2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 2 Elections and Party System In India

Karnataka 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 2 Elections and Party System In India

You can Download Chapter 2 Elections and Party System In India, Notes, 2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

2nd PUC Political Science Elections and Party System In India One Mark Questions and Answers One mark questions and answers:

Question 1.
Who elects the representatives in Democratic system.
Answer:
People elects the representatives in democratic system.

Question 2.
Who determines the destiny of Political parties in Democracy?
Answer:
People determines the destiny of political parties in Democracy.

Question 3.
What is the root word of Election?
Answer:
The word Election is derived from the Latin word ‘eligere’.

Question 4.
What is Election? (March 2015)
Answer:
A process of electing the representatives by the people is called Election.

Question 5.
Through what the will of the people is expressed?
Answer:
The will of the people will be expressed through the elections.

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Question 6.
What is popular government?
Answer:
The voters by exercising their franchise elect political party of their choice to form democratic government is called popular government.

Question 7.
What is General Election?
Answer:
Elections are held periodically once in a five years, where all the voters exercise their voting rights is called general elections.

Question 8.
What is by Election?
Answer:
Election is held generally to fill the vacancy arising due to the death or resignation or disqualification of an elected member, it is called by election.

Question 9.
HSI What is Repoll?
Answer:
Election is held when the elections are disrupted due to irregularities, it is called repoll.

Question 10.
What is Midterm Election?
Answer:
Elections are held when the Lower House is dissolved before the completion of its term, it is called midterm election.

Question 11.
What is the foundation of democratic government?
Answer:
Elections are the foundations of democratic government.

Question 12.
Which is the barometer of Democracy?
Answer:
Elections are the barometer of Democracy.

Question 13.
What is Direct Election?
Answer:
All the eligible voters of the Nation directly elect their representatives without any intermediaries, it is called Direct Election.

Question 14.
Give an example to Direct Election.
Answer:
Loksabha elections are the example of Direct Election.

Question 15.
What is Indirect Election?
Answer:
Leaders of the Government are elected by the representatives but not by the people, it is called Indirect Election.

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Question 16.
Give an example to Indirect Election.
Answer:
President is an example of Indirect Election.

Question 17.
What is Universal Adult Franchise?
Answer:
All the voters who attained the age of 18 years can exercise their voting power without any discrimination, it is called Universal Adult Franchise.

Question 18.
What is the minimum age for the voters in India? (July 2018)
Answer:
The minimum age for the voters in India is 18 years.

Question 19.
How many Election Commissioners are there in India? (March 2018)
Answer:
One Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners are there in Election Commission of India.

Question 20.
Who appoints the Election Commissioners of India? (A) (March 2016)
Answer:
President of India appoints the Election Commissioners of India.

Question 21.
What is the term of office of the Election Commissioners?
Answer:
6 years of service or 65 years of age whichever is earlier.

Question 22.
Who determines the emoluments of Election Commissioners?
Answer:
Parliament determines the emoluments of Election Commissioners.

Question 23.
Who determines the service rules of Election Commissioners?
Answer:
Parliament determines the service rules of Election Commissioners.

Question 24 .
Salaries of the Election Commissioners are borne from which fund?
Answer:
Salaries of the Election Commissioners are borne from the Consolidated Fund of India.

Question 25.
Expand EPIC. (July 2015)
Answer:
Electors Photo Identity Card.

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Question 26.
When was the EPIC introduced first in India?
Answer:
EPIC was first introduced in India in 1993

Question 27.
Who made the EPIC compulsory?
Answer:
M.S Gill made the EPIC compulsory.

Question 28.
When the EVMS were introduced for the first time?
Answer:
The EVMs were introduced for the first time in India in 1998.

Question 29.
When did the Negative option voting come into practice?
Answer:
The Negative option voting came in to practice in 2014.

Question 30.
Name one committee which recommended for the state funding of Elections.
Answer:
Indrajit Guptha Committee recommended for the state funding of Elections.

Question 31.
What is meant by political party?
Answer:
A group organized by people for a common purpose of attaining political power through democratic methods is called political party

Question 32.
Name the party system which is prevalent in India. (July 2016)
Answer:
The party system which prevailed in India is Multi Part} system.

Question 33.
Give an example where hi party system is in practice.
Answer:
Bi Party system is practice in USA.

Question 34.
Which is the best example for single party system?
Answer:
Russia is the best example for single party system.

Question 35.
What is multi party system?
Answer:
The presence of more than two political parties in a country is called Multi Party System.

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Question 36.
What is National Party?
Answer:
A party which gains 6% of casted valid votes in 4 or more States in Lok Sabha is called National Party.

Question 37.
What is Regional Party. (July 2017)
Answer:
A party which gains 6% of valid votes in the Lok Sabha or Vidhana Sabha elections from the state is called Regional Party.

Question 38.
Who acts as the watch dog of Democracy?
Answer:
Opposition party acts as the watch dog of democracy.

Question 39.
What is the ideology of leftist party?
Answer:
The ideology of the leftist party is belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system.

Question 40.
Give an example to leftist Party.
Answer:
Communist Party of India is an example to Leftist Party7.

Question 41.
State an ideology of the rightist party.
Answer:
The ideology of the Rightist Party is belief I moderate changes in the system.

Question 42.
Give an example to rightist party.
Answer:
Bharatiya Janatha Party is an example to Rightist Party.

Question 43.
Who was the founder of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
A.O. Hume was the founder of Indian National Congress.

Question 44.
When was the INC established? (July 2015)
Answer:
The Indian National Congress was established in 1885.

Question 45.
Expand INC.
Answer:
Indian National Congress.

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Question 46.
Expand NOTA. (March 2015)
Answer:
None Of The Above.

Question 47.
What was the main objective of INC?
Answer:
Attaining freedom from England was the main objective of INC.

Question 48.
Why did the Muslim League established?
Answer:
Muslim League was established for the separate Pakistan.

Question 49.
Expand NDA. (March 2018)
Answer:
National Democratic Alliance.

Question 50.
Expand UPA.
Answer:
United Progressive Alliance.

Question 51.
When did the BJP came into existence?
Answer:
The BJP came into existence in 1980.

Question 52.
What is Defection?
Answer:
An elected representative who migrates from one party to another party for benefits is called Defection

Question 53.
When did the Anti-defection Act came into force? (March 2016)
Answer:
The Anti-defection Act came into force on 1st April 1985.

Question 54.
What is Anti-defection Law?
Answer:
A law which restrict the representatives from migrating from one part) to another party is called Anti-defection Law.

Question 55.
Who enforced Anti-defection Law?
Answer:
Sri Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India enforced Anti-defection Law

Question 56.
Which committee recommended for multi number election commission?
Answer:
Dinesh Goswami committee recommended for multi number election commission

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2nd PUC Political Science Elections and Party System In India Two marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
How is political awareness brought about in Democracy?
Answer:
People can get political awareness by participating in the elections through voting and studying the ideologies of all the parties.

Question 2.
Ballet is more powerful than bullet in Democracy. How?
Answer:
Bullet can end one’s life but ballet can end the destiny of one political party. So ballet is more powerful than bullet in democracy.

Question 3.
What is Direct Election? Give an example. (July 2015)
Answer:
When the voters directly participate in elections and choose their representatives, it is known as direct election. Every  voter goes to the polling booth and castes his vote in favour of a candidate of his choice. E.g.. Members of Lok Sabha and State assembly Elections,

Question 4.
What is Indirect Election? Give an example. (March 2016)
Answer:
An election in which the people do not elect the representatives directly is known as indirect election. People elect intermediary voters who form an electoral college which in turn elects the representatives. Eg. Members of Rajya Sabha and State Council elections.

Question 5.
What is Universal Adult Franchise? Where is it in practice?
Answer:
All adult citizens must be given the right to vote. There can be no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, sex, religion, wealth, it is known as universal adult franchise. It is in practice in India.

Question 6.
How does political awareness brought about in Direct Democracy?
Answer:
People can have an opportunity to participate in the political activities in Direct Election system without any intermediaries. They knows the political ideologies of all die parties and hence political awareness brought in direct election.’

Question 7.
How Electoral College is constituted?
Answer:
Electoral college is constituted to elect the President which consists of the elected members of both the houses of parliament and elected members of all the state assemblies.

Question 8.
Which Article of the Constitution of India is related to Election Commission?
Answer:
Article 324 to 329 of Indian Constitution relates to Election Commission.

Question 9.
What is the main objective of Election Commission of India?
Answer:
The main objectives of the election commission of India is to conduct free and fair elections periodically throughout the country.

Question 10.
State the method of impeachment of the Chief Election Commissioners in India.
Answer:
According to Article 324(5). the Chief Election Commissioner and other Eelection Commissioners can be removed from their office in the same manner as the judges of Supreme Court on the ground of proved misbehavior and incapacity to discharge their Constitutionally obligations.

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Question 11.
Name any two committees that recommended for electoral reforms.
Answer:
(a) Indrajit Gupta Committee (1998).
(b) Justice Kuldeep Singh Committee (2002) are the two committees that recommended for electoral reforms.

Question 12.
Define political party according to Edmund Burke.
Answer:
According to Edmund Burke. ‘Political party is a group of people united to promote rational interests by its joint endeavors”.

Question 13.
What is Single Party System? Give an example.
Answer:
The prevalence of single political party in a country is called Single Party System. Eg.China.

Question 14.
What is Bi-Party System? Give an example.
Answer:
The existence of two political parties I the country is called Bi-Party System. Eg.USA

Question 15.
What is Multi-Party System?Give an example. (July 2016/2015)
Answer:
The presence of more than two political parties in a country is called Multi Party Sy stem. Eu. India.

Question 16.
State the contents of election manifesto of political parties.
Answer:
The manifestoes contain objectives, principles, ideologies and aims of the political parties

Question 17.
What are the other names of defection.
Answer:
The other names of defection are Floor Crossing, Carpet Crossing , Turned costs and Fence Sitters

Question 18.
What is coalitian government (July 2017)
Answer:
Formation of government by various political parties with common minimum programme is known as coalitian government

Question 19.
Name any two National Parties (July 2015)
Answer:

  1. Bharatiya janatha party
  2. Indian National Congress

Question 20.
Name any two Regional parties (March 2015)
Answer:

  1. janatha Dal (s)
  2. Telugu Desam are the two Regional Parties

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2nd PUC Political Science Elections and Party System In India Five marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
Explain the importance of elections in Democracy.
Answer:
The importance of elections in democracy are as follows:
(a) Election is the foundation of democratic government.
(b) It is the key component to provide justice and freedom to all without any discrimination.
(c) It gives a citizen an opportunity to have one’s voice heard and a choice by which one should be governed.
(d) It is the Barometer of democracy and serves as forum for the discussion of public issues and facilitates the expression of public opinion.
(e) It imparts political education and training to voters to actively participate in the activities of the nation.
(f) It protects the interests of the minorities by providing representation in the legislature.
(g) It contributes to the continuation of democratic government and enables the peaceful transfer of power.

Question 2.
Transfer of power is done peacefully through elections. Justify.
Answer:
Elections are inevitable and essential in the modern democratic system. People are the ultimate sovereign authority. People can have an opportunity to elect their representatives by using their voting power and hence they plays an important role in choosing the government.

Here people may determine the destiny of political parties. Power shall be transferred peacefully without any violent way. During the time of elections each and even parties bring their manifestoes before the voters and tries to gain their confidence through various popular schemes and programmes.

People are able to understand the ideologies olf the parties and elect the representatives on their own choice. After the elections, the majority party forms the government and tries to administer the country on the basis of its party manifestoes and thus fulfill the needs and aspirations of the people. So transfer of power is done peacefully through elections in the democratic system.

Question 3.
Explain the features of Direct Elections. (July 2016)
Answer:
(a) Eligible voters have wider choice to elect their representatives directly. It provides for direct relationship between the voter and their representatives.
(b) There is a direct relationship between voters and the representatives in the direct election system and hence the representatives should effectively respond to the needs of the people.
(c) In the direct election, voters come in direct contact with their representatives and can get the remedies for their grievances.
(d) In this system, the voters can get political awareness by participating directly in the process of election.
(e) Here the voters are able to guage the performance, capability of the candidates and finally elect the good and best candidates.
(f) In view of the forthcoming elections, representatives keep regular contact with the constituency and people.

Question 4.
Explain the features of Indirect Elections. (March 2016, 2019)
Answer:
(a) In this system, the heads of the government are elected by the intelligent voters. For example the President of India is elected by the members of Parliament and State Assemblies.
(b) It avoids all sorts of evils like dirty propaganda tricks, instigation of people for petty issues to divide them as in the direct election system.
(c) In this method there is no scope for illegal activities or fights during the election as it happens in the direct election.
(d) In this system, there is no scope for members to influence the voters or misusing sensitive issues for political gains.
(e) Since majority of the voters are ignorant, not educated and intelligent in a countries like India, small group of politically educated and wise voters elect responsible representatives.

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Question 5.
Write the organization of Election Commission of India.
Answer:
Article 324 of Indian Constitution provides for the office of the Election Commission of India. It consists of three members. According to Article 342(2) Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India on the advice of Union Cabinet. The term of office is 6 years of service or 65 years of age whichever is earlier. Article 324(6) makes provision for the salaries, allowances and other privileges of the Election Commissioners and personnel.

The Parliament determines their salaries an”d borne by the Consolidated fund of India. According to Article 324(5). the Election Commissioners can be removed from their office in the same manner as the Judges of Supreme Court on the ground of proven misbehavior and incapability to discharge their constitutional obligations.

Question 6.
Explain the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India. (July 2015)
Answer:
The powers and functions of the Election Commission of India are as follows:
(a) Prepares electoral roll and its periodical revision.
(b) Holds elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and Offices of President and Vice President.
(c) It issues the time table for elections in different phases.
(d) It conducts by-election to vacant seats and re-poll in any booth.
(e) It grants recognition to political parties as National and Regional parties and allots symbols.
(f) It scrutinizes the nomination papers.
(g) It appoints officers and other staff members to conduct election and make necessary arrangements.
(h) It undertake the counting process and announce the results.
(i) It enforces code of conduct for the candidates during election.

Question 7.
Prepare a list of Chief Election Commissioners of India since 1950.
Answer:
2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 2 Elections and Party System In India - 1
2nd PUC Political Science Question Bank Chapter 2 Elections and Party System In India - 1

Question 8.
Write the merits of Electors Photo Identity Card (EPIC).
Answer:
The Electors Photo Identity Card is first introduced by the then Chief Election Commissioner
T.N. Sheshan in 1993. Follow ing are the merits:
(a) It removes the evil practices like corruption, impersonation and bogus voting.
(b) Free and fair elections can be conducted by introducing EPIC.
(c) The real voter can casts the vote by using EPIC.
(d) EPIC is essential to conduct the elections transparently and honestly.
(e) It is an official document issued by the Election Commission to all the eligible voters.
(f) It can also use to get the various benefits of the government.

Question 9.
What are the uses of Electronic Voting Machine? (March 2015-2017)
Answer:
The Electronic Voting Machine is first introduced in 1998. Its uses are as follows:
(a) In this system, the pace of poll is very simple. Voter can press the button against the name of the candidate of his choice.
(b) It can be easily operated and saves time.
(c) It avoids printing of lakhs of ballot papers and thus it is economic and eco friendly.
(d) It avoids invalid votes and irregularities and useful to illiterates.
(e) It ensures the principle of one man one vote.
(f) By using EVMs. accurate result can be declared fastly.

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Question 10.
Write about the mandatory disclosures of criminal antecedents of the contestants. (July 2017)
Answer:
To curb criminalization of politics, it is compulsory for all the candidates to show their criminal details while filing the nominations as per the Supreme Court decisions. Disqualification for criminal offences is provided in Representation of Peoples” Act 1951.
(a) As per the Act a person is disqualified from contesting election only on conviction by the court of law.
(b) Cases filed 6 months before election would lead to disqualification.
(c) Cases in which candidates have accused with the offence and sentenced for 2 or more years are disqualified to contest for election.
(d) With the offence proved by the court of law a person is not eligible to contest election or a period of 6 years.
Providing the above details in the nomination paper enable a voter to elect good and best representatives of their own choice.

Question 11.
Write about the mandatory disclosures of education antecedents of the contestants.
Answer:
The candidate has to file an affidavit to give information relating to his educational qualifications to enable a voter to choose his best choice.
(a) Being representative of the people one has to be educated and actively take part in the proceedings of the legislature, administration and in law making process.
(b) By knowing the educational details of the candidates, voters are able to elect qualified representatives.
(c) It is very essential for all the candidates to have at least minimum qualification to know the pulse of the people.
(d) Only educated reprcsentatice can understand the administration and participate actively.

Question 12.
Write a note on property antecedents of the contestant.
Answer:
Contesting an election is an expensive aspect in the present situation. Election Commission of India made it compulsory for all the candidates to furnish their movable and immovable property details while filing the nomination.
(a) It is clear that declaring the property antecedents, people are able to understand the credibility of the candidates.
(b) By declaring their property details, candidates can seek the vote before the people without any prejudice.
(c) it avoids the candidates who earns the property illegally from contesting the elections.
(d) It.curb the corruption in the administration as the people are watching honest) and sincerity of the representatives during their rule.

Question 13.
Write the development of party system in India since 1885.
Answer:
The political parties in India originated during the British rule and the Indian National Congress was the first party which was founded in 1885 by A.O. Hume. The leaders of this organization mobilized national opinion on an unprecedented scale and ultimately won political independence for the country.

Another political party which was founded during the British rule was the Communist Party of India in 1924. Besides these two parties All India Muslim League was emerged in 1906 and Hindu Mahasabha in 1916 which were communal in their outlook and character. Another political party founded in the pre-independence days was the Congress Socialist Party in 1934 and continued to work with the Congress party up to 1948.

Forward Block and Praja Socialist Part) are emerged in the successive years. In addition to these political parties, a number of state parties also made their appearance in the post-independence period in various states. These include Bharatiya Jan Sangh, Janata Dal. Samajawadi Party, Biju Janatha Dal. DMK. AIADMK. Telugu Desham. National Conference. Rashtriya Janata Dal, Trinmul Congress. Akali Dal, BSP. National Congress Party, JMM, Gorka National Liberation Front, Shiva Sena. etc. India has developed a multi-party system and the number of political parties is certainly much more than found in other democratic countries of the world.

Question 14.
Write a note on the Regional Parties.
Answer:
Regional political party means a party which generally operates within a limited geographical area. Its activities are confined to a single or handful of states. The regional parties represent the interests of particular linguistic, religious, ethnic or cultural groups w hich are concentrated in a particular area. The regional parties differ from the national parties both in terms of their outlook as well as the interests which they attempt to serve.

Their activities are focused on specific issues concerning the region and they operate within a limited area. Some of the main regional parties are Janata Dal(S) in Karnataka, Telugu Desham in Andhra Pradesh. DMK and AIADMK in Tamilnadu, Shivasena in Maharastra, Aakalidal in Punjab, National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, RJD in Bihar. SJP in Uttarapradesh, BJD in Odisha, AGP in Assam, TRS in Telengana.

Question 15.
Write about the era of coalition Government in India.
Answer:
A coalition government emerges in those countries which have a multi-party system. Where a country has many political parties and in an election no single party has been able to secure majority number of seats in the election, a coalition government is formed. Coalition implies a combination of parties. Thus, two or more political parties, due to lack of sole majority, made the alliance and forms the government on Common Minimum Programme. Coalition government was first formed in 1977 under the banner of Janatha party headed by Morarjee Desai.

The first Prime Minister ofa coalition government. Later on. in 1989. National Front was led by V.P. Singh formed coalition gov ernment. In 1996 United Front led by H.D. Devegowda. in 1999 National Democratic Alliance under the leadership of A.B. Vajapayee. in 2004 United Progressive Alliance led by Manmohan Singh and in 2014 National Democratic Alliance headed by Narendra Modi formed the coalition gov ernment in different stages of political situation.

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2nd PUC Political Science Elections and Party System In India Ten marks questions and answers:

Question 1.
Explain the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India. (July 2017) (March 2018)
Answer:
According to Article 324(1) of Indian Constitution, the powers and functions of the Election Commission of India are as follows:-

(a) It revise and prepares the electoral roll periodically.
(b) It hold elections to Parliament. State Assemblies, and offices of the President and Vice President.
(c) It announce the elections and issue the time table.
(d) It conducts the by-election to vacant seats and announce the repoll where the elections are disrupted.
(e) It grants recognition to political parties as National and State level parties and also allots ‘ the symbols to the parties.
(f) It scrutinizes the nomination papers and empovver.to reject the uncompleted nomination papers.
(g) It appoints officers and other stall’ members to conduct election and make necessary arrangements.
(h) It appoints the observers and micro observers to keep constant eye on the electoral process.
(i) It can undertake the counting process and declare the results. It can also withhold the election results on valid grounds.
(j) It can advice the President or the Governor at the time of disqualification of members of the House.
(k) It enforces the code of conduct for the candidates and political parties with relates to the election expenses and submission of accounts after election.
(l) As per the Representation of Peoples’ Act of 1950 and 1951, Election Commission of India conducts the process of election.

Question 2.
Describe the electrol reforms in India (March 2017)
Answer:
Elections in India is huge and complex. The electoral process also elaborate. In the course of the last 50 years the election process has show n a number of shortcomings which have arisen out of the politico-social, economic and cultural conditions prevailing in our country. Caste . and religious factors have become predominant. Vote banks, rigging, booth-capturing, proxy voting etc., have become common. In view of these, several electoral reforms have been taken up in recent years. They may be outlined as follows:-

(a) To provide representation to the country, the voting age was reduced from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.

(b) To overcome various problems arising in the election process. Electronic Voting Machines have been introduced.

(c) To discourage candidates who are not serious in contesting in the elections and to avoid multiplicity of such candidates, the deposit amount has been increased.

(d) To deal with proxy voting, identity cards with photographs is being issued to all voters by the Election Commission.

(e) In recognition of the voters right to information, the Election Commission has decided on mandatory disclosure of their antecedents by the candidates.

(f) To curb the role of money in elections and to enable the service minded persons to contest in the elections, Tndraj it Gupta Committee recommended for state funding of elections.

(g) In order to ensure free and fair elections, the candidates should furnish the details about their educational qualifications, movable and immovable property and criminal background.

(h) In order to promote the elections more trustworthy. Election Commission of India has . introduced VVPAT and VSDL! devices along w ith EVMs during pooling.

Question 3.
Explain the mandatory disclosures during elections.
Answer:
Mandatory disclosure of antecedents of the candidates:-
The candidates have to disclose their personal details of criminal, education and property while filing their nominations. This is to facilitate the right candidates to contest the elections.

1. Criminal antecedents: To curb criminalization of politics, it is compulsory for all the candidates to show their criminal details while filing the nominations as per the Supreme Court decisions. Disqualification for criminal offences is provided in Representation of Peoples” Act 1951.

(a) As per the Act a person is disqualified from contesting election only on conviction by the court of law.
(b) Cases filed 6 months before election would lead to disqualification.
(c) Cases in which candidates have accused with the offence and sentenced for 2 or more years are disqualified to contest for election.
(d)  With the offence proved by the court of law a person is not eligible to contest election or a period of 6 years.
Providing the above details in the nomination paper enable a voter to elect good and best representatives of their own choice.

2. Educational antecedents: The candidate has to file an affidavit to give information relating to his educational qualifications to enable a voter to choose his best choice.
(a) Being representative of the people one has to be educated and actively take part in the proceedings of the legislature, administration and in law making process.
(b) By knowing the educational details of the candidates, voters are able to elect qualified representatives.
(c) It is very essential for all the candidates to have at least minimum qualification to know the pulse of the people.
(d) Only educated reprcsentatice can understand the administration and participate actively.

(3) Property antecedents: Contesting an election is an expensive aspect in the present situation. Election Commission of India made it compulsory for all the candidates to furnish their movable and immovable property details while filing the nomination.
(a) It is clear that declaring the property antecedents, people are able to understand the credibility of the candidates.
(b) By declaring their property details, candidates can seek the vote before the people without any prejudice.
(c) it avoids the candidates who earns the property illegally from contesting the elections.
(d) It curb the corruption in the administration as the people are watching honest) and sincerity of the representatives during their rule.

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Question 4.
Explain the recommendations of Indrajith Gupta Committee regarding State funding.
Answer:
An educated person with high caliber and social concern fails to get elected due to lack of money. To encourage competent, capable individuals with honesty and integrity’, certain measures have been taken by’ the concern authority. The state by providing material benefits like supply’of fuel for vehicles, papers for election literature and other purposes checks the candidates from becoming corrupt. With regard to state funding of elections. Indrajit Gupta Committee was formed in 1998. The Committee recommended as follows:-

(a) To Minimize the election expenses of political parties, a part of it to be borne by the State.
(b) State funding should be in the form of kind not in cash.
(c) It recommended separate election fund to be created and the annual contribution of central government is Rs.600 crores and that of all the states should be Rs.600 crores.
(d) State funding to be confined to the recognized parties by the Election Commission.
(e) To avail the state funding benefits the political parties must submit their income tax returns.
(f) Free election telecasting and broad casting to all the political parties on government owned Television. Radio and other private channels.
(g) The details of expenditure should be given to the Election Commission within the specified time.
(h) It recommended for reasonable restrictions writing on wall, display of cutouts, banners, posters and buntings.

Question 5.
Describe the nature of Indian party systerm
Answer:
Political parties play a vital role in a democracy. India has the largest democracy in the world. It has many political parties which operate at various levels viz., local, state and national levels. The nature of Indian party system is as follows:

(a) Extra constitutional growth:- There is no reference in the Constitution of India about how many political parties are to be existed in the country. According to Article 19 of the Constitution, all citizens can have freedom to form associations or unions. Political parties established on the basis of this liberty. Hence political parties have no constitutional base.

(b) Prevalence of multi party system: India is a divergent country with many religions, tribes, languages, culture and traditions. The heterogeneity’ leads to the emergence of many political parties to protect their interests in the stream of the country’.

(c) Split and merger: It is a common phenomenon in the Indian party system. Various reasons contributed for split like ideological differences, egoism, power hunger, etc.

(d) End of single party era: India was under Congress rule till 1977. The happenings between 1975 -1977 forced small parties to unit and fight against Congress and capture power and put an end to single party’ era.

(e) Dissident activities: Meanness of leaders like personal attitudes, favoritism, nepotism lead to dissent activities. Repetition of such happenings instigates leaders to go against the ideology of the party and paves way to political instability.

(f) Defection: Elected members of the Legislature change their parties often for personal benefits or differences of opinion and many more reasons. It ruins the values of democracy and destabilizes the government.

(g) Leader worship: Most of the political parties in India emphasize on the leaders then the ideologies of the parties. The leaders decides the destiny of the political party.

(h) Alliances without principles: Political parties are formed with principles of democracy and secularism but they ignore them for want of pow er and make unholy alliances.

(i) Dominance of regional parties: The presence of regional parties during first general election did not influence the voters hence they were rejected. During 1980’s they emerged very strong and dominated the political scenario.

(j) Religious, lingual and regionalism: The basis of political parties in India is religion, language, regionalism and the like.

(k) Leftist and rightist parties: Party system in India consists of Leftist and Rightist ideologies. Eg. CPI, CPi(M) who have belief in revolutionary ideology and drastic changes in the system. Parties like BJP, Akalidal. Shivasena believe in moderate changes in the system.

(l) The era of coalition: When no single political parts secures absolute majority, various political parties come together and made the alliance and form the coalition government. The era of coalition started during 1977 and still existing.

Question 6.
Explain the functions of political parties (July 2015,2016,2018)
Answer:
Political parties are essential in the democratic system. Without political parties democratic government cannot work successfully. In fact they are indispensable to democracy. Democracy and .political parties are inseparable. Political parties perform very vital functions in the democratic process. They are as follows:

(a) To formulate the party programme: In formulating its programmes or policies, eveiy political party tries to keep in view its own ideology, aims and objectives. It then publishes its manifesto on the eve of the elections. Political parties ensure that all sections of the party throughout their ranks, propagate and support them. It then appeals to as large a number of voters as possible.

(b) To propagate the party programme and educate the people: Political parties impart political education to the people and make them to realize their responsibilities. The ideologies along with the previous achievements are highlighted to attract the voters during the electioneering.

(c) To win elections and capture power: This is their main objective. To achieve this objective all political parties field their candidates for the elections and undertake to support by campaigning. It is this process that almost all the political parties have been consumed by the craze for power.

(d) Formation of government: After the declaration of the results, the party- which secures majority forms the government. The administration is earned on in accordance with the mandatory provisions of the Constitution.

(e) Acts as opposition party: The political party which fails to secure majority in the election act as opposition party. It act as constructive opposition against the bad policies and programs of the government.

(f) Public opinion and policy: As in all democracies. Indian political parties function like brokers of ideas. They play an active role in molding public opinion by making use of the publicity media. They present different policy alternativ es to the problems confronting the nation.

Question 7.
Bring out the main provisions of Anti-defection Act (March 2018, July 2015)
Answer:
The Anti-defection Act 1985, also known as the 52nd Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted to prevent the problems of defection of Members of Parliament and State Assemblies from one political party to another. The main provisions of the Act are as follows:-

(a) A Member of Parliament or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily quits his party.

(b) He will be disqualified from his membership if he votes against his party Whip in the session.

(c) A Member of Parliament or State Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified from hi.s membership if he votes in the session without prior permission of his party

(d) A nominated member shall be disqualified from his membership in the Upper House if he joins any political party’ after 6 months from the date on which he assumes his position.

(e) If l/3rd strength of any political party merges with another political party shall be considered as defection.

(f) A person disqualified under this Act shall not be provided any office or profit.

(g) The Anti-defection Law determines the size of the Council of Ministers. The size of the Council of Ministers of Union shall not exceed 15% of the total members of Lok Sabha and similar to that of State Legislative Assembly.

(h) Speaker can initiate action against the members under Anti-defection Law.

(i) The Chairpersons of Legislature are permitted to frame the rules to implement this Law.

(j) An independent member of the house shall be disqualified, if he joins any party after election.

(k) A person shall not be disqualified if his original party merges with another party under this Law.

(l) The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha and Deputy’ Chairman of Rajya Sabha. the Presiding officers of State Legislatures shall not be disqualified under Anti defection Law if they quit their original party.

(m) A person who is disqualified under Anti-defection Law, can challenge the orders of the Speaker before the Court.