern rulers were defeated.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 CE): Ramachandradeva, the ruler of Devagiri, had not paid tribute for nearly three years and he had given shelter to Kamadeva-II of Gujarat. For that reason, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri and defeated Ramachandradeva and collected a lot of booty.

2. Conquest of VVarangal (1309 CE): The Delhi forces marched via Devagiri and attacked Telangana. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal, put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and he had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur.

3. Expedition to Ifoysalas in 1310 C.E: Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra, when Veera Ballala-III was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin.

4. Conquests of Madhurai in 1311 C.E.: A civil war was raging between Sundrapandya and Vecrapandya,- when Malk Kafur attacked the capital of Pandyas (Madhurai) and plundered the city. The wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a herd of elephants.

Administrative achievements of Allauddin:

1. Sultanship: Allauddin followed an independent policy towards political matters. He set up a strong central administration. He did not permit the interference by religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine rights of Kingship (Shadow of God).

2. Espionage: He established an elaborate spy network, to get the information regarding all the activites of his nobles. He also tried to prevent the outbreak of rebellions within the Empire. Pie deprived his nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs at Delhi. He knew that, gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The Standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal law and order and to prevent the invasions of the Mongols. Ariz-i- Mumajik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers. The slate maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system.

5. Revenue reforms: Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land for the assessment of land revenue. He appointed a special officer called ‘Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants. To check bribery and corruption among the revenue officials, their salaries were increased. Steps were taken to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials.

6. Market regulation: The most remarkable of all these was an attempt to control the market prices by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all the articles of common use were fixed. Separate officers were appointed to regulate the market prices on a daily basis.

Personality of Allauddin: He is renowned not only for his conquests but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. lie established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin-TUghalak. (or) How did the policies of Mohammad end in failure?
Answer:
Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak: In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed- bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.

1. Register of the land revenue: Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.

2. Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE: Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:

(1) (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.

(2) He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital. Reasons for the shifting of the capital were veiy practical, but the method . was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.

The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony etc resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.

4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE : Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moncyers’ and a currency expert.

The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:

  • People could not grasp its real significance
  • Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
  • Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as
    a standard unit of exchange.
  • People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.

Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.

Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradiction’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Give an account of the contributions of the Sultanates of Delhi.
Answer:
Contributions of the Delhi Sultanates:
1. Administration: The Kingdom of Delhi Sultanate was a theocratic state, (religion was Islam). ‘Shariat’ (Islamic law) were the rules of the state. The ‘Ulema (Islamic scholars) controlled the state and administration. The Sultans called themselves ‘Naib’ (deputy) of Kalifa.

2. Central Government: Sultan was the head of administration. lie exercised the legislative, executive and judicial powers. He was guided by the Ulemas. Allauddin kept the Ulemas away from the state affairs. The Sultan earned the administration with the help of a number of ministers. They were the Wazir (the Prime minister incharge of revenue and finance), Ariz-i-Mamlik who was incharge of the military, Amir-i-Mazlis who was incharge of royal forts and conferences, Barid-i-Mumalik – head of the state news agency, Dahir-i-mumalik – incharge of the royal correspondences, Sadar-us-Sadur who handled religious matters and Kazi-ul-Qazat- the Chief Justice.

3. Revenue: Land revenue was the main source of the state income. The war booty, tributes, house, water, religious and Jaziya taxes etc were the other sources of income to the state. Land tax could be paid either in cash or kind.

4. Judicial: The Sultans administered justice with the help of Kazi-ul-Qazat (The chief • Justice). The chief Kazi was helped by a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law). The towns and cities had courts headed by Kazis and assisted by Muftis. Kotwal was the Police office in charge of law and order.

Army: The Sultan maintained a strong army. It consisted of cavalry, intantry and elephant forces. The Sultanate was primarily a military state. The Sultan was the supreme commander. All ministers and officers except the chief Justice and the Khazis were to render both ci vil and military duties. Diwan-i-Ariz was incharge of army administration. The pay of the soldiers varied according to their service.

Provincial administration: The Sultanate (Kingdom) was divided into a number of provinces called Togas’. The head of a province was called ‘Naib Sultan’. They enjoyed absolute power in their provinces. The main duties were collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order within the province. The maintained an army of their own. Some Sultans transferred the Govemers and punished them severely, if they revolted against the state.

Each province was divided into ‘Shiqs and Paraganas’. They were looked after by Shiqdars and Amils respectively. Village was the primary unit of administration. It had traditional officers such as the Chaudhari, the Patwari, the Chaukidar etc.

Literature: This period witnessed the growth of Persian and regional language literatures. Persian poets of central Asia took shelter in the courts of the Sultans of Delhi. Amir Khusru was the most outstanding writer and he was called the ‘Parrot of India’. He wrote Khazyan- ul-Futuh and Tarkish-i-Alai. Amir Hasan Dehalvi wrote sonnets. Badruddin, Maulana Moinuddin, Umrani and Hassan Nizami were some of the great Persian writers. Mohammad- bin-Tughalak and Firoz Shah Tughalak were great scholars. Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were great historians of theTughalak period. Barani started the Tarik-i-Firoz Shahi and it was completed by Shams-i-Siraj Afif. Chand Bardai wrote Prithiviraja Raso, Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote Padmavati. There was an encouragement for translating works from Sanskrit to Persian.

Art and Architecture: The Sultanate of Delhi introduced the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It represents a synthesis of the two religious ideals like Hinduism and Islam.

The important features of the Indo-Islamic movements are minarates, arches, domes, hazaras, large gateways etc., Quwat-ul-Islam, Mosque at Delhi and Adai-Dinka-Jhampara Mosque at Ajmer were the earlist creations. The Qutub minar was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by Iltumash. Hauz-i-Shamsi, Jami Masjid and Shamsi Idgah were built by Utumash. The Jami masjid is one of the largest and most beautiful buildings. Allauddin built the palace of Hazar situm (Palace of 1000 pillars), the fort of Siri, Jamait Khan Masjid and the Alai Darwaza at Delhi. Firoz Shah was the greatest of the builders. He laid out the cities of Firozabad, Fatehbad and Janpur.

KSEEB Solutions

Mughals

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
When did the first battle of Panipat take place?
Answer:
In 1526 C.E. the first battle of Panipat was fought between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty.
Answer:
Babur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Question 3.
Who was the Queen of Gondwana?
Answer:
Rani Durgavati was the ruler of Gondwana.

Question 4.
When did the battle of Ilaldighat take place?
Answer:
In 1576, the battle of Ilaldighat took place between Akbar and Rana Pratap Singh (Ruler of Me war).

Question 5.
What was the new religion introduced by Akbar?
Answer:
Din-e-Ilahi was the religion introduced by Akbar in 1581 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 6.
Who was the famous revenue minister of Akbar?
Ans. RajaTodarmal was the famous revenue minister of Akbar.

Question 7.
Who wrote the book ‘IIumayunNama’?
Answer:
Gulbadan Begum wrote the book Humayun Nama.

Question 8.
Who wrote the book Akbar Nama?
Ans. Abul Fazal wrote the book Akbar Nama.

Question 9.
Who wrote the book Ain-i-Akbari?
Answer:
Abul Fazal wrote the book Ain-i-Akbari.

Question 10.
Who was the famous musician in the court of Akbar?
Ans. Tansen (Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas) was the most famous musician in the court of
Akbar.

Question 11.
Who was the Master Architect of Taj Mahal?
Answer:
Ustad Isa Khan was the Master Architect of Taj Mahal.

Question 12.
Whom did Babur defeat in the first battle of Panipat?
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated by Babur.

Question 13.
Who was the famous ruler of the Mughal dynasty?
Answer:
Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 14.
Who was the guardian of Akbar? ‘
Answer:
Bairam Khan was the guardian of Akbar.

Question 15.
What is mansabdari system?
Answer:
Mansab means an official rank or power of dignity and such a system was called mansabdari.

Question 16.
Where did Akbarbuild a Red Fort?
Answer:
Akbar built a Red Fort at Agra.

Question 17.
Which new capital was built by Akbar?
Answer:
Fathepur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar.

Question 18.
What was the name of Todarmal’s revenue system?
Answer:
Aine-i-DahsalaorTodaramaPsBandobust.

Question 19.
Which monument was built by Shah Jahan?
Answer:
Taj Mahal at Agra was built by Shah Jahan.

Question 20.
Who built the Red Fort at Delhi?
Answer:
Shah Jahan built the Red Fort at Delhi.

Question 21.
Who built the Ibadat Khana?
Answer:
Akbar built the Ibadat Khana (Prayer I Tall).

Question 22.
Which humiliating tax on Hindus was abolished by Akbar?
Answer:
In 1564 C.E., Akbar abolished the Jeziya tax on Hindus.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 23.
What was Jeziya?
Answer:
Jeziya was the poll tax which was imposed on

non-muslims by the Muslim Rulers of Delhi.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1
When was the second battle of Panipat fought and between whom?
Answer:
The second battle of Panipat was fought between Akbar and Hemu (Chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal) in 1556 C.E. at Panipat.

Question 2.
Where and when was Akbar born?
Answer:
Akbar was born at Amarkot in 1542 C.E. in the house of Ranasala.

Question 3.
Name any two famous historians of Akbar’s period.
Answer:
Abul Fazal and Badauni were the famous historians of Akbar’s period.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Which were the capitals of Akbar? (or) Name the capitals of Akbar.
Answer:
Delhi, Fathepur Sikri, and Udaypur were the capitals of Akbar at different periods.

Question 5.
Name any two types of lands classified by Todarmal.
Answer:
Polaj,Parauti,Chachar,Banjar.

Question 6.
Name the two works of Abul Fazal.
Answer:
AkbarNama,Ain-i-Akbari.

Question 7.
Who built Taj-Mahal? Where is it built?
Answer:
Shah Jahan built it at Agra.

Question 8.
Name any two famous musicians of the Mughal period.
Answer:
Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the famous musicians.

Question 9.
Name some famous Mughal monuments at Delhi.
Answer:
Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Diwan-i-Khas, and Diwan-i-Am.

Question 10.
Who were the parents of Akbar?
Answer:
Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
What is IbadatKhana? Where was it built?
Answer:
Ibadat Khana or Prayer hall was a building built by Akbar, at Fatehpur Sikri, where he held religious discussions with the religious leaders.

Question 12.
Name the famous Mahals built by Akbar.
Answer:
The palace of Jodha Bai, Sonhala Makan, Panch Mahal, and Mariyavar Mahal were built by Akbar. .

Question 13.
Who was Raja Todarmal? Why was he famous?
Answer:
Raj a Todarmal was the famous revenue minister of Akbar. lie was famous for implementing the revenue system called Bandobust.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the Religious and Rajput policies of Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar’s policy towards the Rajputs: Rajputs were the powerful enemies of the Mughals. Akbar was a farsighted statesman and the realised the value of Rajput alliances in his task of building an Empire in India for setting up his dynasty. He adopted a very liberal policy towards the Rajputs. As he was bom in the house of a rajput, he had a sense of gratitude and feeling of affection towards them. He tried to win their support by adapting measures like friendly relations, co-operation, matrimonial alliances and appointing many Rajputs as Mansabdars.

At the same time he did not show any weakness towards the Rajputs and never hesitated from taking armed action against them. Akbar settled for friendly alliances, with the Rajput states of Amber, Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer as those rulers accepted unconditional submission to the Emperor. He married Jodha Bai, daughter of Biharimal of Amber (Jaipur). Raja Surjan Rai of Ranathambore voluntarily accepted the overlordship of Akbar. Ramachandra, the ruler of Kalinjar surrendered to Akbar in 1569C.E.

Some of the Rajputs were not willing to accept the sovereignty of Akbar. lie attacked Chittor (Mewar) and defeated its ruler Uday Singh in 1568. Uday Singh and his son Rana Pratap Singh continued to fight the Mughals till their death. The important battle fought between the Mughals and Rana Pratap Singh was the battle of Haldighat in 1576. Mewar was completely occupied by Akbar after the death of Rana Pratap Singh.

Akbar freely admitted Rajputs in the royal service. Some of the important persons who held positions of trust and responsibility were RajaTodarmal, Raja Bhagwan Das, Raja Mansingh and others. Akbar’s Rajput policy drew.the Rajputs closer to the muslims and helped in the growth of an Indo-muslim culture which represented the best elements of both.

Religious Policy of Akbar: Akbar was the most enlightened ruler among the Mughals. He was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart, and bring about unity amongst them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration (Sulah-i-Kul) and tried to eliminate the deep lDoted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.

He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. Akbar abolished the Pilgrimage tax in 1563 and the Jeziya in 1564, a tax imposed on non-muslims. He appointed Plindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. For example, RajaTodarmal was appointed as the revenue minister and several other Hindus were appointed as Governors and mansabdars. He disestablished Islam as the state religion. He respected the sentiments of Hindus and banned cow slaughter. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar established the Ibadat Khana (Prayer Hall) at Fatehpur Sikri and held religious discussions. In 1582 C.E., he invited the different religious leaders for discussions, to understand ‘ the essence of their religions, like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, and Zorastrian. He tried to minimize the influence of the Ulemas.

Akbar issued the infallibility decree in 1579 C.E. (Mehazar). According to it, Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi (Tauhid-i-Ilahi) in 1581 C.E. It was an eclectic creed containing the good points of many of the religions. This religion was based on divine monotheism. It was an honest attempt to unite people of different faiths into a brotherhood based on generally accepted concepts. The Din- i-Ilahi was not a religion in the real sense, it was a socio-religious order.

Akbar’s concept of monotheism and divine religion can be described as ‘There is no God but Allah and Akbar is his Khalifa”. Its followers were awarded four grades, determined by the sacrifice of property, life, honour and being religious, in the service of the Emperor. Din-i-IIahi was a national religion, but it did not become popular, because Akbar never forced anybody to join it. He encouraged intercaste marriages,’ he acted as a national ruler and not as the King of the Muslims. The followers of Ilahi were very small in numbers and after the death of Akbar, it vanished completely.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Briefly write about the administration of Akbar.
Answer:
Administrative system of Akbar: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He established the heritage of Mughal administration and looked after the welfare of the people through a strong central government, It was a benevolent ruler having the welfare of the people, always in his mind and took personal interest in the affairs of the state and looked after every detail of the administration. He provided strength, stability and imperial rule. The . Mughal Emperor was called ‘Padishah or Badshah’. He was considered ‘Shadow of God’ and ruled in accordance with Islamic principles.

1. Central administration: The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. The absolute authority of the King was never clearly defined, and there was practically no check on the Emperor’s powers. He was the supreme lawmaker and generally worked hard to safeguard the interests of the people. Emperor was assisted by a Council of Ministers. They were called the ‘Pillars of the State’. The important ministers were, the Vakil (Prime minister), Diwan-i-Ali (Finance), Mir Bakshi (Military), Sadar-us-Sadar (incharge of charities) Khan-i-Saman (Home), Dewan (Revenue), and Qazi (Chief Justice). The government was divided into a number of departments, each headed by an officer under a minister.

2. Provincial Administration: Akbar’s Empire consisted of 16 provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a Governor called ‘Subedar’, who was responsible for the collection of revenue and maintaining law and order within the province. Some of the important officers of the provinces were Dewan. Bakshi, Sadar, Faujdar, Kdtwal, Qazi etc., Each Suba was divided into a number of Sarkars. Faujdar was the head of a Sarkar and each Sarkar was further divided into a number of Paraganas. Kotwals were incharge of city administration and village was the last unit of administration.

3. Military administration or mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari system’. He evolved this with the help of Mir Bakshi ShahbazKhanin 1571 C.E. The term ‘Mansab’ means rank, dignity or office or position. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place on the basis of his horses, soldiers, his status and salary etc.

This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. The army was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. There were 33 grades of Mansabdars (from controlling 10 to those controlling 10,000 soldiers which was later extended to 50,000). The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will.

The mansabdari system consisted of Zat and Sawar. Zat indicated the number of soldiers a Mansabdar was expected to maintain, while the word Sawar indicated the actual number of horses that he maintained. The salaries of Mansabdars were high. They were generally not paid in cash but were allotted Jagirs, yielding their respective salaries. Mansabdars were directly under the control of the Emperor.

Hence, most of them obeyed the Emperor implicitly. However, the system was not without defects. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers because the loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar who recruited them and paid their salaries and not to the Emperor.

4. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal: Akbar followed the land revenue policy of Allauddin Khilji and Sher Shah. Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581, Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system and introduced what-was known as ‘Zabti system or Ain-dech-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs (Bamboo sticks joined with iron studs). Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soi I. Land was classified as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar Bhoomi. lie collected the aggregate rate of taxation for ten years. It was called ‘ Ain-deeh-Sala’. It was 1/3 of the average of the previous ten year’s produce, The revenue could be paid in cash or kind.

The Emperor was conscious of the welfare of the peasantry. During the days of famine or fall in the yield, fanners were exempted from tax. RajaTodarmal’s revenue policy had provision to provide loans (Taccavi loans) to the culti vatiors. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobusf’. The state maintained the documents Patta and Qabuliyat, which recorded information regarding the land ownership and land revenue details.

Question 3.
Describe the contributions of Mughals to Literature, Art and Architecture. Literature: The Mughal period witnessed a growth in literature. Many literary works were written in Persian, Hindi, Turkish and Arabic languages. Babar had written his memoirs or ‘Tuzuk – i – Baburi in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdul Rahim. Humayun’s sisterGulbadan Begum wrote TIumayunNama’. Abdul Fazal wrote ‘Ain-i-Akbari’and ‘Akbar Nama’. His style was grand and he was the most remowned Persian writer.

The Tabakat-i-Akbari was written by Nizamuddin. Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharva veda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. Prince Dara (son of Shahjahan), translated the Upanishads into Persian. Jahangir wrote a book ‘Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri ’. Shahjahan patronized the scholars like Abdul Hamid Lahori who wrote Padshah Nama and Inayat Khan who was the author of Shahjahan Nama.

Hindi Literature: The well known Hindi poets of Akbar’s time were Abdul Rahim, Bhagwandas, Mansingh, Birbal, Tulasidas and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Tulasidas wrote ‘Ramcharitmanas’. Surdas wrote the famous work ‘Sur Sagar’, Ras Khan who was a muslim devotee of Lord Krishna, wrote ‘Prem Vatika’, Malik Mohammad Jaisy wrote the famous epic called ‘Padmavali’. Sundarof Gwalior composed the work ‘Sundar Sringar’. The great Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Pandit wrote ‘Ganga Lahari’. In Bengali, Marathi, Urdu and Gujarathi also, literature progressed during the Mughal rule. Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were great patrons of literature in their courts.

Art and Architecture: The mughals were great builders and lovers of art and architecture. Their style of architecture was partly foreign and partly indigenous. The important features of the mughal architecture were domes, tall pillars, gateways with domes, arches, minars etc., The mughals built a large variety of secular and religious buildings. Babar built the mosques at Kabulibagh in Panipat and Jami Masjidat Sambal in Rohilkhand. Humayun built mosques at Agra and Fathepur. He built a palace at Delhi called Din-i-Panah.

Sher Shah built his tomb at Sasaram and the Purana Qila at Delhi. Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the Humayun Torpb at Delhi which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai palace and Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikhri. The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the tallest Gateway in India. Agra Red Fort. Jamma-Masjid, white marble tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i- Khas, house of Birbal, and Sonhal Makan are some of the most beautiful architectural pieces at Fathepur Sikhri built by Akbar.

The architecture of mughals reached its highest watermark during the reign of Shahjahan. He got built many buildings at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Kabul, Kashmir, Kandhar, Ajmer and other places. The important buildings of Shahjahan were the Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas. Red Fort and Jamma Masjid in Delhi. Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal in Agra.

Taj Mahal (1632-1653): Taj Mahal at Agra is symbolic of the royal love. Shahjahan built it on the banks of river Yamuna in the memory of his beloved wifeArjumandBanu Begum, who was given the title ‘Mumtaz Mahal’. Taj was construced under the guidance of Ustad – isa -Khan. It took nearly 22 years for the construction to be completed and nearly Rs 3 crores was spent for the purpose. The height of the mahal is 187 ft. It was built of white marble. The Taj is certainly the “finest monument of conjugal love and fidelity”. It is considered as ‘one of the wonders of the modem world”.

Paintings of the Mughal Age: Babur, Akbar and Jahangir were the most important mughal rulers who patronized painting. Babur was a lover of beauty and art. The mughal painting is a mixture of Indian and Persian styles. Indian artists under Akbar, caused the growth of this mughal style. Akbar created a separate department of paintings under the control of Khwaja Abdul Samad. lie gained the title’ Shirim Khaim or Sweet Pen’.

They painted court scenes, historical events and natural scenes. Portraits and miniature paintings were a Mughal speciality. Govardhan, Jagannath, Tarachand, Abdul Sammad, Mir Sayyid Ali, Basawan, Manohar, Bishen Das, Aqa Riza, Abul Hasan, and Ustad Mansur were some of the great artists of this time. Jahangir was an expert judge and critic of paintings.

Music: Mughal Emperors patronized music and musicians. Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the great musicians in the court of Akbar. Babar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were themselves good singers and composed many lyrics.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Akbar.
Answer:
1. Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Del hi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.

(ii) Conquest of Mai wa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and JaunpurefFortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.

(iii) Conquest of Gondwana : In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. ButUdaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were ki lied in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh ss(Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.

(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.

(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Suijenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.

(viii) Conquest of Deccan : Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.

2. Religious policy of Akbar: Akbar was liberal minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.

3. Administration: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.

The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Aii, Mir Bakshi. Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.

4. Mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.

The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.

5. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System): Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganized the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. RajaTodarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators.

Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Palta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regarding the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.

6. Literature, Art and Architecture : Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Alharvaveda andLeelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion.

Some popular Hindi scholars wereTulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were – (1) Abdul Rahim (2) Abul Fazal, (3) Birbal, (4) Faizi (5) Hamid Human (6) Raja Mansingh (7) Shaikh Mubarak (8)Tansen (9)RajaTodarmal.

Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘HufnayunTomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 ft.Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Evaluate the greatness of Akbar / Estimate the personality of Akbar as a Nation builder / flow did Akbar bring about the unification of north India under him?
Answer:
1. Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Del hi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.

(ii) Conquest of Mai wa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and JaunpurefFortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.

(iii) Conquest of Gondwana : In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empine.

(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. ButUdaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were ki lied in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh ss(Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. Me was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.

(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.

(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Suijenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.

(viii) Conquest of Deccan : Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.

2. Religious policy of Akbar: Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.

3. Administration: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.

The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Aii, Mir Bakshi. Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.

4. Mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another.

He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000. The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.

5. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System): Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. RajaTodarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Palta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.

6. Literature, Art and Architecture : Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Alharvaveda andLeelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion. Some popular Hindi scholars wereTulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others.

Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were – (1) Abdul Rahim (2) Abul Fazal, (3) Birbal, (4) Faizi (5) Hamid Human (6) Raja Mansingh (7) Shaikh Mubarak (8)Tansen (9)RajaTodarmal.

Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘HufnayunTomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 ft.Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.

KSEEB Solutions

Rise of Marathas – Shivaji

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom?
Answer:
Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom.

Question 2.
Name the treaty signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh.
Answer:
Treaty of Purandhar in 1665 C.E.

Question 3.
What, was the title of Shivaji?
Answer:
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja.

Question 4.
In which year did the coronation ceremony of Shivaji take place?
Answer:
In June 1674 C.E. atRaigadh.

Question 5.
What is meant by‘Chauth’?
Answer:
The neighbouring areas of Shivaji’s Kingdom which were not under the direct rule of Shivaji
were to give 1/4 of their Land revenue collection to him. This was known as Chauth.

Question 6.
Who was Shivaji’s teacher?
Answer:
Dadaji Kondadeva was the teacher of Shivaji.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
What was the designation of the prime minister of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shivaji’s prime minister was called as Peshwa. ,

Question 8.
What was the name of the council of eight ministers of Shivaji called as?
Answer:
The counci 1 of eight ministers was called as Ashtapradhanas.

Question 9.
In whose service was Shivaji’s father working?
Answer:
Shivaji’s father was in the military services of the Sultan of Bijapur.

Question 10.
Which was the capital of Shivaji?
Answer:
Raigadh was the capital of Shivaji.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Where and when was Shivaji born?
Answer:
Shivaji was bom at the hill Fort of Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E.

Question 2.
Who were the parents of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai were the parents of Shivaji.

Question 3.
Who were the two personalities who inspired Shivaji?
Answer:
Dadaji Kondadeva and Jijabai were the two personalities who inspired Shivaji.

Question 4.
Name some important Forts of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shivaneridurga, Raigadh, Purandhar, Chakana, Kondana etc.,

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Answer:
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.

Question 6.
Where did Shivaji’s coronation take place? When?
Answer:
Shivaji’s coronation took place at Raigadh, in June 1674 C.E.

Question 7.
Who was the Mughal general defeated by Shivaji at Poona? When?
Answer:
Saista Khan, the Mughal general was defeated by Shivaji at Poona in 1663 C.E.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the life and conquests of Shivaji.
Answer:
Introduction: The decline of Mughals led to the rise of independent states in different parts of India. Among them, the Marathas were prominent. The main objective was protecting the Hindu religion and culture. The disunited people of Marathas were welded together and made a great political power opposing the Mughals. Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom. The hilly tracts of the western edge of the Deccan plateau was the home of the Marathas. Geographical conditions had taught them the spirit of hard work, self reliance and independence. Early life of Shivaji: Shivaji was bom at Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E. His parents were Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shahaji was serving under the Sultan of Bijapur, and he had left Shivaji and Jijabai at Poona.

Jijabai showered all her motherly love and affection on Shivaji. He was greatly influenced by his mother. She narrated stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (Hindu epics), which made him courageous. His tutor and guide Dadaji Kondadeva also shaped his personality. He trained Shivaji in the art of administration, state craft and military activities. Shivaji was also influenced by Guru Ramdas andTukaram, By their teachings, he developed love towards his motherland. Shivaji mastered the art of guerilla . warfare and the geographical feature of the western deccan also influenced Shivaji.

Political career of Shivaji: Shivaji captured the Fort of Torana from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1646 C.E. He constructed a new Fort at Raigadh. He gained control over his father’s Jahagir. He occupied the Forts of Baramathi, Indapura, Purandar and Kondana. His fame began to grow on account of these achievements.

Shivaji and Afzal Khan (Bijapur) 1659-1663 C.E: The growing strength and popularity of Shi vaji was a threat to the Sultan of Bijapur. Sultan decided to take action against Shivaji, and sent Afzal Khan against him. Shivaji very tactfully killed Afzal Khan in 1659 C.E. near Pratapagada and looted his camp. In 1661, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and recognised his conquests.

Shivaji and the Mughals (Aurangazeb) (1663 C.E.): Shivaji had occupied many territories belonging to Aurangazeb. To check his expansion, Aurangazeb despatched Shaista Khan. Khan succeeded in occupying a vast maratha territory including Poona. UnFortunately, Khan stayed at Poona in the house where Shivaji had spent his childhood. On the 15th April 1663, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan in his bedroom at midnight. In the confusion, Khan lost his finger and his son Abul Fathe and a few khans from the Deccan. This incident increased the popularity of Shivaji.

Attack on Surat (1664 C.E.): In 1664, Shivaji attacked and plundered Surat. Aurangazeb deputed Raja Jai Singh of Amber against Shivaji. He led an expedition and surrounded Shivaji on all sides and captured many of his Forts like Purandhar, Raigadh etc. Shivaji was defeated and was made to sign the treaty of Purandar on 24th June 1665 C.E. According to the treaty of Purandar, (1) Shivaji surrendered 23 Forts to the Mughals and agreed to pay tribute to Aurangazeb. (2) His son, Sambhaji had to serve the Mughal government as a Mansabdar.

Visit to Agra in 1666 C.E.: Due to the compulsion of Jai Singh, Shivaji visited the Mughal court at Agra in 1666 C.E. But Aurangazab did not show him any respect. Shivaji spoke to Aurangazeb in a bold manner and he was imprisoned. Shivaji, using his usual tact and intelligence, pretended to be ill and started sending baskets of sweets for distribution among the Brahmins and poor people.

When the watchmen were, a little relaxed and not alert, Shivaji took advantage of it and escaped from the prison in a sweet basket and reached his Kingdom in the guise of a sanyasi. This incident compelled Aurangazeb to recognise Shivaji as a King. Shivaji reconquered all the Forts that were surrendered earlier to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar.

Shivaji’s coronation in June 1674 C.E.: Shivaji was crowned as the Maratha King in 1674 C.E. His coronation took place at Raigadh with great pomp and as per vedic rites. He assumed the title ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’. After that, a new and strong Hindu Kingdom came up in Deccan. Shivaji died in April 1680 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Give an account of the administrative system of Shivaji.
Answer:
Administration under Shivaji: Shivaji was not only a conqueror and founder of a Kingdom but also a good administrator. He employed people of all castes and tribes, to maintain a balance. In his administration, he was the sole authority of the government, and he assigned separate responsibilites to ministers and also ensured that no official post turned out to be hereditary. He gave special attention towards administation. He carried on his administration with the help of his ministers called “The Ashtapradhans’. There were 18 departments in Shivaji’s administration.

Shivaji was assisted by Ashtapradhans, the eight ministers. They were:

  1. Peshwa -The Prime minister, who attended to all types of Government activities.
  2. Amatya- Finance Minister.
  3. Mantri – Minister dealing with information, diplomacy, war etc.
  4. Sumant-In charge of foreign affairs of the state.
  5. Sachiva – Home minister who took care of the correspondence of the King.
  6. Pandit Rao – dealt with religious matters and ceremonies (Chief priest)
  7. Senapati or Sar-i-Navbat- Commander in Chief of the Army.
  8. Nyayadhisha – (Chief Justice) who dealt with both civil and criminal Justice.

1. Divisions of the Kingdom: (Provincial Government): Shivaji divided his Kingdom into four Provinces which were called ‘Swarajya’. Each province was controlled by a Viceroy called ‘Sardeshmukh’.EachSwarajyawasdividedintoDeshas whose head waS ‘Deshmukh’. Deshas were further divided into ‘Paraganas’. Desai was the head of aParagana. Village was the last unit of administration. The village administration was looked after by the village assembly (panchayat). Patel was the executive officer of the village. Shivaji abolished the practice of granting Jagirs.

2. Military Administration : Shivaji’s Kingdom was a military state. The army consisted of infantry, cavalary and navy. He maintained a well equipped, disciplined army. Senapathi was the incharge of the army. The foot soldiers were specially trained in guerilla and mountain warfare. The soldiers were paid regular fixed salary. 25 soldiers were placed under a Havaldar, 5 Havaldars were under the control of a Jamladar, 10 Jamladars were under a Hazari, and 5 Hazaris were commanded by a Panjhazari. Shivaji had a fleet, which was stationed at Kolaba. He checked and limited the power of Jinijras the militant tribals. His troops were armed with swords, spears, bows, arrows, daggers, muskets, etc. Hindus and Muslims were recruited in to the maratha army without any discrimination.

3. Judicial System: The King was the highest court of appeal. The civil causes were decided by the village panchayat and criminal cases were decided by Governors. The Judgements of the village court had royal recognition. The King and Nyayadhisha heard over the appeals. Nyayadhisha was responsible for civil and military justices.

4. Revenue System: Shivaji established an excellent revenue system. The assessment was made after a survey and classification of the land according to its fertility and yield. The state demand was fixed at 30% of the total produce. The revenue was to be paid either in cash or kind. In the time of famine, the land revenue was exempted. Landowners were given, a ‘Patta’ and the Jahagir system was abdishod. Regular payment of salary was introduced. Shivaji arranged loans for peasants to encourage cultivation. He levied taxes called ‘Chauth and Sardeshmukhi’.

Assessment: Shivaji occupies an important place in the Indian history. He was brave, adventurous and a bom leader of men. He founded the Maratha Kingdom, and gave to it a very fine rule of administration. He was a good judge of men and tolerant of other religions. He restored Hindu religion and culture. According to K.M. Panicker, “Shivaji was one of the greatest nation builders of the world”.

KSEEB Solutions

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following question :

Question 1.
Estimate the role of Shivaji as a great conqueror and Empire builder.
Answer:
Introduction: The decline of Mughals led to the rise of independent states in different parts of India. Among them, the marathas were prominent. The main objective was protecting the Hindu religion and culture. The disunited people of Marathas were welded together and made a great political power opposing the Mughals. Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom. The hilly tracts of the western edge of the Deccan plateau was the home of the Marathas. Geographical conditions had taught them the spirit of hard work, self-reliance and independence. Early life of Shivaji: Shivaji was born at Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E.

His parents were Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shahaji was serving under the Sultan of Bijapur, and he had left Shivaji and Jijabai at Poona. Jijabai showered all her motherly love and affection on Shivaji. He was greatly influenced by his mother. She narrated stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (Hindu epics), which made him courageous. His tutor and guide Dadaji Kondadeva also shaped his personality.

He trained Shivaji in the art of administration, state craft and military activities. Shivaji was also influenced by Guru Ramdas and Tukaram, By their teachings, he developed love towards his motherland. Shivaji mastered the art of guerilla. warfare and the geographical feature of the western deccan also influenced Shivaji.

Political career of Shivaji: Shivaji captured the Fort of Torana from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1646 C.E. He constructed a new Fort at Raigadh. He gained control over his father’s Jahagir. He occupied the Forts of Baramathi, Indapura, Purandar and Kondana. His fame began to grow on account of these achievements.

Shivaji and Afzal Khan (Bijapur) 1659-1663 C.E: The growing strength and popularity of Shi vaji was a threat to the Sultan of Bijapur. Sultan decided to take action against Shivaji, and sent Afzal Khan against him. Shivaji very tactfully killed Afzal Khan in 1659 C.E. near Pratapagada and looted his camp. In 1661, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and recognised his conquests.

Shivaji and the Mughals (Aurangazeb) (1663 C.E.): Shivaji had occupied many territories belonging to Aurangazeb. To check his expansion, Aurangazeb despatched Shaista Khan. Khan succeeded in occupying a vast maratha territory including Poona. Unfortunately, Khan stayed at Poona in the house where Shivaji had spent his childhood. On the 15th April 1663, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan in his bedroom at midnight. In the confusion, Khan lost his finger and his son Abul Fathe and a few khans from the Deccan. This incident increased the popularity of Shivaji.

Attack on Surat (1664 C.E.): In 1664, Shivaji attacked and plundered Surat. Aurangazeb deputed Raja Jai Singh of Amber against Shivaji. He led an expedition and surrounded Shivaji on all sides and captured many of his Forts like Purandhar, Raigadh etc. Shivaji was defeated and was made to sign the treaty of Purandar on 24th June 1665 C.E. According to the treaty of Purandar, (1) Shivaji surrendered 23 Forts to the Mughals and agreed to pay tribute to Aurangazeb. (2) His son, Sambhaji had to serve the Mughal government as a Mansabdar.

Visit to Agra in 1666 C.E.: Due to the compulsion of Jai Singh, Shivaji visited the Mughal court at Agra in 1666 C.E. But Aurangazab did not show him any respect. Shivaji spoke to Aurangazeb in a bold manner and he was imprisoned. Shivaji, using his usual tact and intelligence, pretended to be ill and started sending baskets of sweets for distribution among the Brahmins and poor people.

When the watchmen were, a little relaxed and not alert, Shivaji took advantage of it and escaped from the prison in a sweet basket and reached his Kingdom in the guise of a sanyasi. This incident compelled Aurangazeb to recognise Shivaji as a King. Shivaji reconquered all the Forts that were surrendered earlier to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar.

Shivaji’s coronation in June 1674 C.E.: Shivaji was crowned as the Maratha King in 1674 C.E. His coronation took place at Raigadh with great pomp and as per vedic rites. He assumed the title ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’. After that, a new and strong Hindu Kingdom came up in Deccan. Shivaji died in April 1680 C.E.

Administration under Shivaji: Shivaji was not only a conqueror and founder of a Kingdom but also a good administrator. He employed people of all castes and tribes, to maintain a balance. In his administration, he was the sole authority of the government, and he assigned separate responsibilities to ministers and also ensured that no official post turned out to be hereditary. He gave special attention towards administration. He carried on his administration with the help of his ministers called “The Ashtapradhans’. There were 18 departments in Shivaji’s administration.

Shivaji was assisted by Ashtapradhans, the eight ministers. They were:

  1. Peshwa -The Prime minister, who attended to all types of Government activities.
  2. Amatya- Finance Minister.
  3. Mantri – Minister dealing with information, diplomacy, war etc.
  4. Sumant-In charge of foreign affairs of the state.
  5. Sachi va – Home minister who took care of the correspondence of the King.
  6. Pandit Rao – dealt with religious matters and ceremonies (Chief priest)
  7. Senapati or Sar-i-Navbat- Commander in Chief of the Army.
  8. Nyayadhisha – (Chief Justice) who dealt with both civil and criminal Justice.

1. Divisions of the Kingdom: (Provincial Government): Shivaji divided his Kingdom into four Provinces which were called ‘Swarajya’. Each province was controlled by a Viceroy called ‘Sardeshmukh’.EachSwarajyawasdividedintoDeshas whose head was ‘Deshmukh’. Deshas were further divided into ‘Paraganas’. Desai was the head of aParagana. Village was the last unit of administration. The village administration was looked after by the village assembly (panchayat). Patel was the executive officer of the village. Shivaji abolished the practice of granting Jagirs.

2. Military Administration : Shivaji’s Kingdom was a military state. The army consisted of infantry, cavalary and navy. He maintained a well equipped, disciplined army. Senapathi was the incharge of the army. The foot soldiers were specially trained in guerilla and mountain warfare. The soldiers were paid regular fixed salary. 25 soldiers were placed under a Havaldar, 5 Havaldars were under the control of a Jamladar, 10 Jamladars were under a Hazari, and 5 v Hazaris were commanded by a Panjhazari. Shivaji had a fleet, which was stationed at Kolaba.

He checked and limited the power of Jinijras the militant tribals. His troops were armed with swords, spears, bows, arrows, daggers, muskets, etc. Hindus and Muslims were recruited in to the maratha army without any discrimination.

3. Judicial System: The King was the highest court of appeal. The civil causes were decided by the village panchayat and criminal cases were decided by Governors. The Judgements of the village court had royal recognition. The King and Nyayadhisha heard over the appeals. Nyayadhisha was responsible for civil and military justices.

4. Revenue System: Shivaji established an excellent revenue system. The assessment was made after a survey and classification of the land according to its fertility and yield. The state demand was fixed at 30% of the total produce. The revenue was to be paid either in cash or kind. In the time of famine, the land revenue was exempted. Landowners were given, a ‘Patta’ and the Jahagir system was abdishod. Regular payment of salary was introduced. Shivaji arranged loans for peasants to encourage cultivation. He levied taxes called ‘Chauth and Sardeshmukhi’.

Assessment: Shivaji occupies an important place in the Indian history. He was brave, adventurous and a bom leader of men. He founded the Maratha Kingdom, and gave to it a very fine rule of administration. He was a good judge of men and tolerant of other religions. He restored Hindu religion and culture. According to K.M. Panicker, “Shivaji was one of the greatest nation builders of the world”.

Vijayanagara Empire

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which was the Capital of the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
First capital was Anegondi, near Hampi. Later Hampi was made the capital.

Question 2.
Who was the first Ruler of Vijayanagara?
Answer:
Ilarihara was the first Ruler of Vijayanagara.

Question 3.
To which dynasty did Krishnadevaraya belong?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya belonged to Tuluva dynasty.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Who was the greatest Ruler of Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya was the greatest Ruler of Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 5.
Who had the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya’?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya assumed the title Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya.

Question 6.
Name the Persian Ambassador who visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
The Persian Ambassador Abdul Razzak visited the court of Devaraya-II.

Question 7.
Who was the author of ‘Madhura Vijayam’?
Answer:
Gangambika wrote Madhura Vijayam (or) Veerakanparaya Charitam.

Question 8.
Which battle led to the downfall of Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Battle of Talikote or Rakkasa-Tangadi in 1565 C.E.

Question 9.
Who was the founder of Bengaluru?
Answer:
Kenpegowda-1 was the founder of Bengaluru in 1537 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Who is called as’Navakoti Narayana’?
Answer:
Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704 C.E.)

Question 11.
What was Shivappa Nayaka’s’Shistu’?
Answer:
Shivappa Nayaka introduced the Land Revenue reforms which are called Shivappa Nayaka’s Shistu.

Question 12.
Who built the Fort of Chitradurga?
Answer:
Madakari Nayaka- V (1754-1779 C.E.) built the Chitradurga Fort.

Question 13.
Name the Lady who defended the Chitradurga fort?
Answer:
Obavva, heroically protected Chitradurga fort from Hyder Ali.

Question 14.
Name the Ruler who started the Mysore Dasara.
Answer:
Raja Wodeyar in 1610 C.E.

Question 15.
On the banks of which river was the city of Vijayanagara founded?
Answer:
On the banks of river Tungabhadra.

Question 16.
Which was the emblem of the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Varaha (pig) was the royal emblem of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 17.
In whose court did the ‘Ashtadiggajas’ flourish?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya patronised the Ashtadiggajas in his court.

Question 18.
Who was called ‘Andhra Kavi Pitamaha’?
Answer:
Allasani Peddanna was called as ‘Andhra Kavi Pitamaha’.

Question 19.
Which was the capital of Vijayanagara after the Battle ofTalikote?
Answer:
Penugonda became the capital of Vijayanagara after the Talikote Battle under the Aravidu dynasty.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the founders of Vijayanagara Empire? When was it founded?
Answer:
HariharaandBukkaraya-14thApril 1336C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Mention the literary works of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Krishandevaraya wrote ‘Amuktamalyada’ in Telugu,Jambavathi Kalyana, Madalasacharithe, Rasamanjari and Ushaparinayam in Sanskrit.

Question 3.
Mention any four titles of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Kannadarajyaramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakandhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharyaetc.,

Question 4.
Who worte’Manucharitamu’and what was his title?
Answer:
Allasani Peddanna-Andhra Kavita Pitamaha.

Question 5.
Mention any four titles of Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.
Answer:
Apratimavecra, Navakoti Narayana, Maharashtrabhupala Jalaripu, Karnataka Chakravarti, Tenkanaraja, Dharma Prabhu etc., were the titles assumed by Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 6.
Which was the first Kannada drama? Who wrote it?
Answer:
The first drama in Kannada was ‘Mitravinda Govinda’ written by Singararaya, the court poet of Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 7.
Who wrote Hadibadeya Dharma and which King encouraged her?
Answer:
Sanchi Honnamma – Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 8.
Who was Shivappa Nayaka and why was he famous?
Answer:
Shivappa Nayaka was a famous Ruler of the Keladi dynasty. He was famous for his Land Revenue settlement system called’Shistu’.

Question 9.
Which were the four dynasties that ruled the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
1) Sangama dynasty 2) Saluva dynasty 3) Tuluva dynasty and 4) Aravidu Dynasty, ruled the Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 10.
Who was the brave Lady who protected the Fort of Chitradurga and how she did it?
Answer:
Obavva was the brave Lady, who protected the Fort of Chitradurga by killing the soldiers of HyderAli.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What were the causes and results of the Battle of Talikote? (or) How was Aliya Ramaraya responsible for the Battle of Talikote.
Answer:
The decisive battle ofTalikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.

Causes for the Battle :

1. Supremacy over the Doab region: The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.

2. Religious difference: The religious and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.

3. Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya: Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances.
The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.

4. Immediate Cause: Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battle field. This was the immediate cause for the battle. Course of the battle: Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi andTangadagi. Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers.

The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers. They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can carry and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Results of the battle :

  1. Vijayanagara Empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
  2. Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
  3. The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northen territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
  4. The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Describe the Art and Architecture of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
Art and Architecture: The Vijayanagara Rulers were great patrons of Art and Architecuture. They used the Dravidian style of Architecture and later added some unique features to it and it came to be called ‘Vijayanagara Style’ of architecture. Hampi was a great centre of Ait and Architecture. Percy brown remarks that “Vijayanagara Art as the supremely passionate flowering of the Dravidian Art”.

The main features of Vijayanagara Art and Architecture:

  1. The Vijayanagara Rulers built high (Huge) towers called ‘Raya Gopuras’ above the gateways of the temples.
  2. The Kalyana Mantapa at the temple stands on a rectangular platform of 5ft height. The roof of the mantapa is supported by stone pillars and it has no walls around it.
  3. The temples consist of Garbhagriha, Sukhanasi, Mahamantapa and Ardhamantapa. An additional Garbhagriha (Sanctum) for the female deity.
  4. The remarkable feature of the Vijayanagara temples is the intricate carving on the pillers. A number of pillers were carved each in a unique style.
  5. The walls of the temples contain sculptures of Folklore, Gods, Goddesses, Elephants, Horses etc.,

The earliest creation of the Vijayanagara Empire is the most beautiful. Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri which clearly marks the transition from Hoysala to Vijayanagara Style. Temples of this period are found chiefly in Tirupathi, Kanchi, Srirangam, Hampi, Lepakshi, Sringeri, Srisailam, Nandi, Madurai, Chidambaram. Tadapatri etc., The monuments of Vijayanagara are scattered throughout South Indi a.

Important temples in Hampi: The best specimens of the Vijayanagara Architecture are found in the city of Hampi. The temples of Virupaksha, Hajara Ramaswamy, Vijaya Vittalaswamy, Krishnaswamy, Achyutaraya, Mahanavami Dibba and the stone Chariot are noteworthy. The walls and pillers of the Ramaswamy temple are decorated with the scenes from Ramayana. The Lotus (Kamala) Mahal is an excellent example of Islamic style of Architecture. The Ganesha and Narasimha images, the elephant stables, the Queen’s Bath, the Watchtower, The Royal Mint and the market place are also in Hampi.

Sculpture: Religion was the main theme for the sculptures of Vijayanagara. Kadalekalu, Sasivekalu Ganesha and Laxmi Narasimha statues at Hampi are notable. Irugappa Dandanayaka at Tiruparuttikunram was the earliest example of this period. The copper Images of Krishnadevaraya and his two Queens,Tirumaladevi and Chinnadevi at Tirumala are in a devotional mode. Astone statue of Krishnadevaraya is found at Chidambaram.

Paintings: Hampi, Anegondi and Lepakshi were centres of Vijayanagara paintings. Virupaksha temple at Hampi has beautiful paintings depicting Girija Kalyana, Madana Vijaya and Tripura Samhara. The Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi has on its ceilings paintings representing stories from Shivapurana and is called the ‘Ajantha of the Saivas’.

Fine Art: Dancing and Music were encouraged during Vijayanagara period. Vadiraja, Vyasathirtha, Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa belonged to this tradition. They composed devotional songs called ‘Keerthans’. Purandaradasa is called the ‘Father of Kamatic Music’. There were a good number of dancing halls at Vijayanagara. Bandham Laxminarayana was a dance master in the court of Krishnadevaraya.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the foreign accounts regarding Vijayanagara
(or)
Write a note on Vijayanagara in the view of foreign travellers.
Answer:
Foreign Accounts: Many visitors and travellers visited Vijayanagara from time to time and they have left their observations in writing vividly and these observations are very good sources for reconstructing history.

1. Nicolo Conti: This Italian traveller visited Vijayanagara (Hampi) during Devaraya-I’s reign in 1421C. E. He says “Vijayanagara is surrounded by mountains. Its circumference is 60 miles. The fort walls have been extended almost right up to the foot of the hillocks and there are nearly 90,000 soldiers. Vijayanagara is the most prosperous and grand city. The King is very powerful”.

2. Abdul Razzak : He was the Persion Ambassador to the court of Devaraya – II in 1443 C. E. He says about Vijayanagara (Hampi) that ‘The world had never seen such a glorious Kingdom. The city is surrounded by seven fortification walls, the King is powerful. People loved roses and they were sold everywhere. Precious stones like rubies, diamonds and jewels were sold in the open market without any fear of risk”. He also explained about the celebration of Mahanavami festival with great splendour.

3. Niketin: He was a Russian traveller, who visited the Bahamani Kingdom in 1470 C.E. He wrote about the army, natural defense of the city and its wealth, the social life and splendour of the King etc., in the neighbouring Vijayanagara Empire.

4. Durate Barbosa : He was a Portuguese traveller who visited the court of Krishnadevaraya in 1514 C.E. He gives information about the trade and commerce of Vijayanagara and the fact that the King used to hold discussions with his ministers in the conference hall.

5. Domingo Paes: He was a Portuguese traveller who visited the court of Krishnadevaraya in 1520 C.E. He wrote about the daily life of the people, the city, about the temples, Emperor, festivals etc.,. He has also referred to Krishnadevaraya’s enormous wealth and about his treasury.

6. Fernao Nuniz: He was a Portugal traveller who reached Vijayanagara in 1535 during the period ofAchyutaraya. His accounts throw light on the political and cultural activities of the Vijayanagara Empire. He says that Vijayanagara was a city with the best basic amenities in the world.

7. Ceasar Fredericci: He was an Italian traveller who visited Vijayanagara in 1567 C.E. According to his accounts, Vijayanagara was a ruined city after the Talikote battle. He also says that the people did not live there and only wild animals were living.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.) Krishnadevaraya of theTuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of TuluvaNarasanayaka and Nagaladevi He came to the throne in 1509 C.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister’Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.

Military achievements of Krishnadevaraya :

1. The war of 1510 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field. Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces upto Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab area.

2. Siege of Unimatturu-1513 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasainudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a new province with its head quarters at Srirangapattana.

3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition -1513-1518 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapalhi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he signed the Fort of Kondavidu and del bated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma. Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathis, King Prataparudradcva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.

4. Battle or Raichur-1520 C. E.: When Krishnadevaraya was busily engage.! in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishnadevaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.

5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga -1523: Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pralishtapanacharya’.

6. Relation with the Portuguese: Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. lie gave permission to the Portuguese to build Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) vis and the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanaga i trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.

7. Peace in Ceylon: There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There wen revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.

8. Extend of his Empirer The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea in the West to the way of Bengal in the East.

Patronage to Literature : Krishnadevaraya was not only a great Ruler but also a agreat scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu, Jambavathi Kalyanam Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Charithe and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eights Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’. He honoured the great scholar vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘AndraKaviPitamaha’. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati. He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakandhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524 C. E., Krishnadevaraya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 2.
Describe the Cultural contributions of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
Administration : Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
Central Administration: Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death etc.,

Kingship was hereditary. The King was assisted by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions. Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasamantadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanayaka (Leader of the council), Mahasandivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.

Provincial Administration: There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were:

1. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
2. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which VMS called the Nayankara system.

The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories. The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu. Village administration: The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.

Revenue System: Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.

Military Administration: Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.

2. Social conditions:
1. Caste System: The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.

2. Position of Woman : Woman enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution child marriage and polygamy existed in that society.

3. Social Harmony: Muslims settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.

3. Economic Condition: .
1. Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, arecanuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric etc., were the main products of agriculture.

2. Irrigation: They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadc varaya near Nagalapura. ADam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.

3. Trade and commerce: Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamonds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut , Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade. There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.

Religion: Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire-during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka -1 refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains. The Vachana Movement was popular during this time.

The Varkari Movement of 1 .ord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabclagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Educatioreand Culture.

Education and Literature: Mathas, Agraharas and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. 1 lampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Ycdiyur, Kunigal etc., were notable centers of education of that time.

Iiterature: The Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. I larihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are:

Sanskrit Works: Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Gum Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanimaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavali Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam etc.,

Kannada Works: Tontada Siddalingeshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharala), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvami – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleeie, Kanakadasa – MohanaTarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Toravc Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.

Telugu : Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. I le patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of’Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

KSEEB Solutions

Bahamani and Adil Shahi Sultans

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Bahamani dynasty?
Answer:
Allaud-din-Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty?
Answer:
Yusuf Adil Khan was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

Question 3.
Who built the Ibrahim Roza?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adi 1 Shah-II built the Roza at Bijapur. .

Question 4.
Who built the Madarasa at Bidar?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan builtthe Madarasa at Bidar.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Which is the biggest Mosque in south India?
Answer:
Jami Masjid at Gulbarga is the biggest Mosque in south India.

Question 6.
Who was called ‘Jagadguru Badshah’?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shah-II was called Jagadguru Badshah.

Question 7.
Who wrote the book ‘Kitab-i-Navaras?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil-Shah-II.

Question 8.
Which city was the first capital of the Bahamani Kingdom?
Answer:
Gulbarga (Kalburgi) was the first capital of Bahamani Sultans.

Question 9.
What was the former name of Allud-din-IIasan Gangu Bahaman Shah?
Answer:
Zafar Khan was the former name of Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah.

Question 10.
Who was Mahmud Gawan?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was the Prime Minister of Mohammad Shah-III.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 11.
Which was the birth place of Mahmud Gawan?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was bom in 1411 C.E., at Gawan in Persia.

Question 12.
Which was the earliest Mosque built by the Bahamani Sultans?
Answer:
Jama Masjid at Gulbarga (Ahsanabad) was the earliest Mosque built by (Mohammad Shah I) the Bahamani Sultans, in 1367 C.E.

Question 13.
Which was the second capital of the Bahamani Kingdom?
Answer:
Bidar was made the second capital of the Bahamani Kingdom, in 1422 C.E.

Question 14.
Whose capital was Bijapur?
Answer:
Bijapur was the capital of the AdilShahis.

Question 15.
Who was the famous Sultan in the Adil Shahi dynasty?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shah-II (1 580-1625 C.E.) was the famous Sultan.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 16.
Who was the architect of Gol Gumbaz?
Answer:
Malik Sandal was the architect of Gol Gumbaz (1626-1650 C.E.).

Question 17.
What is the main point of attraction in Gol Gumbaz?
Answer:
The main attraction of this Gumbaz is its ‘Whispering gallery’.

Question 18.
Which place is called as the ‘Queen of Deccan’?
Answer:
Bijapur is called as the ‘Queen of Deccan’.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Mention the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.
Answer:
Gulbarga and Bidar were the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.

Question 2.
Who was Mahmud Gawan and where did he build the Madarasa?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was the Prime Minister of Mohammad Shah – III. He built the Madarasa at Bidar in 1472 C.E.

Question 3.
Who was Hajarat Kwaja Bande Nawaj and where is his Darga?
Answer:
Hajarat Kwaja Bande Nawaj was the famous sufi saint of Guibarga. His Darga is in Guibarga.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 4.
Where is Gol Gumbaz and who built it?
Answer:
Gol-Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.

Question 5.
Mention the important monuments of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur.
Answer:
Jami Masjid, Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Muhatas Mahal, Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Anand Mahal, Mehtar Mahal, Bara Kaman etc are the important monuments of the Adil Shaihis.

Question 6.
Name two historians from the Adil Shahi period.
Answer:
Mulla Nusrati and Feristha were two famous historians of the Adil Shahi period.

Question 7.
Who founded the Bahamani Kingdom? When?
Answer:
Allaud-din-Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah – on 3rd August 1347 C.E.

Question 8.
Who shifted the Bahamani capital from Gulbarga to Bidar? When?
Answer:
Ahamad Shah -1 shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1422 C.E.

Question 9.
Name the Five Shahi Kingdoms.
Answer:

  1. TheAdil Shahis of Bijapur.
  2. The Nizam Shahis of Ahmad Nagar.
  3. The Imad Shahis of Berar.
  4. The Barid Shahis of Bidar.
  5. The Qutub Shahis of Golkonda.

Question 10.
Which monument is known as the ‘Taj Mahal of Deccan’? Where is it?
Answer:
Ibrahim Roza is known as the ‘Taj Mahal of Deccan’ and it is in Bijapur.

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Question 11.
Who wrote the book Kitab – i- Navaras? What was his title?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shahi – II wrote the book ‘Kitab-i-Navaras. He earned the title ‘Jagadguru’.

Question 12.
What is Saracenic style or Deccan Style?
Answer:
A mixture of hindu and muslim styles of architecture is known as the Saracenic or Deccan style of architecture.

Question 13.
Name the works of Mahmud Gawan.
Answer:
Gawan wrote Manazir – ul – Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan 1463 -1481 B.C.: He was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah- III. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Allauddin Ahmad Shah – II. The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post. Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime minister (Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.

Achievements: As Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom.

  • Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
  • Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled (he Sultan of Malwa beyond Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
  • Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
  • He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • The number of provinces was increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
  • Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
  • Gawan established a Madarasa, a College for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. I fe was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature and medicine. His important works were Manazir – ul- Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.

Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false al legations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C.E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.

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Question 2.
Discuss the progress in literature, art and architecture during the Adil Shahi period
(or)
Describe the contribution of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, in the field of literature, art and architecture
Answer:
Literature: The Adil Shahis of Bijapur encouraged many scholars and poets in their courts. Arabic, Persian, and Deccani Urdu languages and literature developed. Ibrahim Adil Shah-II was an eminent scholar who wrote the ‘Kitab-i-Navaras’. Scholars like Syed Ahmed Harawi, Maulana Ghiyasuddin, Habibullah and Abdullah were famous. Shah Miranji of Bijapur wrote two poems ‘Khush-Nama and Khush-Naqhz’. The Sufi saints brought about unity among the Hindus and Muslims.

MullaNusrati who wrote the historical work called ‘Ali Nama’ and Ferishta who wrote Tarikh – i -Ferishta, a work on Muslim history, were famous historians during the Adil Shahi’s period. Urdu literature benefitted from the writtings  of Abdul Mani, Mian Nusrati, Mirjan Marisa and others.

Art and Architecture: The monuments built by the Adil Shahis are in Indo-Islamic style. This is also called Deccani style. The early monuments of Adil Shahi period were simple and elegant. They built several Palaces, Mosques, Tombs and Gateways. Some of the noteworthy Palaces were Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Mittar Mahal and Asar Mahal.

Ali Adil Sha (1558-1580) built the famous Jami Masjid at Bijapur. It is noted for seven arches, minarets, huge domes and the big prayer hall.

The Ibrahim Roza (1626 C.E.) consists of twin buildings constructed on a raised platform. One of the buildings’is a Mosque and the other is a tomb. It was built by Ibrahim Adi Shah -II. The interior parts of the tomb are profusely decorated, the wall and pillars have been covered by floral and geometric designs. Inside the Roza, a part of the ceiling hangs without any support. The Roza is renowned for its ‘Hanging Roof’. It is called the ‘Taj Mahal of South India’.

Gol Gumbaz (1629-1656 C.E.) at Bijapur is a world-famous monument. Mohammad Adil Shah built it. The huge central dome measures 144 ft in diameter. At the four corners, it hr.:- octagonal towers rising seven stories high The main attraction of this Gumbaz is its ‘Whispering gallery’. Any sound made in this dome, echoes seven times. It is one of the wonders of the world.

Another incomplecte noteworthy monument in Bijapur is Barakaman foundation which was started by Ali Adil Shah – II. It has a raised platform of 20 ft. It consists of eleven big arches. Bade Kaman, Anand Mahal, Taj Bawadi, Chand Bawadi etc are some of the other important monuments.

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Question 3.
Explain the cultural contributions of the Bahamani Sultans.
Answer:
Cultural contributions: Education : Reciting Quran was a part of education. Poor muslim students were granted scholarships. There were separate schools for girls. Mahmud Gawan was a great patron of education. He spent his earnings for the spread of education. He built a Madarasa at Bidar in 1472 C.E. This building consisted of 4 blocks of 3 storeys each. It had a well equipped Library, Lecture halls and accommodation for Professors and students. Philosophy, religion, poetry, science and medicine were the subjects taught. It had free toarding and lodging facilites. Persian, Arabic and Urdu were the mediums of instruction.

Literature: The Bahamas encouraged scholars and writers. So, Persian, Arabic and Dcccani Urdu literatures made considerable progress. Sultan Firoz Shah was well versed in philosophy. He was an expert in natural science, geometry and the Quran. He gave patronage to scholars in his court.

Mahmud Gawan, the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah. – III was a scholar. I le wrote books on religion, literature, medicine and maths. His important works were Riyaz-ul-Insha and Manazir-ul-Insha. They give an account on the polity, poetry and other aspects. Calligraphy was used in writing the quotations of the Quran.

The great Persian scholars were Isami, Mulla Harvi, Hakim Tabriz, Ainuddin Bijapuri and others. The history of the Bahamani rulers was composed in verse by Sheikh Adhari as Bahaman – Name – i – Dhakini. A new dialect called ‘Deccani Urdu’ became popular. The famous sufi saint of Gulbarga, Hazarat Khwaja Bande Nawaz has enriched the Urdu language. The Darga of this saint was built at Gulbarga. The Bahamanis have contributed significantly to the growth of literature.

Art and Architecture: The Bahamani Sultans were generous patrons of art and architecture. In general, they followed the Delhi architecture. The architecture of palaces, forts, mosques, tombs etc., is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim (Indo-Islamic) style known as the Deccani style of architecture. The main features of this style are – 1) Tall Minarets 2) Strong arches 3) Huge domes 4) Spacious Hazaras (Big halls) 5. Crescent moon at the top of the buildings. The influence of persian style is also a predominant feature.

Buildings at Gulbarga: Jami Masjid was the earliest building of the Bahamanis. Some of the other notable structures at Gulbarga are the Fort, the Bande Nawaz tomb, Shah Bazaar Mosque, Hafta Gumbaz (Seven tomb complex) etc., The tomb of Bande Nawaz is a very important tomb of this period. Its walls have decorations with calligraphic designs and they are painted in rich colours.

Buildings at Bidar: The Bahamanis have built many buildings at Bidar. These have foreign influence, as they were constructed by craftsmen from Turkey, Persia and Arabia. Solha Khamba Mosque at Bidar resembles a Roman building with its pillars which are round. There are many multi-storied buildings at Bidar which include Rangeen Mahal Palace, Gagan Mahal, Tarkash Mahal, Chine Mahal, Nagina Mahal, Gawan’s Madarasa etc. At Astur (near Bidar), there are 12 tombs, which are larger than the tombs at Gulbarga. They have bigger domes and many more arches.

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