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Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Previous Year Question Paper June 2016
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
When did the Constitution of India come into force?
Our constitution came into force on 26th January 1950.
What is Operation Polo?
Indian army entering Hyderabad to stop the oppressive rule of the Nizam is called as Operation Polo.
Name the Party System in India.
Electronic Voting Machine.
What is economic exploitation?
Exploitation which leads to economic in-equality is called economic exploitation.
Which day is celebrated as ‘Labours Day’?
Who identified Identity politics?
What is the root word of Terrorism?
The world terrorism is derived from the Latin word Terrere.
What is privatisation?
Privatization is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, public service or public property from the public sector to private sector.
What is apartheid?
Discrimination on the basis of colour is called Apartheid.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two or three sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
How many states were Bombay divided into? Which are they?
Two. Maharashtra and Gujarat.
What is political neutrality?
Political neutrality refers to Civil Servants staying away from political activities. They perform their duties without being aligned to any one political regime.
Name any two Acts which relates to women protection.
- Protection against Domestic Violence Act 2005.
- Abolition of Child Marriage Act 2005.
What is inequality?
Inequality means denying opportunities and privileges to some classes of people making discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, gender, birthplace etc.
Mention any two coalition partners of NDA.
Telugu Desham (TDP), Shiv-Sena, Akali Dal.
What is corruption?
Misuse of power or public office for personal motives is called corruption.
What is crony capitalism?
Crony capitalism is a negative term used to refer to the business dealings carried out by the Government officers in a capitalist economy. Crony capitalism is an economic phenomenon with political consequences. In crony capitalism, the Government makes deals in closed doors without public review and approval.
Name any two organs of the UN.
- General Assembly
- Security Council.
Name any two member countries of BRICS.
Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa.
When and where did the 1st NAM summit held?
At Belgrade, Yugoslovia in 1961.
Name any two military alliances.
NATO, SEATO, ANZUS.
Who have signed Panchasheel?
Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese PM Zhou-en-Lai signed Panchasheel on 29th April 1954.
III. Answer any 8 of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (8 × 5 = 40)
Write a short note on Interim Government.
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2nd September 1946. The constituent Assembly had 389 members. It was drawn from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India. It had the task of assisting the transition of India and Pakistan from British rule to independence. It remained in force until 15th August 1947, when India became independent. The Constituent Assembly became a sovereign body and performed the role of legislature for the new State. It was responsible for framing the constitution and making ordinary laws as well.
Give reasons for language as a basis for state re-organisation.
Language as a basis for re-organisation is important because of the following reasons.
- Language is closely related to culture and customs of people.
- Spread of education and literacy can occur only through medium of mother tongue.
- To a common citizen, democracy can be real only when politics and administration are conducted, in their language.
- Linguistic states, can provide education, administration and judicial activity in their mother tongue. Therefore, it was assumed that free India would base its boundaries on linguistic principles.
Explain the features of Direct Elections.
Features of Direct Elections are:
1. More Democratic :
Eligible voters have wider choice to elect their representatives directly. It provides for direct relationship between the voter and their representatives.
Since there is a direct relationship between voters and the representatives, they are responsive to the needs and aspirations of the people. If they do not effectively respond to the needs of the people, they will be the way out in the next election.
3. Creates political awareness:
In the direct elections voters come in direct contact with their representatives. Voters are curious about them and gather information through mass media and print media about political parties, their manifesto and personality of the candidates. In this way it educates the voters
4. Selection of eligible candidates:
The voters test the capacities, capabilities of the candidates and finally elect them since there is rapport between the two.
5. Public relationship:
In view of the forthcoming elections, representatives keep regular contact with the constituency and people.
Write a short note on All India Services.
The All India Services plays the most prominent role in civil service. The candidates to these services are recruited on all India basis and can be posted both at the centre or at the state. Presently India has three All India services.
- Indian Administrative Services (IAS)
- Indian Police Services (IPS)
- Indian Forest Services (IFS)
These services are called as All India services as they belong both to the Central and State Governments. The services of these officers could be utilized by both the central and state governments and they can be transferred from central to state and vice-versa.
Article 312 (i) of the Indian Constitution states that, Rajya Sabhajnitiates a resolution supported by not less than 2/3rd of the members present and voting. If necessary, in the national interest, Parliament may by law provide for the creation of one or more All India Services.
Explain any five functions of Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner. (DC) is the head of the District. He also acts as the District Magistrate, Superintendent of police (SP), District Treasury Officer. Deputy Director of Pre University Education, Social Welfare officer, Deputy Director of Public Instruction, District Medical Officer, Deputy Registrar and other functions under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner.
The Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions.
1. Law and order and Magisterial powers:
Deputy Commissioner enjoys magisterial powers. Being the District Magistrate, he maintains law and order and performs other judicial functions in the district.
2. Revenue functions:
It includes maintenance of Land Records and its assessment, collection of Land Revenue and other public dues and settlement of land disputes. Assistant Commissioners and Tahsildars work under the overall supervision and control of the Deputy Commissioner.
3. Development Functions:
It includes Public Health, Education, Rural Development, Social Welfare (Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe) and Welfare of Backward Classes and Minorities and Protection of Weaker sections of the Society.
4. Regulatory Functions:
It includes control, regulation, and distribution of Food and Civil Supplies and essential commodities. He also controls the matters relating to excise, stamps, and registration.
5. Electoral Functions:
Deputy Commissioner is the District Election Officer and he is in charge of elections to Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies.
What are the causes for Environment Movement?
Causes for Environmental Movement are as follows.
1. To protect the Environmental degradation:
The Government of India has taken measures for economic development including industrial and technological development. This has led to industrialization, urbanization and their adverse effects like loss of cultivable land, and also on the fertility of the soil.
2. To protect Mo-diversity:
Deforestation for fuel and construction purposes has left the wildlife and birds to become orphan. Hence Chipco, Appico and Save Western Ghats Movements started.
3. Environment education and conscious- use:
Living amidst environment, formal education in schools, colleges and non-governmental organizations have created awarness and consciousness among human beings. Programmes, rallies and Jathas have gone a long way in this direction.
4. To curb environment decay:
The greediness of the people to excavate and exploit resources have resulted in soil erosion, drying up of rivers and reservoirs, pollution of air, water and sound etc. To maintain equilibrium and to pressurize the people in power to take measures, these movements emerged.
Explain the major hindrances of nation building.
Large sections of our societies live in villages and their major occupation is Agriculture. They rely upon monsoon which is quite irregular. Hence the output is very low. As a result, more than 1X5* of the total population is living BPL. Poverty denies access to good health, sanitation facilities and basic infrastructure necessary for personality development.
2. Population Explosion:
Census reports of 2011 prove that India is overpopulated (1.2 billion). Though a resource, it is not properly utilized to strengthen the nation. Population explosion has led to unemployment, housing shortage scarcity of food and other basic amenities.
3. Regional Imbalance:
All the regions of our country are not evenly developed. This leads to separatist tendencies that curbs national development e.g. Marathawada and Vidharbha in Maharashtra, Telengana region in AP, Korapat and Kalahandi regions in Odisha, North Eastern Region and Gorkha hill areas are all under developed and people there have reason ted to agitations.
4. Social and political disturbances:
In India social and political disturbances have become common in recent years causing tension Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Kerala have become communally sensitive states. Likewise, caste conflicts, terrorism, the centre-state and inter-state disputes have affected nation’s march towards development.
5. Political Crisis:
The coalition politics and the emergence of too many political parties, regional and sectarian feelings have created political crisis on many occasions. The vested interests have prevented the Parliament and State Legislatures to enact necessary laws for the development of the nation. Money power and muscle power have, led to the growth of leaders without principles for whom it has become a gainful employment.
What are the merits of coalition?
Coalition is an act of coalescing or uniting into one body or a union of parties. When different political forces join together, coalition is formed. Coalition politics is a system of governance of a group of political parties or by several political parties.
Merits of coalition are as follows:
It provides broader representation to the people as big and small parties join hands in the governance. It also enables them to have a share in policy making and eliminates regional disparities.
- It provides an opportunity for the creation of consensus based politics which represents the public opinion in national politics, issues and programmes. As M.A. Jinnah said a coalition is a device to provide a fair share to the minority.
- Coalition takes care of diversity and plurality in administration.
- By feeling the pulse of people, it provides good governance.
- The presence of various political parties provides broader choice for the people to elect.
- Coalition does not allow the autocratic rule of a single dominant party. Ministers or members of Cabinet including Prime Minister cannot behave autocratically.
Describe the political implications of liberalisation.
Liberalization is the “Willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinion different from one’s own; open to new ideas”. Liberalization is the process of liberating the economy from various regulatory mechanisms and elimination of customs and tariffs. Economic liberalization is the policy of relaxation over economic and trade policies.
A. Importance of Liberalization are as follows:
1. Consumer friendly:
This leads to lower costs and prices for consumers to get the goods and services according to their wishes. There are many companies which bring a lot of quality products to satisfy consumers’ interests and demands. In a liberalised economy, consumer gets more benefits.
2. Free from Government regulations:
Government provides free movement of trade and commerce where any private company can easily carry on their business activities without any restrictions. The companies need not undergo procedural delay imposed by the government.
3. Promotes competitions:
Liberalisation extends competition within different company’s trade firms. Basically they keep the standards and cheaper prices for consumers. Competition promotes efficiency and avoids wastage of resources.
4. Promotes world class business:
Liberalisation encourages business class to share knowledge and implement latest technologies of international standards. This leads to high quality products and better logistics in sales and supplies.
B. Political implications of liberalization are as follows:
1. Risk of brain drain:
In the name of liberalised policy, citizens knock at the door of international opportunities, with their knowledge and skill. The developing nations face a lot of problems from such brain drain.
2. Reduces dependency on labour:
As the process itself is capital intensive, it reduces dependency on labour and cuts opportunities for low level or manual jobs.
3. Risk of environmental degradation:
The incessant industrial activity at the global level generates a lot of waste by products leading to environmental degradation.
4. Regulates the price of certain commodities:
The price of certain commodities like-life saving drugs, fertilizers, etc., are automatically controlled by the world trade forums and associations.
5. Affects common man:
It affects the common man in his day-to-day life as he finds its difficult to earn his livelihood.
6. Risk of financial instability:
Flexibility (laxity) of monetary and fiscal policies of the Government may lead to financial crisis like recession and depression.
What are the concepts of International Relations?
The core concepts of International Relations pertaining to politics are as follows:
a. State Sovereignty:
Jean Bodin has described the concept of Sovereignty in his work “De Republica”. He emphasizes on the state Sovereignty within their territorial jurisdiction. No State can dictate others and all States are equal in matters of status, dignity and honour. For instance, India under the British imperialism lost its sovereignty and gained its state hood only in 1947. Iraq during the Gulf war in 1990, is an example for aggression on the Sovereignty.
b. National Interests:
It is the action of the State in relation to other States. As Frankel opined, it refers to the aspiration of the state. The determinants of national interest are qualities of personalities and ideals of the decision makers.
c. Power Blocs:
With the beginning of the cold war, two power blocs emerged, i.e., USA and USSR. President of U S. Harry S. Truman believed in the spread of democracy whereas the Warsaw Pact under Soviet policy sought the spread of Communism. Capitalistic ideology spread in UK, France, Germany and Communist ideology spread in Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania and Hungery.
Polarities in international relations refer to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bi-polarity during the cold war between the two super powers. The disintegration of the USSR has led to uni-polarity with the United States as the superpower.
With rapid economic growth in 2010, China became the world’s second largest economy. Combined with the respectable international position, China has emerged as a major power in the multi-polar world.
e. Balance of Power:
The concept of Balance of Power refers to relative power position of States as actors in international relations, with its emphasis on the cultivation of power and the utilization of power for resolving the problems. Morgenthau used the term ‘Balance of Power’ as an approximately equal distribution of power. It is an inseparable part of the power politics.
Explain the importance of Indian Foreign Policy.
The foreign policy of a nation represents its external sovereignty and freedom. India adopted its own foreign policy after the emancipation from British colonialism and emerged as a sovereignty nation in the world.
India’s foreign policy is born of a country’s principles, interests and objectives. It is the result of interplay of complex forces like History, Geography, Domestic environment, Ideology and the influence of National Leaders. It emphasizes the glory of Indian freedom struggle, importance of India’s geographical location for its economic development and patriotism.
An important fact of India’s foreign policy is the concern for Gandhian ideas of peace and non violence. India achieved its independence by using these weapons and succeeded in inspiring the world.
India’s foreign policy comprises of economic developments and political stability to ensure the unity and integrity of the country. National security was conceived to present aggression or threat of aggression to protect the independence, territorial integrity, self reliance and promote economic independence.
India belived in fostering friendly relations with her neighbours. She promotes good will, friendship and co-operation in the South Asian region for mutual benefit. India opposes big power intervention or interference in the internal affairs of South Asian region. India calls for making Indian ocean a peaceful zone to avoid big power naval confrontation.
India supports liberation on movements, democratic struggles for national independence and right of self determination. She is opposed to imperialism, colonialism, racism, authoritarianism and militarism in the world.
India supports the Human Rights as a basic condition for democratic world and for an egalitarian world. India believes in promotion of the principle of Panchasheel and strengthening of Non Align Movement (NAM) and UN for easing global tension. This is to build a world free from fear, hate, scarcity and inequality.
Explain the role of India in resolving Sri Lankan ethnic problems.
From the mid 1950s and to early 1980s there was hardly any dispute between the two countries on the matters of security and sovereignty. There had been negotiated settlements of bilateral issues, e.g. the question of jurisdication over Kachathivu island in the middle of the Palk Straits. One of the main disputes between India and Sri Lanka has been regarding the political status of Tamil poeple of Indian origin, who were taken to Sri Lanka by the British as plantation labourers.
There are four groups of Sri lankan Tamil population,
- Ancient Familes in the Jaffna Peninsula
- Professional elite Tamils in urban areas,
- Non-Hindu Tamils and
- Tamil immigrant labour.
The long-standing problem of accepting the Tamil speaking population of Sri Lanka as its citizens and giving them regional autonomy could not be solved. The majority of Sinhalese demanded Tamils should return to India, they deny citizenship to Tamils by enacting the Ceylone citizenship act of 1948.
This has disentalied Tamils franchise and other rights. In 1965, Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and SriLankan Prime Minister Mrs. Sirimao BandaraNaike signed an agreement about Tamils citizenship but in vain. The 1981 agreement between Indira Gandhi and Sirimao Bandaranaike was not implemented due to Tamils refusal to proposals India.
The Government of President Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994) strived to promote better relation between Sinhala and Tamil ethnic groups so as to find political solution to the Tamil demands. In December 1998, India and Sri Lanka signed the Free Trade Agreement. The Government of President Mahinda Rajapaksha also worked in this direction.
The bilateral trade agreements in 2000 resulted in a marked improvement in the Indo-Sri Lankan trade between 2004 and 2010. S.M. Krishna the then External Affairs Minister visited Sri Lanka in Januray, met the President and reviewed the comprehensive agenda of bilatral realtionalship.
The high level delegation led by the President of Sri Lanka visited India In the same year and laid the foundation to University of Buddhist and India studies at Sanchi. Again in 2013, a bilateral meeting was held and an agreement was signed to combat Inter National Terrorism and Illicit, drugs trafficking.
The ethnic conflict which continued for over 30 years and tom the island nation, ended in May 2009. As per the 13th Amendment of the India Sri Lanka Accord of 1987 elections were held to the Northern Provincial Council in September 2013, and with this a new facet of Democracy has begun.
IV. Answer any 2 of the following in 30 to 40 sentences: (2 × 10 = 20)
Describe the functions of political parties in India.
1. Preparation of election manifesto:
The election agenda is arranged through a manifesto. Its main intention is capturing power with popular support. It reflects the ideological commitments of the party, which include voter’s requirements like good governance through infrastructure development.
2. Selection of the candidate:
The selection of the best candidate is made on the basis of popularity, acceptability, and responsiveness to the grievances of people. Usually, all parties prepare a list of such candidates, to win the elections.
3. Political education and awareness:
Political parties impart political education to the people and make them realize their responsibilities. The ideologies along with the previous achievements are highlighted to attract the voters during electioneering. Through this, voters compare and contrast and decide their future course of action. Thus, the people have an opportunity to get political education and awareness about national and regional issues.
4. To contest elections:
Through proper filing of nominations and getting ‘B form’, it is ascertained that the candidature is official. It is filed in the respective offices of the Returning officers of the concerned constitutencies.
5. Election campaign:
The candidates who are in the fray are supported by their parties in all possible ways. Provision for election expenses, using public platform by speeches from the leaders of parties, and through electronic and mass media to win the election.
6. Formation of the government:
After the declaration of the results, the party which secures majority will form the government. The administration is carried on within the constitutional framework along with implementing the assurances mentioned in the manifesto at the time of elections. At the same time, it maintains discipline within the party by imposing party norms.
7. Acts as opposition party:
The political parties which fail to secure majority in the election, act as opposition parties. They apply the brake to the unconstitutional decisions and policies of the ruling party and help to streamline the administration. The opposition party is always ready to step into the shoes of the ruling party by highlighting the wrongdoings in the administration. It acts as the‘watch dog’ of democracy.
8. Formation of Public opinion:
The political party acts as the best agency in formulating the public opinion. The achievements of the ruling party are published and highlighted through media and public platforms. Opposition parties organize rallies, conduct road shows and seminars to expose the failures of ruling party. Such activities of the parties enlighten the masses and lead to the formation of healthy public opinion.
9. Bridge between the government and the people:
Political parties act as bridge between the government and the people. The leaders of the parties try to reach the people through policies and programmes. They draw attention of the government towards the problems of the people and get remedies.
10. Promotes the National Interest:
It is the task of all the political parties to protect the unity and integrity of the nation. Whenever there is threat from internal violence and external aggression the parties have to unite themselves keeping aside their ideological and parochial differences.
How illiteracy is an impediment to democracy? Explain its remedies.
Illiteracy means inability of a person to read and write in any language. Amartya Sen described illiteracy as one of ‘unfreedoms’. According to the census report of 2001, a person who can read and write with understanding in any language may be called a literate person and a person who can only read but cannot write is not a literate person.
Illiteracy is both a curse and an impediment to democracy. Illiterates are easily exploited and mislead by politicians and vested interests to realize their goals. The successful working of democracy depends upon political awareness which can be acquired only through education.
The 2011 census report records the literacy rate in Kerala as 94%, Karnataka at 75.36% and Bihar at 61.80%.
1. Lack of Political Awareness:
Illiteracy contributes for political apathy. Illiterate masses due to their ignorance and indifferences do not take part in political process. They are not able to understand the importance of vote, they do not understand the idealogies of political parties, their manifestos and the performance of ruling party, election rules, and process.
2. Low Percentage of votes:
Since the first general election, the percentage of polling has not crossed 60%. This is due to illiteracy and lack of political awareness. Political legitimacy cannot be achieved to a full extend by low percentage of polling.
3. Money and Muscle Power:
The nexus between politicians and businessmen is noticeable. The politicians are tactful enough to get votes from the poor people who are illiterate through dubious means like rigging and booth capturing and threatening the voters using muscle power. This has led to criminalization of politics.
4. Politics of Populism:
The voters in India are attracted by politics of populism. Illiteracy and poverty force them to depend upon the facilities of the Government. They fail to understand that the populist programmes bring them into mainstream of the Society. Indulgence in politics of populism makes the people to depend on the Government for everything without becoming creative individuals. This becomes an impediment to national development.
5. Emergence of Dictatorship:
When people are not politically conscious, show apathy to vote, an ambitious leader transforms democracy into a dictatorship.
Explain the importance of globalisation and bring out its political implications.
Globalisation is the process of intergrating the economy of the country with world economy. It is a movement towards greater interaction. Integration and interdependence among people and organisation across borders. The strongest manifestion of Globalisation has been the increasing economics intergration among the countries in trade and investment.
An important attribute of globalization is the increasing degree of openness, which has three dimensions, ie. international trade, international investment and international finance. It involves creation of networks and activities transcending economic, social and geographical boundaries. The Economy of India had undergone significat policy shifts in the beginning of the 1990’s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the liberalization, privatizaton and globalisation(LPG) model.
The chain of reforms that took place with regard to business, manufacturing and financial industries targeted at the strengthening the economy of the country to a more proficient level. These economic reforms had influenced the overall economic growth of the country in a significant manner.
In brief the salient points of Globalisation are:
- Transfer of technology
- Concept of a global village
- Mobility of labour force
- Global competion resulting in better performance
- Outsourcing and
- Optimum utilization of human resources.
The political implications of globalisation are as follows:
1. Power subjugation:
The effects of globalisation has brought a lot of changes in the world economy. For small countries, it is inevitable to accept the economic decisions of big countries, which leads to power subjugation.
2. Affects the sovereignty:
As a result of globalisation in the fields of economy, trade, transportation, etc., the sovereign countries are bound by the decisions of stronger countries. Hence it affects the sovereignty of a country in totality.
3. Cultural invasion:
Culture is a complex, wholesome and exclusive to each country. The influence of globalisation in the name of cultural exchange not only invades but also degenerates the youth who are the architects of the future.
4. Enslavement of lifestyle:
Globalisation has largely affected the younger generation. Food habits, general behaviour, mutual relationship, respect to elders, human values and ultimately the whole generation has become slave in the clutches of globalisation.
5. Elimination of subsidies:
The major impact of globalisation is the curtailment of subsidies to all sectors including agriculture, in a phased manner. The worst hit are the peasants who are the backbone of the country.
6. Political Instability:
The impact of globalisation mainly is economic depression, boom or even recession which directly affects the political stability of a country. Hence development comes to a stand still. Thus globalisation as a process of integrating the economy of the country with world economy has gone a long way.
Explain the India-ASEAN areas of cooperation in detail.
The ASEAN was established on 8th August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the founding fathers of ASEAN.
Indian-ASEAN areas of co-operation are:
1. Functional Co-operation:
ASEAN-India functional co-operation is diverse and includes co-operation across a range of sectors, such as trade, science & technology, agriculture, environment, Human Resource development, space science, new and renewable energy, information and communication technology, telecommunications, transport and infrastructure, tourism, culture, health and pharmaceuticals.
2. Economic Co-operation:
The ASEAN- India FTA will see tariff liberalization of over 90 percent of products traded between the two dynamic regions including the so-called “special products” such as palm oil (crude and refined), coffee, black tea and pepper. Tariffs on over 4,000 product lines will be eliminated at the earliest by 2016.
ASEAN – India Trade in Goods Agreement was signed on 13th August, 2009 at the ASEAN – India Economic Ministerial Meeting in Bangkok.
3. Peace and Security Co-operation:
ASEAN and India commemorated the 20th anniversary of dialogue level partnership and the 10th anniversary of Summit-level partnership with a Commemorative Summit in New Delhi under the theme ASEAN – India Partnership for peace and shared prosperity in December 2012.
4. Tourism Sector:
The 4th ASEAN – India Tourism Ministers Meeting was held in Vietnam in January 2013. ASEAN-India tourism website (www. Indiaasean.org) was launched. ASEAN and India are also working on enhancing private sector engagements. Details on the re-activation of the ASEAN- India business Council (AIBC), the holding of the ASEAN-India Business Fair (AIBF) are being worked out by officials.
At the third ASEAN-India Summit, the parties concerned signed a partnership for peace, progress and shared prosperity. At the sixth Summit, India announced setting up of an India the ASEAN green fund. At seventh Summit, India announced contribution of US $ 50 million to ASEAN-India co-operation fund.
At the 11th ASEAN – India summit, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, welcomed India’s ‘Look East’ policy and the decision to set up a separate mission for the Association of ASEAN. The past three years have witnessed remarkable progress in the implementation of the plan of Action.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Republic Day celebration of your college.
Republic Day a memorable ocassion for the nation; was celebrated in our college this year also. Under the guidance of the teachers, students had decorated the college ground one day before and erected the podium as well as a stage for cultural programmes.
Sri Shankaranarayana – an eminent freedom fighter and politician was invited as Chief guest. As per schedule time at 9 a.m. the Chief guest arrived at our College premises. Our Principal welcomed the guest with honour, respect. After invocation and prayer, the function took off on a smooth note. The Chief guest hoisted the tricoloured national flag. President of our College Union read out the welcome speech. Principal of our College presided over the function.
The Chief Guest in his guest speech highlighted the significance of Republic day celebrations and what were the problems faced by Vallabhabhai Patel in uniting the 502 provinces and division of states according to basis of language and culture. He also explained patel’s bold steps taken to unite Hyderabad, Junagadh and Jammu and Kashmir while migrating people faced many problems. The speech was very interesting and very useful to Political Science students.
After the function was over, there were some cultural programmes like singing, dancing, mime, monoacting and skit about people migrating to India or Pakistan. Their problems were highlighed in the skit. The programme was much appreciated. The function came to an end with a vote of thanks and distribution of sweets.
What are the causes for Human Rights Movement?
Human Rights are those rights which are inherent to human beings and entitled to enjoy without distinction of race colour, religion, language, gender, birth place, social, economic, political and other status.
The main causes for Human Rights Movements are:
1. To protect civil liberty:
All men are born equal and they have the liberty to shape their lives. Constitution of India guaranteed these rights in the part in, to all citizens. But in actual practice, dalits, women and children are being suppressed and exploited. To aviod such attrocities, human rights activists are struggling hard to create awareness.
2. To remove slavery:
Slavery is constitutionally banned but is active in many parts of the country. Instance like child labour, bonded labour etc., are seen frequently. Hence agitations become inevitable.
3. To protect family life:
Every citizen has the right to family life. Due to modernisation youth are heading towards intercaste and inter honour religious marriages. Elders of familes to maintain family and values go even to the extent of Maiyada hatye. Dowry harassment many times ends up in either suicide or murder.
4. To protect the rights of Dalits:
Dalits are subject to injustice, atrocities, social ostracism, made-snana etc., Dalits are forced to carry night soil, by upper castes. This is a clear violation of human rights.
5. Refusal to file cases:
Though the aggrieved dalits approach the authorities to file the cases against upper caste people, it does not get filed due to the interference of some politically dominant castes. Even when physically abused, medical aid and police protection are denied.
Explain the various remedies of communalism.
Promotion of secularism and National Integration as remedies for communalism are a must.
The constitution makers adopted secularism in order to create sense of security and equality among different religious groups. The state also follows a policy of neutrality in religious matters. Article 26 provides that every religious denomination or any section has the right to establish religious institutions and manage their affairs.
In December 2013 the Central Cabinet approved the Prevention of Communal violence (Access to Justice and Reparations) Bill to punish the offenders who instigate and indulge in communal riots. It is yet to be passed by Parliament.
2. National Integration:
It is the process of uniting the people emotionally and politically. India is a land of diversity. It makes only a limited sense to call it a nation because it has various religions, languages, caste and culture etc. So for the success of Indian democracy, promotion of national integration is necessary. To preserve and sustain national integration, many provisions have been adopted in the constitution. Like National integration Council, Zonal Councils, National Security Council and Armed forces play a great role in the protection of National integration.
3. Neighbourhood Peace Committees:
The aftermath of Babri Masjid demolition and subsequent communal riots and social tensions in different places and ineffective Governmental measures has made it vital to establish Neighbourhood Peace Committees with eminent or prominent people as its members. These members must be nominated from each community in riot prone or communally sensitive areas.
The main objectives are arresting and containing social tensions which may flare up communal riots in the neighbourhood areas taking precautionary measures to prevent the eruption of communal clashes. In the aftermath of conflict, restoring normalcy and pacifying affected people. Establishing harmonious relationship between the communities and extending all possible help to affected people.
Write a note on anyone Indian political leader.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar:
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is acknowledged as the leader of the untouchables and underprivileged in the Indian social strata. For his work in piloting the Constitution of Independent India through the Constituent Assembly, he is also hailed as the Modem Manu.
Dr. Ambedkar was the 14th child of Ramaji Sakpal and Bhimabai of the Mahar community in Maharashtra. He was born on 14th April 1891. He lost his mother when he was only six and was brought up by his aunt. He had his school education in Satara. He completed his graduation in Bombay with the support of the Maharaja of Baroda. He did his M.A. and Ph.D degrees from Colombia University in 1915 and 1916 respectively.
Later he got his Law and D.Sc degrees also. In 1924, he started an association for the welfare of the depressed classes. He also started the newspapers ‘Bahiskrit Bharat’ in Hindi and ‘Mooka Nayaka‘ in Marathi. These were to motivate the people to fight for independence and also to champion the cause of the depressed classes for social reforms. His important works were ‘Administration and Finance of the East India Company’, ‘Buddha and Karl Marx’ and ‘Caste in India’ among others.
He was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee for framing our Constitution. In the Interim government, he was the Law Minister in Nehru’s cabinet. He renounced active politics and embraced Buddhism. He spent the rest of his life propagating the message of Buddhism. He passed away on 6th December 1956. Dr. Ambedkar’s memory will remain long in our hearts.