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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2015
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
When was the Indian National Congress formed?
When was the interim Government formed in India?
September – 2nd 1946.
Expand – EPIC.
Elector’s Photo Identity Card.
Give an example of All India Services.
I.A.S., I.P.S and I.F.S.
Who started the newspaper ‘Mooka Nayaka’?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
What is caste based inequality?
Discriminating people on the grounds of caste is called as caste based inequality.
When did liberalisation start in India?
Which is the root word of ‘coalition’?
The term coalition is derived from the Latin word 18, ‘Coalitio’ which is the combination of ‘Co’ meaning together and ‘Alescere’ – meaning to grow up.
How many members are there in the SAARC?
There are 8 member countries in SAARC.
When did South Africa become a member of BRICS?
On 24th December 2010.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many states was Bombay divided into? Which are they?
Two. Maharashtra and Gujarat.
What is a multi-party system? Give an example.
Presence of more than two political parties in a democratic country, e.g. India.
What is Direct Election? Give an example.
Voters directly elect their representatives through secret ballot papers, e.g. Lok Sabha Elections.
Name any two National Political Parties in India.
Congress, BJP, CPI, CPI(M), BSP, JDS.
State any two functions of Chief Secretary.
The Chief Secretary performs the following functions.
- He is the principal adviser to the Chief Minister.
- He acts as the Cabinet Secretary and attends the Cabinet Meetings.
When was the Hindu-Widows Home established and where?
In 1899, the Hindu Widows Home was established at Poona.
Mention any two peasant movement leaders of Karnataka.
Prof. M. D. Nanjunda Swamy, N. D. Sundaresh, A.Somalingaiah are the leaders of Karnataka Raitha Sangha Movement.
What is communalism?
Communalism is an ideology of the followers of one particular religion considering the followers of other religions as inferior to them. A particular religion is assumed as a homogenous and distinct group, disrespecting other religions.
What is coalition government?
According to F.A.Ogg “Coalition is a system where members of multiple political parties unite to form a government or Ministry”.
Mention any two matters of concurrent list.
It comprises Marriage and Divorce, Civil procedures and criminal laws. Preventive Detention etc.
Mention any two organs of the UN.
- General Assembly.
- Security Council.
Who have signed the Tashkent agreement?
Lai Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan in 1966.
III. Answer any 8 of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write a short note on the Indian Government Act, 1935.
The reforms of 1919, failed to fulfill the aspirations of the people of India. The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi started agitation for ‘Swaraj’ to be attained through ‘Non-co-operation’.
As per the Government of India Act 1919, a statutory commission was to be appointed at the expiration of ten years after the passing of the Act for the purpose of inquiring into the working of the system and the development of representative institutions in India.
The British Government appointed a Statutory Commission (Simon Commission) in 1927, to enquire into the report of 1919 Act. This was done as a concession to the Indian demand for an early revision of the Act. The commission headed by Sir John Simon consisted of 7 members from the British Parliament. It did not have a single Indian as a member.
It was taken as an insult to the self-respect of India and hence was boycotted. Amidst protests of, “Simon, go back”, the commission visited India. It announced in 1929, that ‘Dominion status’ was the goal of Indian developments.
Gandhi lead the 1st Round Table Conference held in 1930. Dr. Ambedkar lead the 2nd in 1931 and again the 3rd Round table Conference in 1932. The outcome of these conferences was announced in the form of ‘white paper’. It provided for:
- Educational facilities and reservation in politics for depressed classes.
- Universal Adult Franchise.
- Prohibition of social boycott.
- Communal representation.
- Separate electorate for the untouchables.
Simon commission brought the report of the resolutions of the conferences, but Gandhi opposed the separate electorate for untouchables and decided to fast unto death. Congress leaders met Gandhi in his regard, and he was convinced. The resolution was modified by providing reservations for depressed classes instead of separate electorate for the untouchables. This was popularly known as ‘Poona pact’ signed by Gandhi and Ambedkar.
A White paper was prepared on the results of these conferences. It was examined by the Joint select committee of the British Parliament and in accordance with its recommendations, the Government of India Act 1935 was passed. The act contained 321 Articles and 13 schedules. The important provisions of the Act are:
The Act provided for the establishment of ‘Federation of India’. It consisted of provinces of British India and the Princely states as units. For the first time, an attempt was made to establish a Federal Government.
2. Distribution of power:
It divided legislative powers between the Central and Provincial legislatures. There was a threefold division.
a. Federal list:
It consisted of 59 subjects like external affairs, currency, defense, etc., over which the federal legislature had legislative power.
b. Provincial list:
It consisted of 54 subjects like police, education, etc., over which provincial legislatures had jurisdiction.
c. Concurrent list:
This consisted of 36 subjects like criminal law, civil procedures, marriage, and divorce, etc., over which both the federal and provincial legislatures had competence.
d. The Residuary powers were vested with the Governor General.
3. Diarchy at the centre:
The Diarchy which was established in the provinces by the Act of 1919 was now adopted at the centre. The executive authority vested with the Governor General included the following:
a. The administration of reserved subjects like defence, external affairs, etc. was done by Governor General with the help of ‘Councilors’, who were appointed by him and not responsible to the legislature.
b. In the matters of transferred subjects, Governor General acted, on the advice of ‘Council of Ministers’, who were responsible to the legislature.
4. The Federal Legislatures:
The central legislature was bi-cameral consisting of Federal Assembly and the Council of States.
a. The Council of States consisted of 260 members, of which 156 (60%) were elected from British India and 104 (40%) were nominated by the Princely States.
b. Federal Assembly consisted of 375 members, of which 250 (67%) were elected by the legislative Assemblies and 125 (33%) nominated by the Rulers of the Princely States.
The Council was to be a permanent body. 1/ 3rd of its members were to retire after 3 years. The term of House of Assembly was 5 years. Indirect method of election was prevalent for the House of Assembly. There were Bi-cameral legislatures in Bengal, Bombay, Bihar and Madras and rest of the provinces had Unicameral legislatures.
5. Federal Court:
It provided for the first time, the establishment of Federal Court of India in Delhi. It was established in 1937 and consisted of a Chief Justice and 6 additional Judges appointed by his Majesty’s Government on the basis of high legal qualifications.
- It had original jurisdiction to decide disputes between the Centre and the Provinces.
- Appellate Jurisdiction over decisions of the High courts.
- Advisory Jurisdiction to advice the Governor General on any point of Law.
It was the highest court in India. The Federal court functioned in India for about 12 years, till its transformation into Supreme Court of India in 1950, under the present constitution. The credit for its excellent works goes to Sir Maurice Gwyer, who guided the court in its formative years as its first Chief Justice.
6. Provincial Autonomy:
By this act, the provinces no longer remained as delegates of Central Government but became autonomous units of administration. The act introduced Provincial Autonomy. It was introduced in 11 provinces viz, Madras, Bombay, Bengal, the United Provinces, Punjab, Bihar, Central Provinces, Assam, the North Western Frontier Province, Orissa, and Sind.
The provinces were administered by the ministers. The differences between the reserved and transferred subjects were dropped. All subjects were placed under the charge of ministers who were made responsible and removable by the Legislative Assembly. Thus, the executive was responsible to legislature. The legislative relations between the Central Government and the Provinces were regulated according to three lists of subjects provided under this Act.
a. However, ‘Dominion status’ which was promised by the Simon Commission in 1929 was not conferred by this Act.
b. The intention to establish Federation of India did not materalize because opposition for the merger from the rulers of Princely states.
c. The degree of provincial autonomy introduced at the provincial level was limited as Central Government retained important powers and control. The Governor was given pivotal position, with discretionary powers on important matters. He was not bound by the advice of ministers. Thus, the claim of conferring provincial autonomy was very limited.
Give reasons for language as a basis for State re-organisation.
Language as a basis for re-organisation is important because of the following reasons.
- Language is closely related to culture and customs of people.
- Spread of education and literacy can occur only through medium of mother tongue.
- To a common man, democracy can be real only when politics and administration are conducted, in his language.
- Linguistic states can provide education, administration and judicial activity in their mother tongue. Therefore, it was assumed that free India would base its boundaries on linguistic principles.
Discuss the features of Civil Services.
Features of Civil Services:
1. Professional body:
As Herman Finer puts it, Civil service is a professional body of officials who are, permanent, paid and skilled. It is a whole time job and career service.
As per the scaler system, each civil servant has to obey his immediate superior, where higher ranking administrative officers with discretionary powers supervises their subordinates. The authority runs from above, and helps to make administration stable.
3. Political Neutrality:
Civil Servants refrain always from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Civil servants work behind the screen and remain anonymous even though they work for the Government. Recognition for good work or censure for any omission goes only to the concerned minister and not to the civil servants.
The Civil Servants have to apply the laws of the state while performing the duties without showing any favour, bias or preference to any groups or sections of the society.
6. Service motto:
They have to work for the welfare of the society. They must be humble and service minded towards the public and not authoritative.
Civil Servants are called permanent executives. They discharge duties till they attain the age of superannuation. Both at the central and in Karnataka State Services, the age of retirement is sixty years. Even though disciplinary action is taken as per rules, there is security of service.
8. Jurisdiction of Law:
Every Civil Servant has to function within the prescribed jurisdiction of law. If he crosses the limit, he is met with disciplinary action.
9. Special Training:
Once the candidates are selected for top civil services, they are deputed to in-service training to acquire special skills in administration, like the Lai Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration located in Mussoorie for the training of the newly appointed IAS officers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Academy located in Hyderabad trains the newly appointed IPS officers.
Explain any five functions of a Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner. (DC) is the head of the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate, Superintendent of police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction, District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Education, Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
What are the causes for feminist movement?
The causes for Feminist Movement are as follows.
It is evident that Indian society is male dominated and preference is given to the male members. Though men and women are born equally and the Consitution also upholds the equality between the two, women are deprived of education, employment, decision making, and property rights. This has led to agitations.
2. The evils of dowry:
The evils of dowry have forced parents to become debtors, the girls to brothels and uneven ratio through female foeticide and infanticide. As a result of this uneven ratio of men and women in the society, rape and other heinous crimes are on the rise.
3. Denial of human rights:
The attrocities on women have denied them human rights and other rights like right to life, liberty, freedom of expression and others. Their existence and survival depends upon the mercy of the male members. Decision making is the birth right of men in matters of education, marriage, property rights and family issues.
4. Social strata based on gender:
Men have not spared any of the fields including cultural, social, religious, political and exercise their monopoly and continue their attrocities on women. Women are treated as slaves and bonded labourers. This has made the women to organize themselves and start an agitation.
5. Sexual abuse and molestation:
Irrespective of the age, time and place, the above heinous crimes are taking place. To regain the right to decide about children or to get aborted without the interference of husband or politicians through governmental policies, women are uniting together and fighting for justice.
6. Domestic violence:
Women shoulder the entire household responsibilites like raring and caring of children, domestic work and the related tasks. The cohabitants of the family become the victims of domestic violence because of irresponsible, illiterate and drunkard husbands who lack discreation. This may take the form of physical, mental, sexual harassment and finally it may take women’s life as toll. To avoid such violence, women organisations are established.
Explain the causes of corruption.
Corruption is as old as human history. It has existed in human society in one form or the other. Kautilya said that “As it is impossible not to taste the honey that one finds at the tip of the tongue, it is also impossible for a government official not to eat up at least a bit of King’s revenue”. He identified about 40 forms of corruption. This legacy has continued unabated after India’s Independence. Corruption is plaguing the Indian society and polity.
Thomas Hobbes viewed man as selfish, acquisitive, aggressive and greedy. This encourages him to amass wealth whenever he gets an opportunity. Therefore people fight and compete for power and position. They make hay while the sun shines. In the land of Harishchandra, Buddha, Gandhi and Jayaprakash Narain, it is unfortunate that most of the politicians and bureaucrats have indulged in corrupt activities.
For them, end justifies the means. Nepotism, favouritism and cronyism are pervasive phenomena in India’s Public Administration. Conduct rules adopted for all India Services and Railway Services have not deterred the officials from corrupt practices.
“Service to the people is Service to God” has been ignored by the people in power. They work for their benefit but not for the society though service is their motto.
3. Corrupt politicans:
Though the election system is flawless, the process of implementation is corrupted. Votes are being purchased and voters are driven to polling booths in order to get votes in their favour.
4. Lack of Morality:
Parents and elders at home, teachers in class rooms have to impart moral education. Because it is said that destiny of the country is shaped in class rooms. In case it is not done, it leads to deterioration of values which finally leads to corruption.
Describe the causes of gender based inequality.
Discriminations made on the basis of men and women, denying equal opportunities to the fairer sex are called gender based inequalities. It is the result of gender bias favouring males throughout the ages. The prevalence of gender based inequality in family, economic, cultural, educational and political fields are seen.
a. Manu Smriti:
Earlier the Hindu society followed ‘Manu Smriti’ which asserted that women should always be under the guardianship of men at different stages of her life. He wanted her to be within the four walls, restricting her from the happenings of the society.
b. Male domination:
The society is based on physical strength of man where he dominates the female. He does not want that female should take over his responsibility and authority at home as well as in the society.
c. Denial of education:
Male domination is reflected in the field of education too. Denying education for girls for many centuries, has made them incapable in many fields. Men occupied major jobs and secured well and dominating positions in the entire society.
d. Dowry system:
The practice of dowry system contributes for inequality of gender. Boys are treated as assets and girls as burden. The attitude also intensifies the discrimination between men and women.
e. Inadequate representation:
Women constitute almost 50% of the total population. But they are inadequately represented in the field of politics and economics. Even though women are as capable as men, they are not allowed in these fields. Women have little or no opportunities in participating in public life.
What are the merits of Coalition government?
Coalition is an act of coalescing or uniting into one body or a union of parties. When different political forces join together, coalition is formed. Coalition politics is a system of governance of a group of political parties or by several political parties.
Merits of coalition are as follows:
1. It provides broader representation to the people as big and small parties join hands in the governance. It also enables them to have a share in policy making and eliminates regional disparities.
2. It provides an opportunity for the creation of consensus based politics which represents the public opinion in national politics, issues and programmes. As M.A. Jinnah said ‘a coalition is a device to provide a fair share to the minority
3. Coalition takes care of diversity and plurality in administration.
4. By feeling the pulse of people, it provides good governance.
5. The presence of various political parties provides broader choice for the people to elect.
6. Coalition does not allow the autocratic rule of a single dominant party. Ministers or members of Cabinet including Prime Minister cannot behave autocratically.
Describe the political implications of Privatisation.
The political implications of Privatisation are as follows:
1. Concentration of Wealth:
Privatisation encourages concen-tration of wealth in the hands of big business groups. It results in great disparities of income and wealth. It goes against the principle of egalitarian society.
2. More profits:
Corporate sectors generate more profits. But they share a meagre percentage with the share holders. They enjoy the lion’s share out of the share holders’ investment. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor gets widened.
3. Bane to local industries:
Local people borrow money from indigenous banks and also get loans from government concerns with subsidised rates of interest to start an industry. Multi-national companies with good financial back up, survive even in case of loss.
4. Threat to national interest:
Key areas of Nation like Defence, Space, Science, and Technology are to be retained with the Government. Assigning these areas to private sector may harm National interests.
5. Lack of service motto:
The private firms are concerned more about their profit rather than providing good service conditions to their staff and do not bother about extending welfare programmes to their employees and even to the society.
6. No job security:
Private companies extract work from employees as long as they are fit. They ruthlessly sack them when they suffer from ill health or fitness problems. In the long run, they become a burden to the Government. The employees of private sectors suffer from job insecurity and this results in psychological disorders.
Explain the importance of international relations.
- The study of International relations enables us to understand the basic policies and principles which contribute the international sphere.
- It provides concrete solutions for international problems, by means of dialogues, bilateral, multilateral, mutual cooperations and the like.
- It substitutes internationalism to narrow nationalism which delimits the boundaries of States.
- It avoids war, military actions or alliances, and international conflicts.
- It considers the acceptance of the principles of collective security and disarmament, world peace and progress.
- It creates global feeling among the citizens of the world and promotes universal brotherhood.
Write a note on the UN Security Council.
The Security Council is often described as the enforcement wing (world executive body). It is the most powerful organ of the UNO. Its main responsibility is to maintain world peace and security. It consists of 15 members. Five of them are permanent members (UK, USA, Russia, France, and China) while the other ten are non permanent members.
Permanent members have ‘Veto-Power’. Ten Non permanent members are represented by the elected representatives who are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years.
The Security Council is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. It has the power to discuss, investigate and make recommendations in this regard. The member states are called upon to settle disputes by peaceful means. It is empowered to decide the measures to be taken to restore international peace.
It also recommends the person to be appointed as Secretary General to the General Assembly. A military committee has been set up to assist the Security Council. The UN has its own Peace Keeping Force. Each member of the Security Council has one vote. The decisions of the Security Council are binding on all UN members. Mr. Ban- ki-Moon took over office on 1st January 2007. On 21st June 2011, he was unanimously re-elected by the General Assembly and will continue to serve until 31st December 2016.
Write a note on the Principles of Pancha Sheel.
Panchasheel continues to be another fundamental principle of Indian foreign policy. An agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Zhow-en-Lai on April, 29th 1954, sought to govern the relationship between India and China on the basis of five principles.
- Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual non-interference in each others internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefits.
- Peaceful coexistence.
It is a principle of peaceful co-existence with other countries, it guided the basis of relationship between 1954-57 marked by numerous visits and exchanges. This period is described as Sino-Indian honeymoon.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the functions of political parties in India.
1. Preparation of election manifesto:
The election agenda is arranged through a manifesto. Its main intention is capturing power with popular support. It reflects the ideological commitments of the party, which include voter’s requirements like good governance through infrastructure development.
2. Selection of the candidate:
The selection of the best candidate is made on the basis of popularity, acceptability, and responsiveness to the grievances of people. Usually, all parties prepare a list of such candidates, to win the elections.
3. Political education and awareness:
Political parties impart political education to the people and make them realize their responsibilities. The ideologies along with the previous achievements are highlighted to attract the voters during electioneering. Through this, voters compare and contrast and decide their future course of action. Thus, the people have an opportunity to get political education and awareness about national and regional issues.
4. To contest elections:
Through proper filing of nominations and getting ‘B form’, it is ascertained that the candidature is official. It is filed in the respective offices of the Returning officers of the concerned constitutencies.
5. Election campaign:
The candidates who are in the fray are supported by their parties in all possible ways. Provision for election expenses, using public platform by speeches from the leaders of parties, and through electronic and mass media to win the election.
6. Formation of the government:
After the declaration of the results, the party which secures majority will form the government. The administration is carried on within the constitutional framework along with implementing the assurances mentioned in the manifesto at the time of elections. At the same time, it maintains discipline within the party by imposing party norms.
7. Acts as opposition party:
The political parties which fail to secure majority in the election, act as opposition parties. They apply the brake to the unconstitutional decisions and policies of the ruling party and help to streamline the administration. The opposition party is always ready to step into the shoes of the ruling party by highlighting the wrong doings in the administration. It acts as the
‘watch dog’ of democracy.
8. Formation of Public opinion:
The political party acts as the best agency in formulating the public opinion. The achievements of the ruling party are published and highlighted through media and public platforms. Opposition parties organize rallies, conduct road shows ‘ and seminars to expose the failures of ruling party. Such activities of the parties enlighten the masses and lead to the formation of healthy public opinion.
9. Bridge between the government and the people:
Political parties act as bridge between the government and the people. The leaders of the parties try to reach the people through policies and programmes. They draw attention of the government towards the problems of the people and get remedies.
10. Promotes the National Interest:
It is the task of all the political parties to protect the unity and integrity of the nation. Whenever there is threat from internal violence and external aggression the parties have to unite themselves keeping aside their ideological and parochial differences.
What are the causes for illiteracy? And how it is a threat to Indian Democracy?
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and mislead by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired only through education.
The 2011 census report records the literacy rate in Kerala as 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy contributes for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.
3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means like rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power. This has led to criminalization of politics.
4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society. Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into a dictatorship.
Explain the meaning, importance and political implications of liberalisation.
Liberalization is the “Willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanisms and elimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies.
A. Importance of Liberalization are as follows:
1. Consumer friendly:
This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the goods and services according to their wishes. There are many companies which bring a lot of quality products to satisfy consumers’ interests and demands. In a liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.
2. Free from Government regulations:
Government provides free movement of trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo procedural delay imposed by the government.
3. Promotes competitions:
Liberalisation extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promotes efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.
4. Promotes world class business:
Liberalisation encourages business class to share knowledge and implement latest technologies of international standards. This leads to high quality products and better logistics in sales and supplies.
B. Political implications of liberalization are as follows:
1. Risk of brain drain:
In the name of liberalised policy, citizens knock at the door of international opportunities, with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face a lot of problems from such brain drain.
2. Reduces dependency on labour:
As the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for low level or manual jobs.
3. Risk of environmental degradation:
The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates a lot of waste by products leading to environmental degradation.
4. Regulates the price of certain commodities:
The price of certain commodities like-life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc., are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
5. Affects common man:
It affects the common man in his day-to-day life as he finds its difficult to earn his livelihood.
6. Risk of financial instability:
Flexibility (laxity) of monetary and fiscal policies of the Government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.
Describe the Indo-US relations.
India’s freedom movement had drawn much inspiration from the colonial History of US. President F.D. Roosevelt’s positive contribution to the 1942 Cripps Mission negotiations to help India proceed on the road to independence received a positive and grateful response from the Indian leaders. Pandit Nehru identified a number of positive factors that favoured the growth of Indo US relations during his visits to US.
Because of this historical background and shared democratic values of both countries, they acquired a pattern of good and positive relationalship. Both nations have a common faith in democratic institutions and way of life and are dedicated to the cause of peace and freedom.
1. Economic Relations:
After India’s Independence, US extended its economic aid under Truman’s Four Point Program of 1950, consisting of American technical skills, knowledge and investment capital. It provided wheat loan to India to mangage the famine in some parts of the country in 1951.
The major aid has been in the shape of surplus commodity assistance provided under Public Law 480 (PL 480) in 1956, that was repayable in rupees. Under the supervision of United States Agency for International Development (USAID), it gave development loans. With these aids and support, US topped the list of countries that gave economic aid to India.
In the recent years India has decided to liberalize its economy and integrate it with the global economy. India’s impressive economic growth rates have made the country an attractive economic partner for US. In the post cold war era, both countries find themselves closer and committed to extend their economic co-operation in other fileds. The Indian economy had close ties with US and its companies. US absorbed much of India’s total exports in the software sector and extended job opportunities to lakhs of Indians in its silicon valley.
2. Military Relations:
After the II World War US built many military alliances (NATO, ANZUS, SEATO, Baghdad Pact, and CENTO). As the leader of western bloc, it expects newly liberated countries which are not aligned with any of these military alliances, not to oppose US in any organization including UN. India keeping away from the military alliances, its principled support to the liberation movements and crusade against apartheid, racism and racial discrimination were interpreted by US as unfriendly acts.
Obviously, it led to misunderstanding between India and US relations. The US military support to Pakistan its military ally in 1954, created apprehensions in India regarding regional military balance and it widened the gap between India and Pakistan. When the liberation struggle was going on in Goa, the US supported Portuguese claims to keep Portugal as its ally in NATO, but victory of India was interpreted by US as ‘hypocrisy’ and ‘hollow moralist’.
As its global strategy to curb Communism, U S responded positively with military assitance to India in 1962 Indo-Chjna war. But it acted against India in Indo-Pak conflict in 1965 and Indo-Pak war on Bangladesh in 1971. The US has military bases in the Indian ocean in the Island called Diego Garcia.
India has opposed to these bases, because these can threaten any of the states which are on the banks of the Indian Ocean. Inspite of Indian protest, US has not taken off the bases from the Island. By minimizing our misunderstandings and by better appreciaiton of each other, there is a need to work out a pattern of mutually beneficial relationalship with the US.
3. Socio-cultural Relations:
India and US have close socio-cultural relations, e.g. Ford Foundation grants aid for scientific, technical, educational and cultural activities. The co-operation in the field of cultural exchange scientific and educational interaction and the large number of people of Indian origin living in the US all these hold potential for a greater co-operation. Thousands of Indian scholars acquired their advanced knowledge from the educational insitutions of US.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on the Independence Day celebration of your college.
Independence day, a memorable occasion for the nation was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college grounds one day before and erected a podium, as well as a stage for the cultural programmes.
Sri Seetharamaiah, the octogenerian freedom fighter was invited to be our chief guest and he was there right on time at 8.00 A.M. Our Principal and senior staff members welcomed the Chief Guest and other dignitaries with garlands and bouquets. After the invocation and the prayer, the function took off on a smooth note.
After the hoisting of the Tricolour National flag by the Chief Guest, the President of the College Student Union read out the welcome speech. Our Principal presided over the function. Sri Seetharamaiah in his speech, highlighted the great ideals and values and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.
There was a march-past by the NCC cadets, followed by the school band. There were some cultural programmes like singing, a mime act, monoacting and a skit about the Jalianwalabagh massacre. The programmes were much appreciated. The function came to an end with the vote of thanks and sweet distribution. We all dispersed.
What are the causes of Environmental Movement?
Causes for Environmental Movement are as follows:
1. To protect the Environmental degradation:
The Government of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrialization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land, and on the fertility of the soil.
2. To protect bio-diversity:
Deforestation for fuel and construction purposes has left the wildlife and birds to become orphan. Hence Chipco, Appico and save Western Ghats Movements started.
3. Environmental education and consciousness:
Living amidst environment, formal education in schools, colleges, and non-governmental organizations have created awarness and consciousness among human beings. Programmes, rallies and Jathras have gone a long way in this direction.
4. To curb environment decay:
The greed of people to excavate and exploit resources has resulted in soilerosion, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, pollution of air, water and sound, etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in power to take measures, these movements emerged.
Write a note on provisions of Anti-defection Law.
Defection is change of loyalty to another party, without resigning from his elected post for benefits. Defector gets elected on one party’s ticket and tries to enjoy power in another party.
The word defection is also called as ‘Floor Crossing’ in UK and ‘Carpet Crossing’ in Nigeria. The term ‘Defection’ is used in India. Defection is commonly known as ‘Horse Trading’. Defectors are called as ‘Fence sitters’ or Turn Coats.
Sri Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India decided to remove the evils of defection. Hence, Anti-defection Act came into force on 1st April 1985 through the 52nd Constitution Amendment.
The main intention of the law was to combat “the evil of political defections”. The provisions are:
1. A member of Parliament or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily quits his party.
2. He will be disqualified from his membership if he votes against his party whip in the session.
3. A member of Parliament or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified from his membership, if he votes in the session without prior permission of his party.
4. A nominated member shall be disqualified from his membership in the upper house, if he joins any political party after six months from the date on which he assumes his position.
5. If less than 2/3 strength of any political party merges with another political party, it shall be considered as defection.
6. A person disqualified under this Act shall not be provided any office of profit.
7. The Anti-defection law determines the size of the council of Ministers. The size of the council of Ministers of Union shall not exceed 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha and similar to that of State Legislative Assembly.
8. Speaker can initiate action against the members under Anti-defection law.
9. The Chairpersons of Legislative are permitted to frame the rules to implement this law.
Write a note on any one Indian political leader.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is acknowledged as the leader of the untouchables and underprivileged in the Indian social strata. For his work in piloting the Constitution of Independent India through the Constituent Assembly, he is also hailed as the Modem Manu.
Dr. Ambedkar was the 14th child of Ramaji Sakpal and Bhimabai of the Mahar community in Maharashtra. He was born on 14th April 1891. He lost his mother when he was only six and was brought up by his aunt. He had his school education in Satara. He completed his graduation in Bombay with the support of the Maharaja of Baroda. He did his M.A. and Ph.D degrees from Colombia University in 1915 and 1916 respectively.
Later he got his Law and D.Sc degrees also. In 1924, he started an association for the welfare of the depressed classes. He also started the newspapers ‘Bahiskrit Bharat’ in Hindi and ‘Mooka Nayaka‘ in Marathi. These were to motivate the people to fight for independence and also to champion the cause of the depressed classes for social reforms. His important works were ‘Administration and Finance of the East India Company’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘Caste in India’ among others.
He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for framing our Constitution. In the Interim government, he was the Law Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. He renounced active politics and embraced Buddhism. He spent the rest of his life propagating the message of Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Dr. Ambedkar’s memory will remain long in our hearts.