Students can Download 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 5 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Model Question Paper 5 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
Which act allowed separate electorates to Muslims for the first time during British rule?
The Indian Councils Act of 1909 allowed a separate electorate to Muslims.
Article’370 of the Indian Constitution is related to which state?
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is related to Jammu and Kashmir.
Which organ is considered as permanent executive?
Civil servants are considered as permanent executive.
Where KPSC is situated?
KPSC is situated at Bengaluru.
Name the economist who described “Illiteracy is one of unfreedom”.
The economist Amartya Sen.
Which is the root word of corruption?
It is derived from the Latin word “rumpire” meaning “to break”.
What is “Laissez-faire”?
“Laissez-faire” is the other word for “Liberalisation”.
Which is the strongest organ of the UN?
Security Council is the strongest organ of the UN.
What is meant by Bi-polarity?
Distribution of power, where, two powerful states have a major influence at global level.
What is perestroika?
Perestroika means “restructuring”.
II. Answer any 10 of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
What is “Patel Scheme”?
Sardar Patel took charge of the Indian states Department and V.P. Menon became secretary on 5th July 1947. They dealt with matters arising between central Government and the Indian states. The biggest individual factor in the above spectacular event was the personality of Sardar Patel.
The success of Integration is attributed to his astute statesmanship, intense patriotism and great administrative skill. He handled the Kings of Princely states with patience, tact and sympathy. He was a man of Iron will. The integration of states is his greatest contribution to independent India.
What is meant by Leftist parties? Give an example.
Parties who have belief in revolutionery idiology and want to bring drastic changes in the existing system eg.: CPI.
Who established ‘Bahishkrit Hitaka- rani Sabha’?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar established ‘Bahishkrit Hitakarani Sabha’.
Write a short note on ‘ Saalu marada Thimmakka’.
Achievement of Saalu Marada Thimmakka:
Thimmakka and Bikkalu Chikkaiah, a childless couple of Hulikal village of Magadi Taluk, Ramanagara District, started planting Banyan saplings by the road side between Kudur and Hulikal. They reared, cared and guarded them with their meagre earning with sheer love and affection.
The Government of Karnataka has taken the responsibility of these 248 trees. This great achievement of Saalu Marada Thimmakka is recognised and honoured by awarding Rajyothsava and National Awards. A seminar paper was presented in the UN on her contribution to environment. To create awamess among people, ‘World Environment Day’ is celebrated on 5th June every year.
What is Gender based inequality?
When discrimination is made on the basis of gender denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex, it is called gender based inequality.
Name any two eminent persons who played a key role in the national integration.
Mahatma Gandhiji, VallabhaBhai Patel.
Name any two acts enacted to curb Terrorism.
- Terrorist And Disruptive Activities Prevention t Act(TADA)in 1987.
- Prevention Of Terrorism Act [POTA] in 2001.
Give the meaning of Crony capitalism’.
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer to the business dealings carried out by the Government Officers in a capitalist economy.
Why ‘Amphictyonic League’ was established in ancient Greece?
Amphictyonic League was established in the early 6th century BC with a view to regulate interstate relations to avoid wars and to promote unity among nations.
Name the two pairs of sister cities between India and China.
Delhi and Beijing, Bangalore and Chengdu are the two pairs of sister cities between India and China.
What is Apartheid?
Apartheid is discrimination on the basis of skin color.
Name the two factors which caused close ties between India and Soviet Russia.
Factors for Indo-USSR close ties.
- India and USSR considered the peaceful settlement of disputes between states as most crucial for the future of the human race.
- Both believed in national freedom and social equality as pre-requisite of just world order.
- Support to liberation movements across the world recognized by both countries.
III. Answer any eight of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write the provisions of Indian Independence Act 1947.
1. The Act Provided that on 15th August 1947, the appointed date, two independent dominions, India and Pakistan, would be set up and the Act provided for complete transfer of power.
2. The dominion of India got the territories of Bombay, Madras, UP, Central Provinces, Bihar, Assam, Delhi, Ajmer, Coorg, etc., and the rest of India except Sindh, Baluchistan, West Punjab, East Bengal, northwest Frontier Province and Sylhet in Assam, which became the territories of Pakistan. For demarcating the boundaries, a Boundary Commission was formed with Sir Cyril Radcliffe as the Chairman.
3. The Crown was no longer the source of authority.
4. The Governor-General and provisional Governors were to act as constitutional heads. They lost extra-ordinary powers to legislate.
5. The office of the Secretary of State was abolished.
6. From 15th August 1947, the British Crown lost all rights of Paramountcy over India and the Indian states were free to join either Indian Union or Pakistan.
7. The power in each dominion was transferred to the Constituent Assembly which became fully sovereign from 15th August 1947 and was absolutely free to frame the constitution. The Constituent Assemblies had a dual role i.e. Constituent and Legislative. They functioned as Central Legislature, till the new Legislatures were formed.
8. Until the new Constitution was framed, the Act of 1935 would govern the Centre and the Provinces with necessary modifications.
Write about the integration of Junagadh and Hyderabad provinces with the Indian union.
The Nawab of Junagadh declared accession to Pakistan much against the wishes of the people of the state. They were in favor of joining India. After the declaration of accession, they rose in rebellion against the Nawab. As a result, he fled to Pakistan. A Plebiscite was held in which the people voted to accede to Indian Union. Later Junagadh was merged with Saurashtra.
2. Hyderabad :
Hyderabad, the largest of the Princely States was surrounded by Indian Territory. Its ruler the ‘Nizam’ wanted an independent status. He made a ‘Standstill Agreement’ with India in November 1947 to maintain the status quo which existed before 1947. But the Indian Government felt that an independent Hyderabad would pose security threats.
In the meantime, there was a movement against the oppressive rule of the Nizam. The peasantry and the women joined in large numbers. His paramilitary forces named Razakars, raped, maimed, looted, murdered and targeted the non Muslims. To end this anarchy, the Indian army entered into Hyderabad in September 1948. This police action is known as ‘Operation Polo’. The Nizam surrendered and it was followed by complete accession of Hyderabad into Indian Union.
Explain any five features of Indian Political Party System.
The nature of Indian party system can. be traced back to the Indian National Movement. Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. It was a forum to unite the people of India to fight against British Imperialism. Due to ideological differences, Muslim League was founded in 1906.
Other parties like Hindu Maha Sabha, Communist Party of India, Forward Block and Praja Socialist Party, etc., emerged in the successive years. Later, in the post-independence period, Jan Sangh, Janatha Party, Bharatiya Janatha Party, Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party, according to the needs of the time and they started to work to get power, etc were floated.
1. Extra Constitutional growth :
There is no reference in the Constitution of India about M how many political parties are to exist in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have the freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties are established on the basis of this liberty. Hence, political parties have no constitutional base.
2. Prevalence of Multi-party system :
India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture, and traditions. This heterogeneity leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the mainstream of the country.
3. Spilt and merger :
It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for this split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.
4. End of single-party era:
India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975-1977, forced small parties to unite and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to the single-party era.
5. Dissident activities:
Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favoritism, nepotism leads to dissident activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.
Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and other reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.
7. Leader worship:
Most of the political parties in India emphasize the leaders rather than the ideologies of the parties. The leader decides the destiny of the political party e.g. Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi of Congress, A.B. Vajpayee of BJR Leaders with charisma dominate the whole party.
8. Alliances without principles:
Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of power and make unholy alliances.
9. Dominance of Regional parties:
The presence of regional parties during the first general elections did not influence the voters and they were rejected. During 1980s, they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario, e.g. DMK, ALADMK, Telugu Desam, Shiv Sena, National Conference, AGP, JD(S), RJD, SJP, BJD and other parties playing a significant role during the formation of Governments.
10. Religious, Lingual and Regionalism:
The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like. e.g. Muslim league, Akalidal, Shiv Sena, DMK, AIADMK, Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti (MES) Telangana Rashtriya Samiti (TRS) and others. In spite of the rules of the Election Commission, such political parties exist.
11. Leftist and Rightist Parties:
Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies, e.g. CPI, CPI (M), Forward Block, RPI and Socialist parties who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system form the left front. Parties like Congress, BJP, SP, NCP, BSP, RJD, JD (U), JD (S) and others who believe in moderate changes in the system form the right front.
12. The era of coalition:
When no single political party secures absolute majority like minded political parties come together and join as a single largest group to form a coalition Government. The era of coalition started during 1977 when Janata Party came to power headed by Sri Morarjee Desai as Prime Minister at the center along with other parties. This was followed by National Front, United Front, NDA, UPA, etc.
Write about the organization of State Public Service Commissioner.
The Constitution of India provides for the establishment of a Public Service Commission for each state or two or more states jointly, Accordingly, the Karnataka Public Service Commission was set up consisting of a Chairman and such other members to be determined by the Governor of the state from time to time.
At least half of the Members of the Commission should have Administrative experience with a minimum of 10 years service of the state. The remaining members must be men representing varied interests of the community. At present, there is a Chairman and nine members.
The Chairman and the members of the KPSC are appointed by the Governor, on the recommendations of the State Cabinet.
The Chairman and the members of the KPSC are appointed for a period of six years or till they attain the age of 62 years whichever is earlier. The members of the KPSC are not eligible P for reappointment to hold office in the KPSC after retirement.
The Chairman and other members of the State Commission can be removed under the same circumstances as applicable to the Chairman and members of the UPSC.
- To conduct competitive examinations for the recruitment of candidates to state services.
- To conduct departmental exami- nations for promotions.
- To prepare rules of recruitment, promotion and transfer of civil servants from one service to another.
- To advise the State Government on all matters relating to problems of Civil Services in the state.
- To submit annual reports regarding its working to the state Governor.
Explain any five functions of the Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner. (DC) is the head of U the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate Superintendent of police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare Officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Educational Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
Write a short note on Mandal Commission.
The Union Government appointed one more Commission headed by Sri B.P. Mandal in 1979. It submitted its report in 1980 and came into effect on 7th August 1990. It identified 3743 Castes and Communities as Backward which formed 52% of the total population. Some of the recommendations of the Commission are :
1. The Other Backward Classes (OBC’s) have to be provided 27% reservation in employment. It encompasses the services that come under the jurisdiction of both Central and State governments including technical and professional institutions.
2. If the OBCs are selected in open competition, they should not be brought under 27% reservation and have to be treated as general. This also applies to promotion.
3. In case of backlog, it should be preserved for three years.
4. The maximum age limit should be enhanced for an appointment like that of SCs and STs.
Write the political implications of Human Rights movement.
1. National Human Rights Commission:
The Commission came into existence on 8th January 1994 consisting of a Chairman who is retired or sitting Chief Justice of India along with the members. The Commission has to prepare a list of human rights and get the approval by the government. Whenever a violation is committed, systematic inquiries are to be conducted and transparency should be maintained with the help of judiciary.
The commission has to enact new laws whenever the existing laws do not enact new laws when ever the existing laws do not cater to the needs of the inquiry. While doing so, it has to respect the prevailing international laws, contracts, and resolutions.
2. State Human Rights Commission:
As per the Human Rights act of India, each state is authorized to establish a State Human Commission consisting of a Chairman who is retired or sitting Supreme Court judge or Chief Justice of High Court along with members. As per the direction of the Act, the Commission was set up in Karnataka in 2005 in the same model to that of national level.
3. Child rights:
Violation of Human rights particularly on child rights are seen everywhere. The Deputy Commissioner is authorized to look into the details of exploitation on children. Measures are to be taken to register the complaints through ch i Id helpline in matters related to child labour, child abuse, encouraging begging and others.
4. Creating Awareness:
Speedy disposal of the grievances registered in the commission at the different levels proves that people are definitely aware of the movements and its achievements. Human Rights Movements have gone a long way in providing peaceful and happy life by creating awareness and remedies for the grievances.
“Communalism is the major threat to Indian democracy”. How?
Communalism is an ideology of the followers of one particular religion considers the followers of other religions as inferior. Particular religion is witnessed as a homogenous and distinct group, disrespecting other religions. Communalism as a threat to Indian Democracy.
1. Threat to National Integrity:
Hostility among various religious groups is a serious threat to national unity and integrity in India. Partition of subcontinent on religious differences in 1947 has adversely affected social harmony in India. This is continued among both religious communities and leads to communalism in democratic Government.
2. Threat of Nationalism and Patriotism:
Communalism leads to various forms of religious fundamentalism and orthodox. Religious fundamentalists exploit their community people. breeds bigotry and religious identity. In such a social environment, national and patriotic feelings are marginalized and even forgotten. Therefore, communalism endangers nationalism and patriotism.
3. Impediment to National Development:
Lack of National outlook, secular attitude, and holistic approach sometimes lead to their selfish ends of few religious leaders. Through their provocative speeches and writings create communal disturbances that naturally affect the national development programmes.
4. Weak Political Leadership:
Political parties and leadership have failed to arrest and contain communalism in India. Communal politics emerged by Political parties which influenced by caste and communal considerations of voters and creates opportunities to indecisive and weak political leadership.
5. Threat to National sovereignty:
A Nation which experiences chronic internal conflicts and socio-religious divisions may become a weak country. Gradually it may lead to foreign invasion and threat to sovereignty. “United we stand, divided we fall” is the dictum to be remembered by the people and political leaders of India. Otherwise, our national sovereignty may disappear.
List out the features of a coalition government.
The term coalition is derived from the Latin words ‘Co’ which means together and ‘alescere’ which means to grow up. It is an act of coalescing or uniting into one body or a union of parties. When different political forces join together, coalition is formed. Coalition politics is a system of governance by a group of political parties or by several political parties. A coalition Government means the formation of a Government by a Group or alliance of political parties.
- Coalition is the product of multiparty system.
- It is a democratic arrangement.
- It challenges single-party dominance and in which smaller parties come together to defeat bigger ones in elections and snatch power.
- Coalition may be a pre-poll arrange mentor a post-poll arrangement.
- Alliance partners prefer to have a Common Minimum Programme (CMP) for governance.
- During national emergency or crisis, a national Government is formed through coalition.
- Coalition deteriorates the supreme status of the Prime Minister who heads the Government.
- A person agreeable not only to the big party but also to the alliance partners becomes the leader of the house and naturally heads the Government.
- Coalition partners are always free to cease their relations and fight on one’s own identity.
- Around 70 coalitions have been formed in our country since 1937, and it is said that coalitions are politically unstable.
What are the causes of the rise of identity politics?
Identity politics is defined by one’s own identity based on race, ethnicity, gender, language religion. It is the politics of recognition and a movement to claim recognition. A person may have multiple identities but he perceives only a single identity at a time. Movements of lesbians, black civil rights, wave of feminists, etc., have brought legitimacy to identity politics.
Causes for the rise of identity politics are as follows:
- Maladministration leads to the poor economic growth of a particular region or geographical backwardness of the people of a particular ethnic identity.
- The rise of regional parties has created the local awareness of language or region.
- Extreme poverty, exploitation, lack of opportunity and threat to existing group privileges to the ethnic groups.
- Ethnic groups’ fear of assimilation resulting in cultural dilution.
- Rise in standard of living, literacy and aspiration, socio-political awareness have led to identity politics.
- Lack of share in natural resources, fear of loss of land, political power and economic growth.
- Fear of losing scope in educational employment fields.Fear of losing ethnic identities like language and culture.
Discuss about the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan.
In India’s perspective Kashmir is an integral part of the Republic of India and to Pakistan. It is a disputed territory. The argument of Pakistan on Kashmi5r is that, since the partition of the country was done on religious basis and majority of population are Muslims, Kashmir should be part- of Pakistan. This argument failed to recognise the following facts:
- Partition was done of the British Indian provinces and not of the Indian princely states. Jammu and Kashmir was a princely state even though the population was largely M us- lim (77%).
- National Conference was the only major political party in Kashmir, which was-atfiIiated to Congress, it was opposed to Pakistan and had faith in secular politics.
- The Indian princely states had the freedom to join either India or Pakistan.
- India a secular state consisted of multi-reli-gious population.
So the Kashmiris formally decided to join India after the invasion of its territory by Pakistani tribal’s supported by the members of Pakistan Army.
In October 1947, Kashmir was invaded by tribal infiltrators of Pakistan. This forced the Maharaja to seek Indian military help. India reacted positively after ‘Instrument of Accession’ was signed on 26,th October 1947. To resolve the crisis, the Constituent Assembly of India made a special provision through Art. 370, to provide a separate constitution to the state along with other provisions.
In 1951, the Constituent Assembly met in the state to frame a Constitution. In February 1954, the accession of the state to India was ratified by the constitution, legalising it. In November 1956. it adopted a constitution legalising the status of as a unit of the Indian Union.
Write a note on the doctrine of‘Panchasheel’.
Panchsheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhow-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual noninterference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other countries, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as Sino-Indian honeymoon.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 x 10 = 20)
Explain the functions of Election Commission of India.
Democratic system in India provides for impartial, free and fair elections. The framers of Indian constitution clearly made provisions for an independent, statutory body called Election Commission to conduct elections in India. Article – 324 to 329 in part deals with the composition, powers, and functions of the Election Commission. The Election Commission conducts elections to the office of the President, Vice President Union Parliament, Legislature of State, Union territories and Local bodies.
1. Composition of Election commission:
Article 324 provides for the office of the Election Commission of India. It consists of the Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners. Till 1993, it was a single-member body but later on, it became a three-member body during the Prime Ministership of Sri P.V. Narasimha Rao.
2. Appointment and Removal:
According to Art. 342 (2), Chief Election Commissioner and other ‘ Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India on the advice of Union Cabinet. The term of office is 6 years or till they reach the age of 65 years. Article 324 (6) makes provisions for the salaries, allowances and other privileges to the Chief Election Commissioners, Election Commissioners, and the Personnel. The Parliament determines their salaries from time to time.
According to Article 324(5) the Chief ‘Election Commissioner and other Election. Commissioners can be removed from their office in the same manner as the Judges of Supreme Court, on the grounds of misbehavior and incapacity to discharge their constitutional obligations.
Power and functions:
According to Article 324,
1. the Election Commission does the following.
- Prepares electoral roll and its periodical revision.
- Holds elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and offices of President and Vice President.
- After the announcement of elections, it decides the time table.
- It conducts by-elections to vacant seats.
- It grants recognition to political parties as National and State parties.
According to Election Emblem Act 2000
For National party:
1. 6% of valid votes in 4 or more States in LokSabha or VidhanaSabha election and 4 LokSabha seats in any State or States or
2. Minimum 2% of Lok Sabha seats in 3 States.
For State party:
- 6% of valid votes in Lok Sabha or VidhanaSabha elections from the State and two VidhanaSabha seats, or
- 3% seats of total Vidhana Sabha seats in the States or success at least in three constituencies.
- It scrutinizes the nomination papers.
- It allots symbols to political parties and independent candidates.
- It appoints officers and other staff members to conduct election and make necessary arrangements.
- It can order for re-poll in any constituency or any polling booth.
- It can withhold the election results on valid grounds.
- The President or the Governor acts on the advice of the Election Commission at the time of disqualification of members of the house.
- It enforces the code of conduct for the candidates and political parties i.e. the election expenses and submission of accounts after election, environmental protection against noise pollution etc., during elections.
- As per the Representation of People’s Act (RPA) of 1950 and 1951, Election Commission of India conducts the process of election.
Explain the essentials of Nation building.
The process of Nation-building started with the attainment of independence. The leaders of. modem India initiated the process in the right direction as they worked out the details in an orderly and systematic way. However, during implementation, they had to face numerous problems associated with national reconstruction resulting in a slow process.
The process of nation-building is an offshoot of the concept of nation-states. The idea of nation-states emerged after the signing of the treaty of West Phalia (1648) by Western Countries. The people of the common religious and traditional backgrounds living in a definite territory with like-mindedness and ‘we’ feeling form the nation. Common language, culture, and history aspirations help common people to form nationality.
1. Components to community support:
To realise the process of nation-building, collective support and endeavor of the people are essential. The quality of the people reflects the quality of a nation. Disciplined work culture and patriotic feelings also contribute to nation-building. In a democracy, people are the kingmakers. Hence, they are expected to elect competent and honest representatives. They formulate a sound public opinion on important national issues. As J.S. Mill said ‘Eternal vigilance is the price of democracy’.
2. Good Governance:
Good governance ensures accountability, transparency, efficiency, responsibility, and responsiveness. In addition, the use of technology has given rise to e-Governance. India is one of the leading countries in the world in the adoption of the system of e-governance.
3. Committed Leadership:
History depicts many examples of committed leadership. Eg.: US President F. D. Roosevelt solved the crisis of Economic depression by adopting the New Deal Policy and US became a superpower at global level after the II World War.
In India Nehru’s leadership largely contributed to the process of nation-building. He formulated goals for nation-building and introduced the planning system, adopted industrialization policy and socialistic pattern of society. He had vision and farsightedness for the transformation of India. Hence Nehru is called the Architect of Modem India.
4. Political culture:
Political Culture constitutes a set of values, attitudes, and behavior towards a political system. It requires an ideal political behavior for national reconstruction. Leaders have to embody the principles of national interest, public service, probity, and statesmanship.
5. Power Sharing:
To realize the goal, political power needs to be shared among all sections of society. The concentration of political power in the hands of a few people and some families leads to the emergence of authoritarianism and dictatorship.
As H.J. Laski rightly puts it “ A decision which affects all must be decided by all” To attain this reservation is provided to the SCs and STs and women at different levels of Government. It ensures social justice which is the foundation of socio-economic democracy.
6. Universal Education:
For the development of national universal education is of paramount importance. It enables the person to understand his potentiality and strengthens dignity. As Gandhi said, “Education is the light of life”. It encourages people to develop the spirit of inquiry the ability to analyze the national problems and to work for national progress.
Education also equips the people to shun fanaticism, parochialism, communalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The Right To Education Act 2009 implemented in 2010 is a step in this direction.
7. National Character:
Nationalism and patriotism are the foundations to build a national character. Each country has its distinct national character which denotes one’s nativity-as the conservatism of UK, ‘Land of Liberty’ of US, Ethnicity of Africa, Aboriginal of Australia, cultural diversity of India.
Love and respect for one’s country and national symbols such as national flag, national anthem, and national monuments are the prerequisites. One has to acquire knowledge about the history of his motherland and its contributions to human civilizations. Realizing the significance of national character, the makers of the Indian constitution have asserted the supremacy of popular sovereignty in the preamble reading with the expression.” We the people of India”.
8. Mass Media:
Mass Media is regarded as the Fourth Estate in democracy as it plays a vital role in nation-building. It highlights the omissions and commissions of the government and acts as a bridge between the government and the public. It is an effective instrument of political socialization. modernization and development. In India, the ‘Freedom of Expression’ is a fundamental right under Art. 19 of the Constitution.
9. Responsible Intelligentsia:
The contribution of intellectuals is recognized all over the world. Research and innovations in important areas of human life have contributed to national development.
In India the development in the field of social sciences, M.N. Srinivas, Amartya Sen, S.Shettar, Gail Omvedt, Kancha, Ilaya, Vandana Shiva, S.N. Balagangadhara, AshishNandy, Rajiv Malhotra and others. In Science and Technology Sir M. Vishveshwaraiah, Sir C.V. Raman, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Dr. M.G.K. Menon, Dr. CNR Rao. Dr. U.R. Rao, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, and others have greatly contributed for India’s present position at global level.
10. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally, psychologically and politically, Sardar Vallabha Bai Patel, Vinoba Bhave, Lai Bahadhur Shastri, J.B. Kriplani, Acharya Narendra Dev played a key role in the national integration. November 19th is being observed as National integration day, the birthday of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
Discuss the importance and political implications of Globalisation.
Globalisation is the process of intergrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestation of Globalisation has been the increasing economic integration among the countries in trade and investment.
An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie., international trade, international investment, and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries.
The Economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts at the beginning of the 1990s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatization and global- isation(LPG) model.
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.
In brief, the salient points of Globalisation are:
- Transfer of technology
- Concept of a global village
- Mobility of labour force
- Global competition resulting in better performance
- Outsourcing and
- Optimum utilization of human resources.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows.
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation brought lots of changes in the world economy. For small countries it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the soverignty of a country in totality.
2. Affects Sovereignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by decisions of strong countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country totally.
3. Cultural Invasion:
Culture is a complex whole and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of Lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behavior, mutual relationships, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture in a phased manner. The worst-hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.
6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a standstill.
Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.
Explain the basic concepts of International Relations.
The core concepts of International Relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
1. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity, and honour. For instance, India under British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its state hood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
2. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision-makers.
3. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany, and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two superpowers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower. With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
5. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of power politics.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write the main points of Nepalese ‘Magna Carta’.
Nepal witnessed a popular movement in 2006. The movement was aimed at restoring democracy. At the same time, the King reinstated the old Nepal House of Representatives, with an assurance of permanent peace and multi party democracy. The King called upon the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) to bear the responsibility of taking the nation on the path of national unity and prosperity.
The popular Government assumed office on 18th May 2006 and withdrew all the privileges given to the King unanimously. The bill included.
- Imposing tax on the royal family and its assets.
- Ending the Raj Parishad, a Royal Advisory council.
- Eliminating Royal references from army and Government titles.
- Declaring Nepal a secular country and not the Hindu Kingdom.
- Scrapping the National Anthem until a new one is composed.
- Eliminating the King’s position as the supreme commander of the army.
This is popularly known as ‘Nepalese Magna Carta’. Nepal became a Federal Democratic Republic with a President, a Prime Minister and a Council of Ministers in office to run the Government.
Mention the main provisions of State Reorganisation Act of 1956.
States Re-organisation Act – 1956 The states reorganisation committee was constituted in December 1953 with Justice Fazl Ali, K.M. Panikkar and Hridayanath Kunzru as members, to examine the issue and recommend the principles for reorganisation keeping in view the objectivity and indiscrimination. The commission reported in 1955. The recommendations were discussed and debated and finally, the state reorganisation act was passed in November 1956.
The objective of this Act explains “The states of India, as they exist today have been formed largely as a result of historical accidents and circumstances and hence there was a demand for the reorganization of the component units of the Indian Union on a more rational basis, after taking into account, not only the growing importance of regional languages but also financial and administrative considerations.” The main features of the Act are:
1. Abolishing the distinction between parts A, B, C, and D states.
2. Establishment of two categories of units
- Union territories.
3. The abolition of Rajpramukhs.
4. The Act provided for the creation of 14 states and 6 Union Territories.
After 1956, the acceptance of the Principle of linguistic states did not mean that all states immediately became linguistic. There was ‘bilingual’ Bombay state consisting of Gujarati and Marathi speaking people. After a popular agitation, the separate states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were created in 1960.
In Punjab also, there were two linguistic groups Hindi speaking and Punjabi speaking. The Punjabi speaking people demanded a separate state. The Sikh communalists led by AkaliDal and Hindu communalists, led by Bharatiya Jan Sangh used the linguistic issue to promote communal politics.
The SRC had also refused to accept the demand on the ground that it would not solve the language or communal problem of Punjab. After several powerful movements finally in 1966, Punjab was divided into Punjab and Haryana.
Yet, it is not the end of reorganization of states. Language alone did not remain the sole basis of reorganisation of states. Regional culture and complaints of regional imbalance have led to the demands of smaller states. Vidarbha in Maharashtra, Harith Pradesh in Uttar Pradesh and Gorkhaland in West Bengal are demanding statehood. The bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and Seemandhra is declared and divided also in 2013.
Earlier, it was felt that linguistic states may foster separation and thus weaken national unity. But, linguistic state reorganisation has removed some major sources of grievances, which could have led to divisive tendencies. It has only strengthened National unity.
At present, there are 29 States and 7 Union territories in India.
For list of states
|10.||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Sr. No.||Union Territories|
|1.||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|3.||Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|4.||Daman and Diu|
Discuss the role of India in the establishment of SAARC.
During the 1960’s and 70s the tendency towards regional arrangements became much more prominent despite many hurdles. The emergence of Bangladesh and the Simla Agreement of 1972, became the turning points towards regional cooperation. President Zia-ur-Rahaman discussed the issue of regional co-operation with the new Indian Prime Minister, Moraji Desai.
He had also informally discussed the idea of regional co-operation with the leaders of South Asian countries during the regional and international meetings. Several factors seem to have influenced President Zia-Ur-Rahaman regarding the establishment of a regional organisation in South Asia during 1975-1979.
For Zia-Ur-Rahaman’s successful contribution in the process of Regional Organisations in South Asia, he is called as the founding father of SAARC. Between 1980 and 1983, four meetings at the Foreign Secretary level took place to establish the principles of organisation and identify areas for co-operation. Several Foreign Ministers level meetings were held between 1983 and 1985.
The first meeting of Foreign Ministers in New Delhi was held on the 1st and 2nd of August 1983. In her inaugural address, the then Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi described South Asia as a troubled region and said “I am glad we are making a beginning, we have our political differences, but economic co-operation will give a strong impetus to closer friendship and greater stability in South Asia.
With unity, we can hope to move ahead for future freedom, peace, and prosperity.” She also warned that we should be ever vigilant against the attempts of external powers influencing our functioning. SAARC marks the establishment of an Association to promote and develop co-operation. Finally, the first Summit meeting of the Heads of States or Governments of South Asian countries was held at Dhaka on the 7th and 8thof December 1985.
Its members are 8 countries of South Asia, namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Ip 2010, Afghanistan became the 8th member of SAARC. Six observers of SAARC are China, Japan, European Union, Republic of Korea, United States and Iran.
Write the features of Civil Services.
Features of Civil Services:-
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil Service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervise their subordinates. The authority runs from above and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to. the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favor, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties until they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If they cross the limit, they are met with disciplinary actions.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.