Students can Download 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 3 with Answers, Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Papers with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 3 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1=10)
How is the word Demography derived?
The word demography is derived from two Greek words
- Demos (people) and
- Graphein (describe) implying the description of people.
Which year is called as Demographic Divide?
Who popularised the word Harijana?
Mahatma Gandhi popularised the word Harijana.
Mention any one dominant caste of Karnataka.
State the provisions of Article 17 of Indian Constitution.
Article 17 of Indian Constitution abolishes untouchability.
Mention any one advantage of joint family.
Joint family promotes socialism in wealth.
Integrated Rural Development Programme.
State any one character of a village.
Agriculture and its allied activities are the major occupation.
Who has edited the book ‘Social Movements in India’?
Mention any one business community of India.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 to 5 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
What is communalism?
It refers to the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions.
Mention any two functions of caste panchayaths.
- Caste Panchayaths impose restrictions on social intercourse, marriages, commercial and occupations.
- Violations of caste norms attract punishments.
Who are Backward Classes?
Backward classes are castes or classes who are characterised by low literacy’or lack of education, poverty, exploitation, non-representation in services.
What is gender discrimination?
Discrimination against people based on their gender.
Mention any two features of microfinance.
Loans without security, loans to BPL families.
Write the definition of joint family defined by Iravathi Karve.
A joint family is a group of people who generally lived under one roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, participate in common family worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred.
Mention any two functions of Grama Panchayath.
- Provision of water supply.
- Maintenance of sanitation.
Mention any two online shopping sites.
Write the name of any two popular Kannada newspapers.
Yijaya Karnataka and Kannada Prabha.
What is social movement?
Social movement is an organised attempt on the part of a section of people to bring about either partial or total changes in society through collective mobilization and an ideology.
State the two areas affected by westernization.
Technology and Institutions.
Mention any two multinational companies.
Reliance and Pepsi.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Briefly explain the Dr. Sampurnananda Committee recommendations.
The Central Education Ministry organized a ‘Committee for National Integration’ in 1961 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand. The Integration Committee gave some recommendations to promote and strengthen national integration. Some of them are stated below:
1. Re-organization of the syllabi at various levels – primary, secondary, college and university levels- to promote national integration.
2. Giving due encouragement to extra-curricular activities besides imparting formal knowledge to the students with the intention of promoting national unity.
3. Improvement of textbooks helps a great deal in giving a true national perspective to the students. They can be made to understand their rich cultural heritage and feel proud of their nation.
4. Conducting community programmes such as mass prayers, mass meetings, speeches by respected leaders, etc., to help to bring the people together.
Apart from the governmental efforts to achieve the goal of national unity, various stakeholders such as educational institutions, religious/cultural associations and mass media should involve in chalking out action-based programmes to enhance awareness/dissemination of traditional values among the masses and increase cultural exchange banking on the richness of our cultural heritage and diversity.
Special steps should be taken by various interest groups to speed up development of economically and socially backward groups who are the easy victims of violent activities.
Explain the changes in caste system during British rule.
The impact of British rule on caste system in India
maybe studied under the following heads.
- Introduction of Universalistic Legal system.
- Impact of English Education.
- Impact of Social Reform Movements.
- Influence of New Social Formation.
- Impact of Freedom Struggle.
- Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization.
1. Introduction of Universalistic Legal System:
The establishment of British courts removed authority from the purview of caste panchayats. Under this new principle of justice, all are equal before the law, and the caste panchayats lost their former importance.
Some major legislation were the following:
- The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850. This act served to remove some of the disabilities associated with castes including the practice of untouchability.
- The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, This act made legal, provision for the Hindu widows to remarry.
- The Special Marriage Act of 1872 considered marriage as a civil contract and legalized inter-caste or inter-religious marriages.
- Other legislative and administrative measures were put into effect, like Government schools to be open to all classes of subjects, stopping of gran s to schools and refusing admission to depressed class, public places to be men to everybody and constitutional provisions for representation in legislative bodies for them.
2. Impact of English Education:
British education was based on scientific, secular and universal principles. It was made accessible to everyone, irrespective of caste or community. It remained liberal in content. It propagated principles such as the liberty equality and fraternity.
As education spread to the lower strata, it kindled libertarian impulses among them. Western education provided an indispensable passport to the new economic opportunities. Members from the lower castes became professionals and embraced the new commercial opportunities offered by western education.
3. Impact of Social Reform Movements:
Social reform movements brought changes in the caste system in British period. They set out to eradicate caste and to establish a casteless and, classless society. Brahma Samaj by Rajaram Mohan Roy, Prarthana Samaj by Atmaram Pandurang, Arya Samaj by Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi, Ramakrishna Mission by Swami Vivekananda, Theosophical Society by Annie Besant and Divine Life Society by Maharshi Arabindo Ghosh were leading movements. All these organizations aimed at the destruction of caste system and social reconstruction of Indian society.
4. Impact of New Social Formations:
The new economic system brought about a new grouping of the population in the economic sphere. The Indians got differentiated into capitalists, workers, peasants, propritiators, merchants, tenants, landlords, doctors, lawyers, teachers and technicians. Each category being composed of individuals belonging to various castes, but having identical material! and political interests. This division weakened the vertical caste lines.
Thus there came into existence such, organizations as Mil! Owners Associations, Ail India Trace Union Congress. All India Kishan Sabha and etc., these groups struggled for their own interests. In the process of this struggle, they developed a new consciousness and outlook and a new solidarity, which slowly weakened the caste consciousness.
5. Impact of Freedom Struggle:
The growth of the nationalist movement played a great role in weakening caste consciousness. In India, the presence of foreign rule was a permanent stimulus to the Indians to unite on a national basis. Thus the growth of the national movement undermined the caste consciousness.
6. Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization:
The growth of Industries destroyed the old craft and provided new ways to earn a livelihood. Occupational mobility and movement from compact ancestral villages started breaking down the caste norms. New transport facilities, specially crowded trains and buses, threw together millions of people of all castes and left little room for the necessities of ceremonial purity.
Taboos on food and water gradually weakened when industrial workers belonging to various castes started working under one roof and having food at a common canteen. The demarcation observed by the members of different castes regarding eating food, physical contact with those of other castes, steadily crumbled in cities.
Explain the role of Ambedkar in the welfare of Scheduled Castes.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, popularly known as Baba Saheb stood for the emancipation of untouchables. Being the chief architect of the constitution of India guarantees, protects, and safeguards the rights and interests of all in general and of untouchables in particular. Ambedkar wanted to instill in the hearts of untouchables, the ideas of self-dignity, self-confidence and self-respect.
For the very same purpose, he had started the ‘Bahishikrita Hitakarini Sabha’. The movement he had started was known as ‘self-respect movement’. In order to attain a respectable position in society, he asked untouchables to follow five principles, i.e., Pancha Sutras’. They are; Self Improvement, Self-Dependence, Self-Respect, Self-Confidence and Self Progress.
In order to create awareness among the untouchables, Ambedkar started a paper called Mooka Nayaka. He brought them under one banner; organized ‘All-India Depressed Classes Conference’ in 1942 at Nagpur. In his dalit movement, Ambedkar suggested three principles: Education, Agitation and Organization.
Explain the structural changes in joint families.
Changes in Joint Family:
Changes in joint family can be divided into structural and functional changes.
Changes in the Structure of the Joint Family system:
1. Changes in the Size of the Joint family:
The size of the joint family is decreasing. Joint family consists of people belonging to two or three generations, which may be comprised of 8 – 10 members.
2. Changes in Ownership of Property:
The ownership of property of joint family has changed due to the implementation of The Hindu Inheritance and Succession Act 1956 and other legislative and legal facilities which provide equal property rights for women.
3. Changes in Authority:
In the present day, the authority of head of the family or Kartha has changed. The patriarchal character of joint family is losing its importance.
4. Changes in the Status of Women:
In the post-independent India, women have a very respectable position, if not entirely an equal position on par with men. This is a positive improvement in this regard.
5. Change in the selection of mates and Conjugal relationships:
Earlier, elder members of the family used to select partners for their children without consulting them. But nowadays, both parents and children jointly make the selection of spouses.
6. Changes in the Relations of In-laws:
In the recent times, the relationships among inlaws in a joint family have undergone drastic changes.
7. Weakening of Family Norms:
Due to the impact of ideas like liberty, egalitarianism, and democracy, the traditional norms and values of joint families have changed.
8. Increasing popularity of dependent Nuclear Family:
Education, economic and employment opportunities have compelled young men and women to go out of the family to faraway places and settle in the places of their choice. But at times of difficulties and happy situations, these families seek support from the joint family and are ready to provide necessary assistance to the basic family.
Describe the major social problems of Indian villages.
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education coupled with high rate of dropout rate has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc.
There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of Indian society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communication facilities are not up to the mark.
b. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified U. the following causes of poverty in rural areas:
- Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
- Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
- Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall.
- Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate exposure to modern skills.
- Non-availability of electricity for agriculture.
- Poor quality of livestock.
- Imperfect and exploited credit market, communication facilities and markets.
- Low level of education.
- Absence of dynamic community leadership.
- Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes.
- Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries.
- Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., and people unwilling to discard expensive customs.
c. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas while 70% of the country’s population live in villages. This shows the extent to which skilled medical care is lacking in the rural areas. Fertility and Birth rate, as well as death rates, are very high in the villages. Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high.
The problems of Malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria, Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housings are very much unsanitary’ while the addiction to alcohol & nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse.
Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazards in rural areas. There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and-fertilisers. It affects not only the yield but also health of the
Explain the elements of Social movements.
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.
provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.
2. Collective Mobilization:
The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non-institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
3. Leadership and Organization:
These are closely linked to the process of collective mobilisation. A leader can be a charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the nature of unity in India.
In India aspects of Diversity and Unity co-exist as described below.
1. Regional Unity:
The Natural boundaries provide India a geographical unity. In ancient times India was known as Bharatavarsha, Bharathakanda, Jambudweepa. This symbolizes the significance of historical unity. The very name “Bharatavarsha” has occupied an important place in the minds of poets, political philosophers, and religious thinkers.
Each of them has conceived of the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, a country ruled by one king Bharatha. The concept of Mother India also indicates the realization of geographical unity.
2. Linguistic Unity:
Sanskrit as a common base of Indian languages provides the basis of unity as a result of which the linguistic multiplicity has been solved. Simultaneously, Sanskrit became the language of Hindu culture and all classics were composed in this language, which demanded reverence and respect. People may speak different languages in different regions but they have common language of English and Hindi to communicate with each other.
The formation of linguistic states and using regional languages as medium of teaching at schools, colleges and universities are the products of Independence, In 2004 the govt, of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a classical language in India. Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013) and Oriya (2014) are declared as classical languages of India. Thus, it is an effort to restore linguistic heritage of India.
3. Religious Unity:
In spite of the religious diversities, it possesses religious unity. The feelings of each religious groups are the same, each accepts the truth of immortality of soul, temporary nature of world, belief in rebirth, the doctrine of karma, Salvation, Contemplation, etc.,
There may be differences in the way these elements are treated but each religion preaches a fundamentally single religious faith and shares a belief in purity and values of life in respect of belief in unseen power, benevolence, piety, honesty, and liberality, with every religious faith.
The worshippers may visit different centers of pilgrimage, but all have a common goal of “Earning religious merit by visiting a sacred place”. India is the sacred land not only for the Hindus but also for Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists. The Muslims and Christians too have several sacred centers of pilgrimage in India.
In art and architecture, dress and food, literature, music and dance, sports and cinema, medicine and technology there was a fusion of style and the emergence of new forms which were the result of their combined efforts.
Thus it became apparently clear from the above account that running through various diversities. India has been helped both by nature and nurture, by her geographical condition and historical experiences, by her religious ethics, and political ideas.
To realize a unity to perceive, preserve and strengthen the thread of basic unity which makes India a fine example of unity in diversity, transcending birth, caste, language, ethnicity and religious groupings to establish a big society and a big nation. Modern education, the development of a network of transport and communications, industrialization and urbanization have provided new bases for unity.
Discuss the problems of Scheduled Castes.
1. Social Disabilities
- Denial or restriction of access to public facilities, such as wells, schools and roads.
- Restrictions on movement were also imposed. Untouchables were not allowed to walk on roads and streets within prescribed distance of the houses or persons of higher castes.
2. Economic Disabilities :
- Exclusion from honourable and profitable employments and limited to dirty or menial occupations.
- Restrictions on style of life, especially in the use of goods indicating comfort or luxury. Riding on horseback, use of bicycles, wearing of gold and silver ornaments, all of these were forbidden in many areas.
- Liability to unremunerated labour for the higher castes and to the performance of menial services for them.
3. Religious Disabilities:
In Indian society, untouchables were subjected to various religious restrictions. They were prevented from entering temples, Monasteries and cremation grounds and could not make use of them because it was believed that these places would become impure by their touch and presence. The untouchables could not worship in the temples. Their presence was considered sufficient to defile the God.
They were not allowed to read and listen to the Holy Scriptures.D.N. Majumdar summarized the position of the untouchable castes by maintaining that these castes are not depressed in all states, the same caste may be depressed in one area but may not suffer from any social and political disability in another. The disabilities are rigid where the depressed castes are numerically small, and fewer or on the decline where they numerically strong.
Where the higher castes are not numerous and the depressed castes form the bulk of population, the degree of ceremonial pollution observed is very small and often we find few disabilities attached to the inferior castes. A caste may be depressed but individual members of the caste who have succeeded in life and who are wealthy and own property have been admitted to a higher social status.
Explain the causes for changes in joint family
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families. This struck at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture has come down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs. The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life concerning transport and communication, sanitation and health, education and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. Gradually joint family hold is losing its control and nuclear families in cities have become the norm.
3. Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapid growth of population has brought corresponding increase of pressure on land. Agriculture being the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth face the problem of unemployment. People have begun to move to cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which has resulted in the breakdown of jointness.
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into various better paying jobs or professions. Modern education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values and ideologies of the people, but has also created the individualistic feelings. The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment leading to economic independence.
5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements and awareness among the women of their own position, all these have affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modern education has enlightened women. Education has made them conscious of their rights and status in the society. It has brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family.
They are no longer prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position. Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothiba Phule, Maharshi Karve, Pandit Ramabai and many others have worked and achieved considerable success to the cause of women. All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that the process of disintegration has set in the joint family system.
6. Social Legislations:
Legislations enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the Rights of Women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937.
Sati Prevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 have brought changes in family relations. After independence the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to adult males and females to many according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds. All these legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old age pension, widow pension, etc.
Explain the importance of village studies.
Importances of village studies are summarized below.
1. Field Work is an Antidote to Book View:
According to M.N. Srinivas, studies of Indian village communities would be of great significance for planners and administrators. Information provided by a Sociologist is based on his intensive fieldwork experience and no account of book knowledge can ever be a substitute for this.
M.N.Srinivas undertook a study on Rampura village near Mysore, with a view to highlight that the agricultural practices of the Indian peasant can only be understood in the context of his Technology, level of knowledge, legal and social institutions, religion and way of life. He has recorded his experience in Rampura village in his work ‘Remembered Village’.
2. Calculated opposition to change:
Over the last hundred years or more, the peasant has been represented as extremely conservative, pigheaded, ignorant and superstitious. But the Sociological studies do not subscribe to this view. McKim Marriot’s study of Kishan Garhi village in Uttar Pradesh reveals that the peasants had accepted new crops, techniques of cultivation, etc., and had opposed only a few changes.
Thus, the headman of Rampura village wanted bull-dozers and electricity, but not a school. Electricity and bull-dozer would get him name and fame, his authority over others becomes stronger, etc. But, a school would make labour scarcer, educated poor people may lose respect they have for the rich and soon.
There are key persons in each village thus, who exploit every change to their benefit. If he then opposes the tool or process, it is not because of stupidity but because of his intelligence. Only a field-study of the village community could shed light on aspects which otherwise go unnoticed.
3. Literary Bias:
Literature on caste states that caste is immobile. This is not a fact as through Sanskritization, castes have tried to move up on the local hierarchy. This is also true of the conditions of women. Condition of women prevalent among the upper castes were generalized to include all Hindus. But, the truth is that the women of lower castes are better placed in comparison to women of upper castes.
Observation of Hindu social life has been vitiated by book view and the upper-caste view. Thus, the only solution for this literary bias lies in doing field research. Field-studies suggest something different, from what is found in religious texts. It is clear that the book-view and upper-caste view’ may be biased and need not be a fact always. Only field research can help us to overcome literary bias and accept facts about village communities.
4. Recording for later evaluation:
Prof. Yogesh Atal states that “Roots of the present are always to be found in the past and an analysis of the present would guide the future. Hence, a comparison and evaluation of the impact of planned change at a later date necessarily demands that the present be recorded”.
5. Development of Analytical Categories:
The study of Indian village community has helped in developing certain analytical categories. Field studies conducted in different parts of the country point to the existence of certain processes of change which have been labeled either locally or on an all India basis.
For instance, analytical models like Sanskritization and Westernisation (M.N. Srinivas), Kulinisation (N. Prasad), De-Sanskritization (Majumdar), Universalisation and Parochialisation (McKim Marriot), Great tradition and little tradition (Robert Redfield), etc., have helped in the analysis of transformation that the village communities are undergoing. A. R. Desai’s Rural Sociology in India is an important work in this regard.
6. Village Studies are important for Social Reformation:
Prof. Ramakrishna Mukher- jee’s analysis makes it clear that the village has become the centre of all discussions and debates. Plan, Budget, Administrative strategy, etc., all have become rural area oriented. Thus, planners, economists, administrators, sociologists, reformers and others concentrate on village and are busy collecting data on them. Under the impact of planned and non-directed changes, villages are undergoing transformation. Thus, there is the need for the study of village communities in India.
Write a note on the Pushkar annual fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep and goats.
The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu God Brahma sprung up from the Pushkar Lake.
Lot of people take a holy dip in its sacred waters. There are many such fairs having socio, economic and religions importance taking place in Karnataka QJ also. Fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere(dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar are some noteworthy examples.
Discuss the factors facilitating globalization.
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of societies across the world, with the spread of 5 the same culture and economic interests across the globe. For example, media and consumer products are often produced for a world market, by the same firms running business all over the world. Factors Contributing to Globalization: Anthony Gir – has explained the following factors as contributing to Globalization:
1. The Rise of Information and Communications Technology:
The explosion in global communications has been facilitated by a number of important advances in technology and the world’s telecommunication infrastructure. The spread of communication satellites has also been significant in expanding international communications. Today a network of more than 200 satellites is in space to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe.
The use of Satellites, Internet, Telephones, Computer Networking, known as Information and Communication Technologies – ICT – have revolutionised the way the world communicates. You could be chatting online, through the internet, with your friend or. family, who is thousands of miles away, and feel that you share your everyday travails much more than a person who is closer home like your neighbor. You could be working in India for a company that is located in the United States of America through telecommunication technologies.
2. Information Flows:
It has also facilitated the flow of information about people and events in distant places. Every day, the global media brings news, images, and information into homes, linking them directly and continuously to the outside world. Some of the most gripping events of the past three decades – such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, the violent crackdown on democratic protesters in China’s Tiananmen Square and the Terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 11 September 2001, Spring movement in Arabian countries, have unfolded through the media before global audience.
Such events, along with thousands of information, have resulted in a reorientation in people’s thinking from the level of the nation-state to the global stage. In the case of natural disasters, such interventions take the form of humanitarian relief and technical assistance. In recent years, earthquakes in Armenia and Turkey, floods in Mozambique and Bangladesh, famine in Africa and hurricanes in Central America have been rallying points for global assistance.
3. Knowledge Society:
The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment, and Telecommunications into their everyday lives. The very operation of the global economy reflects the changes that have occurred in the information age. Many aspects of the economy now work through networks that cross national boundaries, rather than stopping at them.
4. Transnational Corporations:
In globalization, the role of transnational corporations is particularly important. Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Indian corporations like Reliance, TATAs, Birla Groups, Infosys, Mahindras, TVS group, Wipro, etc. Even when trans-national corporations have a clear national base, they are oriented towards global markets and global profits. Transnational corporations are at the heart of economic globalization.
5. The Electronic Economy:
Globalization is also being driven forward by the integration of the world economy. In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer primarily agricultural or industrial in its basis. Rather, it is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This U weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media and; entertainment products and Internet-based services.
The ‘Electronic Economy’ is another factor ‘that underpins economic globalization. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. As the global economy becomes increasingly integrated, a financial collapse in one part of the world can have an enormous effect on distant economies.
6. Political changes:
Another driving force behind contemporary globalization is related to political change. These are:
a. The collapse of Soviet-style communism in 1991. The collapse of communism has hastened processes of globalization but should also be seen as a result of globalization itself.
b.The important political factor leading to intensifying globalization is the Growth of International and Regional Mechanisms of Government namely The United Nations and the European Union. SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) and BRICS (Brazil; Russia, India, China and South Africa) are; the two most prominent examples of international organizations that bring together nation-states into a common political forum.
Finally, globalization is being driven by International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) and International Non¬governmental Organizations (INGOs). An IGO is a body that is established by Participating governments and given responsibility for regulating or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope. The first such body, The International Telegraph Union, was founded in 1865. Since that time, a great number of similar bodies have been created.
In 1909, there were only 37 IGOs in existence to regulate transnational affairs; by 1996, there were 260. Some of the best-known INGOs – such as Greenpeace, Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross and Amnesty International-are involved in environmental protection and humanitarian efforts. But the activities of thousands of lesser-known groups also link together countries and communities.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the features of caste system.
Life of every member of the Indian society is to a large extent influenced by three systems viz., joint family, caste system and village community. They influence one’s occupation, food, dress habits, philosophy, and marriage. The study of caste system is important because caste in India is an all pervasive and deep rooted social institution.
Definitions of Caste
1. Herbert Risley has defined caste as “A collection of families or a group of families bearing a common name, claiming common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarding by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community”.
2. S. V. Kethkar in his work ‘History of Caste in India’ states that A caste is a group having two characteristics
- Membership is confined to only those who are born of other members.
- The members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group (Endogamy)”.
1. Caste as a Segmental Division of Society:
The society is divided into various castes with a well developed life of their own. The membership in a caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined.by birth. Each caste has a council of its own, known as caste Panchayat.
Caste panchayats imposed certain restrictions on social intercourse between castes like marriages commensal and occupational interactions. By these restrictions, each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attracted punishment from the caste panchayat depending on the seriousness of the violations.
2. The Beginning Hierarchy:
The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or as superior and inferior associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
3. Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse:
There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
4. Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections:
Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restrictions on using public roads, water facilities, Hotels, etc.
5. Restrictions on occupations:
According to G.S. Ghurye, every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
6. Restrictions on Marriages (Endogamy):
Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status regarding marriages, inter caste marriages were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into sub-casteS, and these sub castes were the units of endogamy.”
Explain the traditional features of joint family.
“Joint family is a group of kins of several generations, ruled by a head, in which there is a joint residence, common kitchen and property, where members are bound with each other by natural obligation”.
- Iravati Karve (Kinship Organization in India) “A joint family is a group of people who ‘ generally live under one roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, participate in common family worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred”.
- K.M. Kapadia (Marriage and Family in India) “Joint Family is a group formed not only of a couple and their children but also other relations either from father’s side or from mother’s side depending on whether the joint family is patrilineal or matrilineal.”
1. Depth of Generations:
Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents, and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins and great grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment, etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation, members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the; common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members are engaged in different kitchen duties. A single kitchen under a common roof is a unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity or ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious traditions. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites and ceremonies. At least once a year, they join other members to take part in festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met out of that.
6. Exercise of Authority:
In the patriarchal joint family usually the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises the supreme authority.
7. Arranged Marriages:
In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is neglected. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days, selecting a life partner to a family member is more democratic in nature.
8. Identification with Mutual rights and obligations towards the Family:
Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests, and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as the guide for junior members.
Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It used to meet the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. Today no other type of family is self-reliant that way today.
Explain the concept of Sanskritization.
Inspite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites twice-born’ (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best way of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.
According to a strict rule of Brahminism, pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced. It was the foremost duty of a Brahmin father to give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, otherwise, he would be committing a great sin. Marriages among the Brahmin was indissoluble.
On the other hand, among the lower Hindu castes, post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of marriage was possible. Now, in order to rise up in the caste hierarchy, the lower Hindu castes started practicing pre-puberty marriages and marriages also became indissoluble.
3. Treatment of Widows:
The normal existence of a brahmin widow was very pathetic. For instance, a Brahmin widow was not allowed to re-marry and got a miserable, treatment. She was required to shave off her head rind not allowed wearing ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions.
On the other hand, among the low castes, marriages are dissoluble and widow re-marriages are permitted. Widows are not required to shave their heads. The codes which regulate sexual behaviour are not as strict as those among the higher castes. In the imitation process, these groups also banned widow-remarriages and started treating the widows in the same way like ‘High’ Hindus.
4. Treatment of Women:
Comparatively, women among the high caste Hindus receive bad treatment and hold a secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives is preferred. A wife is expected to treat her husband as God. Women perform a number of ‘Vratas’ or Religious vows with the aim of ensuring a long life for the husbands.
During menstruation and childbirth, women from the high castes were treated as untouchables, and their presence was considered as inauspicious. Hence they are not allowed to attend important religious functions. Women among the lower castes generally receive a better treatment and occupy a good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they too started treating their women in a bad manner and put them in a secondary position.
According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, sanskritization stresses the importance of the patrilineal lineage, and it results in increasing the importance of sons.” The members of higher castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are equally preferred. For instance, among non-Brahmins though a son is preferred, a daughter is also in demand. The treatment that a girl child receives is not as harsh as that of a Brahmin girl. Nowadays, even lower castes prefer sons to daughters.
Sanskritization has also resulted in the use of certain ideas and values which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature, such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha, etc. The Twice-born castes use these ideas in their conversation. Through the process of Sanskritization, lower caste groups are getting exposed to these ideas and values and use them in their conversation.
7. Food Habits:
Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarian except Kashmiri, Saraswath and Bengali Brahmins. The lower castes usually are non-vegetarian. Sanskritization results in the change of food habits in the direction of high, frequently twice-born castes. Some of the lower cashes have become strict vegetarians and practice teetotalism in order to raise the caste hierarchy.
8. Dress Habits:
As has already been pointed out, Dwijas are entitled to wear the sacred thread ‘yagnopaveeta’ after the vedic rites of upanayana, while Shudras are not eligible for that. Some lower castes do wear the sacred thread and also imitate the dress style of the upper caste such as wearing dhoti, shalya, turban, Kachchi, panache, etc.
Many of the low castes started giving names to their new borns names normally associated with the higher castes. For example, in place of the traditional and typical names such as Kariya, Kempa, Kempi, Kala, Honni, Thimmi, etc., they have started giving names such Rama, Krishna, Shankara, Madhava, Gowri, Parvathi, Lakshmi, Shobha, Radha and so on to their kids.
Briefly discuss the Backward Class Movement and the Commissions in Karnataka.
The backward class movement in Karnataka is desire of the under-privileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the. economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are better off and some are not so due to the opportunities they get. By such opportunities people who are already well – off equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins. By 1917, these groups formed an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali. In 1918, this mandali pleaded with Maharaja of Mysore for representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions.
In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller was formed to study this. Miller committee recommended the acceptance of all their demands. Since then, Backward classes in Mysore state have availed benefits in the field of education, employment and political arena.
A. Naganna Gowda Commission:
The Karnataka Government appointed a Backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda, It is the First Backward Class Commission in Karnataka. The Commission submitted its report in 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing total 68% of reservation. The government’s attempt to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
B. L. G Havanoor Commission:
In 1972, the government appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G. Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities, there was no constitutional provision for giving it. Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However it was challenged in Supreme Court and govt, gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
C. Venkataswamy Commission:
In 1983, the government appointed the Venkataswamy Commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created wide spread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish one more commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
D. Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy Commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs quota is 32%. Based on the Mandal Commission’s report, the Supreme Court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission at the centre as well as in states and union territories.
Accordingly, a permanent Backward Classes Commission was set up in Karnataka. Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih (2003-2006), Dr. G. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011 – 13) headed the Backward Classes Commission in Karnataka. At present H. Kantharaj is the Chairman of Karnataka State Backward class Commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Tribes are enlisted as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. ( 2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on population policy.
In The Family planning’ was renamed as ‘family welfare”. The Government of India adopted the UNPF (United Nations Population Fund) guideline of delaying the -first child and spacing the subsequent birth(s). The Primary health Centres that are engaged in family planning programmes, perform two specific functions: providing services to the people and disseminating information about these services in an effective manner in order to motivate the people to accept family planning.
The major objective of family planning is “To increase individual happiness and to enhance health of the society”.
National Population Policy 2000 [NPP-2000]: is the latest in the series. It reaffirms the commitment of the government towards administering family planning services. The object of NPP-2000 is to bring the total fertility rate (TFR) to replacement levels by 2010.
It contains the goals and the target to be achieved by 2010 as given below.
- Reduce infant mortality rate.
- Reduce maternal mortality rate.
- Achieve universal immunisation of children against all preventable diseases.
- Achieve institutional deliveries by trained
- Achieve 100% registration of births, deaths, marriages, and pregnancy.
- Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
- Promote vigorously small family norms to achieve TIoL
- Contain the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome).
- Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies, and infrastructure.
- Make school education up to age 14 free and, compulsory and reduce drop-outs at primary and secondary school levels.
- Achieve universal access to information/counseling and services for fertility regulation and contraception.
- To take appropriate steps to make family welfare programme a people-centred programme.
List out briefly the functions of media.
The media like T.V., newspapers, and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
7. National Consciousness:
It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation, and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different corners of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news. It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
Discuss the strategies of women empowerment.
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal strategies:
After independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men. Some of the legislation are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955
- Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
- Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act of 1984
- Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.
2. Social strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:
- Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
- Legal literacy of women through mass media.
- Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
- Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
- Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.
3. Economic strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:
- Educational and vocational training tor women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically independent
- Technological aids that will be labour saving devices and will lighten women’s burden of heavy daily tasks.
- Train women in both formal and non- formal education.
- Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment
- Programmes of placing women in important positions at various levels.
Discuss the urbanization in Karnataka.
Urbanization in Karnataka Karnataka is India’s 7th most urbanized State. As per Census of 2011, out of Karnataka’s 6.1 crore population, 38.6% (i.e. 2.35 crore) reside in urban areas. In terms of urbanisation, the State has witnessed an increase of 4.68 percent in the proportion of urban population in the last decade.
Among the districts, Bangalore is the most urbanized district with 91 percent of its population residing in urban areas, followed by Dharward 57 percent, Dakshina Kannada 48 percent, Mysore 41 percent and Bellary 38 percent. The least urbanised district in the state is Kodagu with 15 percent, preceded by Koppal district (17 percent),
Mandya district (1717.08 percent), Chamaraja nagar district (17 percent) and Yadgir district (19 percent). According to the 2011 census, 32.91 lakh population lives in the urban slums. The slum population has drastically increased by 18.89 lakh during 2001 to 2011. Bangalore district has 21.5 percent of the state’s total slum population.