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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Model Question Paper 5 with Answers
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Which year is considered as Demographic Divide?
Mention any one Indo-Aryan language.
Who advocated Tribal Panchasheela?
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
Who wrote ‘Caste and Race in India’?
National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development.
Who called Joint Family as ‘Greater Home’?
Who called Indian villages as little republics?
What is a market?
Market is a social institution where parties are engaged in the exchange of goods and services.
Who coined the concept ‘Sanskritization’?
What is Electronic Economy?
Banks, Corporations, Fund Managers and individual Investers are able to transfer funds through Internet which is called Electronic Economy.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
Write any two difficulties in the process of Aryanization.
- Tribal groups refused to be absorbed.
- Special problems posed by the stronger ethnic groups.
What does BIMARU stands for?
It stands for the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
State any two problems of Scheduled Castes.
- Restrictions of Access to Public facilities.
- Prevention to enter Temples.
What do you mean by sex and gender?
Sex is of biological nature. Gender is identity as male or female as per social and psychological perceptions learnt through a process of socialisation.
Mention any two features of microfinance.
Loan without security and loans to BPL families.
Mention two dominant castes of Karnataka.
Lingayaths and Vokkaligas.
Mention any two mega cities of India.
Mumbai and Kolkata.
State any two Rural Development Programmes.
What is McDonaldization?
McDonaldization is a process by which the principles of fast food restaurants are coming to dominate more on the society.
State any two types of social movements.
- Reformatory movements.
- Revolutionary movements.
Mention any two imports of Western Civilization.
Institutions and Technology.
What is globalization?
Globalization refers to the Growing interdependence of societies across the world with the spread of same culture and economic interests across the globe.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the nature of diversity in India.
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people: geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of variety of groups and cultures. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity.
Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are;
- Regional diversities
- Linguistic diversities
- Religious diversities and
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities
1. Regional Diversities:
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite a lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora, and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature, and physical configuration. There is the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year.
The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts, and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even to conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo – Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.
This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions. As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges. Apart from that for people with different mother tongues, communication becomes a problem.
3. Religious Diversities:
There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults. Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktas (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects.
Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Diganibars and Shwetambars are the two divisions of Jains. Indian Muslims are broadly divided into Shias and Sunnis. Indian Christians, apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants have other small regional denominational churches.
Sikhism is a synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Parsis even though a small community has played an important role in India’s industrial development. The Jews have a white and black division.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture, and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc.
Causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”.
Write a note on India’s population policy.
In 1977, ‘Family planning’ was renamed as ‘Family welfare’. The Government of India adopted the UNPF (United Nations Population Fund) guideline of delaying the -first child and spacing the subsequent birth(s).
The Primary health Centres that are engaged in family planning programmes, perform two specific functions: providing services to the people and disseminating information about these services in an effective manner in order to motivate the people to accept family planning. The major objective of family planning is “To increase individual happiness and to enhance health of the society”.
National Population Policy 2000 [NPP-2000]:
It is the latest in the series. It reaffirms the commitment of the government towards administering family planning services. The object of NPP-2000 is to bring the total fertility rate (TFR) to replacement levels by 2010. It contains the goals and the target to be achieved by 2010 as given below.
- Reduce infant mortality rate.
- Reduce maternal mortality rate.
- Achieve universal immunisation of children against all preventable diseases.
- Achieve institutional deliveries by trained persons.
- Achieve 100% registration of births, deaths, marriages and pregnancy.
- Prevention and control of communicable diseases.
- Promote vigorously small family norms to achieve TFR
- Contain the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome).
- Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services, supplies and infrastructure.
- Make school education up to age 14 free and, compulsory and reduce drop-outs at primary and secondary school levels.
- Achieve universal access to information/ counselling and services for fertility regulation and contraception.
- To take appropriate steps to make family welfare programme a people-centred programme.
Explain the problems of tribals.
Tribals are facing many problems and some of these problems are peculiar to some areas while some others are common to Tribals of all the areas. The problems of Tribals are as follows:
1. Geographical Isolation:
Tribals are people who have been living in remote forest areas and hill tracks, without any access to modem socio-economic inputs. For centuries, Tribals were isolated from the rest of the community, which has also given them wide cultural variations. Their geographical isolation from the mainstream deprived them the chances of progress.
2. Cultural Problems:
Due to contact with outside world, the tribal culture is undergoing a change. It has led to the degeneration of Tribal life and Tribal arts such as dance, music and different types of crafts. In several tribal areas, influence of other religions have affected their culture. This is also responsible for alienating the Tribals from their culture. These new eligions have divided them into several sects shattering their collective life.
3. Social Problems:
Due to the influence of outsiders Tribals are facing the problem of dowry, child marriage, infanticide and untouchability.
4. Economic Problems:
Tribal people are economically backward. The major economic problems of tribals are as follows:
- Alienation of Tribal Land to the Non-Tribals.
- Problem of Indebtedness.
- Exploitation in Forestry Operations.
- Primitive Methods of Cultivation.
- Lack of employment opportunities.
5. Educational Problems:
According to 2011 census literacy among the Scheduled Tribes was 29.6 percent. The main causes of slow progress in literacy among the Scheduled Tribes are poverty of the parents, content of education, inadequate educational institutions and supporting services, absenteeism, medium of instruction and educational policy.
6. Exploitation of tribals by the moneylenders:
Tribals continue to be the victims of exploitation by the moneylenders. Indebtedness among the Tribals may be attributed to the following reasons:
Poverty loopholes in the existing money lending law lack of awareness about sources of institutional finances and existing legal protection, inability to follow complicated procedures to obtain loans and consumer credit from institutional sources, indifferent attitude of the Government and bank officials, private money lenders willingness to advance money to the Tribals without any security at exorbitant interest rate.
Absence of alternative credit facility has compelled the tribals to compromise their fate with moneylenders. Their accept indebted ness as an almost inescapable aspect of their existence.
7. Health problem:
The main cause of their sickness is the lack o clean drinking water, nutritive food and Under the health problem marked as absence of medical facilities and prevalence of communicable diseases.
Explain the strategies of women empowerment.
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal Strategies:
After Independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men.
Some of the legislation are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955.
- Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
- Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act of 1984.
- Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.
2. Social Strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:
- Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
- Legal literacy of women through mass media.
- Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
- Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
- Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.
3. Economic Strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:
- Educational and vocational training for women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically dependent.
- Technological aids that will be labour saving devices and will lighten women’s burden, of heavy daily tasks.
- Training for women in both formal and non-formal education.
- Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment.
- Programmes of placing women in important positions at various levels.
Write a note on Illom and TarAwad.
Nambudri Brahmins lived in patrilineage families which were called Illom. Nambudris were landowners. Land was considered indivisible, and indivisibility was ensured by the rule of primogeniture. The Nambudri Illom consisted of a man, his wife or wives, his children and his younger brothers.
The continuation of Illom property among the Nambudris are facilitated by the custom of the eldest son marrying a girl from his caste, while the other sons, although not theoretically debarred from marrying women from their caste, generally do not marry Nambudri women. It is only when the eldest son fails to have children that the next senior member marries and continues the family lineage.
The right of partition being restricted, junior members of the family have only the right to maintenance. Though he has absolute control over the family property’ the eldest son of the Illom he has no power to alienate it by sale or gift without the consent of the other members. Even the female members have to give their consent in order to alienate it.
Nair’s Matriarchal Joint Family – Tarawad Tarawads were matrilineal institutions prevalent in the Nair communities. Fathers had no significant properties separate from their own Tarawads to give their children, and they held no special claims over their children. The Tarawad institutions included family, household, and lands maintained a status and a life beyond any individual. Material support for the household was drawn from the inseparable lands of the Tarawad.
Properties of Tarawad were managed by a senior male called a ‘Karanavan’. The Karanavan was the head of a large extended family. The internal management of the affairs of the Tarawad were in fact handled by a senior female – a mother, aunt, or grandmother, ensuring that the members were sharing the wealth and status of the Tarawad.
Both males and females had a whole-life security within their mother’s Tarawads. Fathers visited only on occasions. The Karanavan is an absolute ruler of the family. On his death the next senior male member becomes Karanavan.
He can invest money in his own name, can mortgage the property, can give money on loan, can give land as gift and is not accountable to any member in respect of income and expenditure. When Tarawad becomes too large, it is divided into Tavashis, A Tavashis in relation to a woman is ‘a group of persons consisting of a female, her children and all descendents in the matrilineal lineage’.
Explain the social problems of Indian villages.
Social problems of Indian villages are as follows:
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education, coupled with high dropout rates has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from lack of educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc. There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of our society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communications facilities are not up to the mark.
b. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified the following causes for poverty in rural areas:
Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes, Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricuitural pursuits. Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall. Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate modem skills. Non-availability of electricity for agriculture, Poor quality of livestock.
Imperfect and exploited credit CLI market, communication facilities and markets, Low level of education. Absence of dynamic community leadership. Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes. Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries. Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., People unwilling to discard expensive customs.
c. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas, when it 70% of the total population living in villages, the extent to which provision of skilled medical care is lacking in the villages becomes quite obvious. Fertility and Birth rate as well as death rates are very high in villages.
Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high. The problems of malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria. Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housings are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol and nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazard in rural areas.
There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers and it affects not only the yield but also the health of the agriculturists.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the changes in caste system during British rule.
The impact of British rule on the caste system in India may be studied under the following heads.
- Introduction of Universalistic Legal system.
- Impact of English Education.
- Impact of Social Reform Movements.
- Influence of New Social Formation.
- Impact of Freedom Struggle.
- Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization.
1. Introduction of Universalistic Legal System:
The establishment of British courts removed authority from the purview of caste panchayats. Under this new principle of justice, all are equal before the law, and the caste panchayats lost their former importance. Some major legislations were the following:
a. The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850. This act served to remove some of the disabilities associated with castes including the practice of untouchability.
b. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, This act made legal, provision for the Hindu widows to remarry.
c. The Special Marriage Act of 1872 considered marriage as a civil contract and legalized inter-caste or inter-religious marriages.
d. Other legislative and administrative measures were put into effect, like Government schools to be open to all classes of subjects, stopping of gran s to schools and refusing admission to the depressed class, public places to be men to everybody and constitutional provisions for representation in legislative bodies for them.
2. Impact of English Education:
British education was based on scientific, secular and universal principles. It was made accessible to everyone, irrespective of caste or community. It remained liberal in content. It propagated principles such as liberty equality and fraternity.
As education spread to the lower strata, it kindled libertarian impulses among them. Western education provided an indispensable passport to new economic opportunities. Members from the lower castes became professionals and embraced the new commercial opportunities offered by western education.
3. Impact of Social Reform Movements:
Social reform movements brought changes in the caste system in the British period. They set out to eradicate caste and to establish a casteless and, classless society.
Brahma Samaj by Rajaram Mohan Roy, Prarthana Samaj by Atmaram Pandurang, Arya Samaj by Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi, Ramakrishna Mission by Swami Vivekananda, Theosophical Society by Annie Besant and Divine Life Society by Maharshi Arabindo Ghosh were leading movements. All these organizations aimed at the destruction of caste system and the social reconstruction of Indian society.
4. Impact of New Social Formations:
The new economic system brought about a new grouping of the population in the economic sphere. The Indians got differentiated into capitalists, workers, peasants, propritiators, merchants, tenants, land lords, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and technicians. Each category being composed of individuals belonging to various castes, but having identical material and political interests. This division weakened the vertical caste lines.
Thus there came into existence such, organizations as Mill Owners Associations, All India Trace Union Congress. All India Kishan Sabha and etc., these groups struggled for their own interests. In the process of this struggle they developed a new consciousness and outlook and a new solidarity, which slowly weakened the caste consciousness.
5. Impact of Freedom Struggle:
The growth of the nationalist movement played a great role in weakening caste consciousness. In India, the presence of foreign rule was a permanent stimulus to the Indians to unite on a national basis. Thus the growth of the national movement undermined the caste consciousness.
6. Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization:
The growth of Industries destroyed the old craft and provided new ways to earn a livelihood. Occupational mobility and movement from compact ancestral villages started breaking down the caste norms. New transport facilities, specially crowded trains and buses, threw together millions of people of all castes and left little room for the necessities of ceremonial purity.
Taboos on food and water gradually weakened when industrial workers belonging to various castes started working under one roof and having food at a common canteen. The demarcation observed by the members of different castes regarding eating food, physical contact with those of other castes, steadily crumbled in cities.
Explain the characteristics of joint family.
1. Depth of Generations:
Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins and great grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members are engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is an unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity or ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious traditions. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met out of that.
6. Exercise of Authority:
In the patriarchal joint family usually the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises supreme authority.
7. Arranged Marriages:
In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is undermined. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days selecting a life partner for a family member is more democratic in nature.
8. Identification with Mutual Rights and Obligations towards the Family:
Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as guides for junior members.
Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It meets the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. No other type of family is self-reliant that way today.
Explain the provisions of the 1955 Untouchability Offences Act.
The Untouchability (Offences) Act-1955 provides penalties for the following offences:
1. Preventing a person on the grounds of untouchability, from entering a place of public worship, offering prayer therein or taking water from a tank, well or spring.
2. Enforcing all kinds of social disabilities such as denying access to any shop, public restaurant, public hospital or educational institutions, hotel or any other place of public entertainment, the use of any road, river, well, tank, water tap, cremation ground, sanitary convenience and Dharmashalas.
3. Enforcing occupational, professional or trade disabilities in the matter or enjoyment of any benefit under the charitable trust in the construction or occupation of any residential premises in any locality or the observance of any social or religious usages or ceremony.
4. Refusing to sell goods or render services to an untouchable.
Write a note on Special Economic Zones.
Special Economic Zone (SEZ):
SEZ is defined as an earmarked geographical area meant for production of goods and services basically meant for the purpose of export where economic laws are different from the prevailing ones in other parts of the country. Special facilities are provided to the firms operating in SEZs in terms of tax concessions and infrastructural setups as well as regulatory incentives. SEZs can be set up in the public sector, private sector, or joint sector or even by the state governments in collaboration with any corporate.
The proposals for setting up of SEZs in the agrosector to boost the exports food and agro products, which benefit the farmers of the country. The land is acquired at a subsidised rate, and the compensation given to the land owner is far less than the market price. It also gives rise to income disparities and help rich to become richer. These special economic zones are exploiting the local labour and displace the livelihoods in the agrarian economy.
The agrarian policy of the government of India and the state governments are against the interests of the vulnerable sections. The case is that of the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) policy whereby the state governments are acquiring lands under the Land Acquisition Act for industrialists and corporate agencies. Thus the marginal and small farmers are rendered landless. There is strong resistance by farmers and agricultural labourers throughout the country but yet the land is being acquired forcefully. Some farmers have also lost their lives in this process.
What is Mass media? Explain the types of Mass Media.
Mass Media is divided into two major types which are:
- Print Media: Newspaper and magazines
- Electronic Media: Radio, Television, Internet and Social Networking Sites.
1. Print Media:
The Beginning of Print Media. There are many Kannada language newspapers that has served the media industry significantly and also have earned significant recognition. Some of the leading Kannada language newspapers include; Prajavani, Kannada Prabha, Samyukta Karnataka, Vijaya Karnataka, Hosa Digantha, Sanje Vani, Udaya Vani, Andolana, E-sanje etc.
2. Electronic Media:
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘HAM’ Broadcasting Clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920s, matured into a public broadcasting system in the 1940s during World War II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South East Asia. At the time of independence, there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience.
A Radio Transmission center called Akashavani was started by Dr. M.V. Gopalaswamy, at Mysore University in 1935 through private effort. The station was later taken over by the State Government in January 1941 and it was shifted to Bangalore in November 1955.The first AIR station in the North Karnataka Region started functioning at Dharwad, on 8th November 1950. In 1964, Vividh Bharathi (CBS) was added to Dharwad unit. Auxiliary stations at Bhadravathi and Gulbarga were started in 1965 and 1966 respectively.
Apart from All India Radio (AIR), there is Vividh Bharati, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting film songs on listeners’ requests. Vividh Bharati, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements, grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR.
Akasha vani (Kannada version of AIR) headquarters is at Bangalore and there are regional centres at Mysore, Bhadravathi, Dharwad, and Gulbarga covering broadcasting news, entertainment, sponsored programmes, and commercial programmes, etc.
b. FM Radio (Frequency Modulator Radio):
The advent of privately owned FM radio stations in 2002, provided a boost to entertainment programmes over the radio. In order to attract audiences these radio stations provide entertainment. They specialize in ‘particular’ kinds of popular music to retain their audiences. Most of the FM channels which are popular among urbanites and students often belong to media conglomerates. ‘Radio Mirchi’ belongs to Times of India group, Red FM is owned by Living Media and Radio City by the Star Network.
c. Television (T.V.):
Television programming was introduced experimentally in India to promote rural development in early 1959. ‘Krishi Darshaiv was the first programme telecast on Doordarshan. Later, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment(SITE) was broadcasting directly to community viewers in the rural areas of six states between August 1975 and July 1976. These instructional broadcasts to 2,400 TV sets directly were for 4 hours daily. Meanwhile, Television stations were set up under Doordarshan in 4 cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Amritsar) by 1975.
Gulbarga was the first centre in Karnataka to have a relay centre, it was inaugurated on 3-9-1977 and at the outset within a radius of 40 km, 240 villages and towns of Raichur and Vijayapura Districts and Gulbarga were benefitted. Community TV sets were maintained and serviced by the Doordarshan Kendra, Gulbarga, Bangalore city was provided with an interim TV Relay center on 1-1-1981.
Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks consisting of millions of private, public, academic, business networks which are linked with the networking technology. In other words, the Internet is a network of networks.
e. Social Networking Sites (SNS):
Social Networking Sites are defined as online platforms that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Further, social networking sites are a type of virtual community that has grown tremendously in popularly.
Explain the causes for modernization.
According to Myron Weiner, the causes for modernization are:
It includes a sense of national loyalty and creates skills and attitudes essential for technological innovation.
The development of mass communications (including telephone, TV, radio, movies, etc.) is an important means of spreading modern ideas at a faster rate.
3. Ideology based on Nationalism:
The nationalistic ideologies serve as unifying influence in bridging social cleavages within plural societies. They also help the political elite in changing the behaviour of the masses.
4. Charismatic Leadership:
A charismatic leader is in a better position to persuade people to adopt modem beliefs, practices and
behaviour patterns because of the respect and loyalty he commands.
5. Coercive Government Authority:
If the government authority is weak, it may not ‘succeed in implementing the policies aimed at the modernization process, but if the government in strong, it may even adopt coercive measures to compel people to accept attitudes and behaviour patterns which aim at development.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30 sentences each. (2 × 10 = 20)
Explain the features of demographic profile of India.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population.
- Age structure of the Indian population.
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate.
- Increasing Literacy rate of the Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences.
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%.
This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19. The growth rate of the population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, the majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all-time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, the sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period. Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. The total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% of people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Explain the characteristics of caste system.
characteristics of caste:
1. Caste as a Segmental Division of Society:
The society is divided into various castes with a well-developed life of their own. The membership in a caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined.by birth. Each caste has a council of its own, known as caste Panchayat. Caste panchayats imposed certain restrictions on social intercourse between castes like marriages commensal and occupational interactions. By these restrictions, each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attracted punishment from the caste panchayat depending on the seriousness of the violations.
The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or as superior and inferior associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
3. Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse:
There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
4. Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections:
Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restrictions on using public roads, water facilities, Hotels, etc.
5. Restrictions on occupations:
According to G.S. Ghurye, every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
6. Restrictions on Marriages (Endogamy):
Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status regarding marriages, inter-caste marriages, were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into subcastes, and these sub-castes were the units of endogamy.”
Explain the types of peasant movements.
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:
- Restorative rebellions.
- Religious movements.
- Social banditry.
- Terrorist vengeance and
- Mass insurrections.
1. Restorative Rebellions:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.
2. Religious Movements:
This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.
3. Social Banditry:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17<sip>th</sup> and 18<sup>th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.
4. Terrorist Vengeance:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve the elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.
5. Mass Insurrections:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott, etc. They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.
Briefly discuss the problems of Indian cities.
Problems of Indian cities can be classified in the following ways:
1. Urban Poverty:
Urban poverty is the by-product of industrialization and urbanization. Poverty and overcrowding are the two most visible features of Indian cities. About half of the urbanites are poor and live in substandard life, because of cost of living, lack of regular income, low wages, pro-rich economic policies, inflation, etc.
India has issued its first-ever report on the nature and dynamics of urban poverty in the country undertaken with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India Urban Poverty Report 2009 which identifies the problems faced by the poor and focuses on the systematic changes that are needed to address them.
The report examines various issues related to urban poverty, such as migration, labor, the role of gender, access to basic services and the appalling condition of India’s slums. It also looks at the dynamics of urban land and capital market, urban governance, and the marginalization of the poor to the urban periphery.
The magnitude of the problem of slums is alarming. The Government of India, in order to implement the various schemes for urban development, has defined a slum area as follows:
A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale,” These slum areas are also referred to as the ‘Blighted area’; ‘Renewal area’; ‘deteriorated area’, ‘Gray area’; ‘Lower class neighborhood’; ‘Lower income area’, etc.
3. Problem of Urban Housing:
The bulk of the people in the Indian cities live in one-room or in thatched huts in the sprawling slums or on the pavements. Another sad feature is total lack of essential municipal services like water supply, drainage, sewarage, lighting, -roads, etc. Further, large proportion of the rural migrants have been bringing with them unskilled persons who take up unskilled jobs in the services, trade, industries, etc. Generally a single room has to meet all the requirements of the family including cooking, living, sleeping which make confinement.
It is difficult to keep reasonably clean and sanitary washing and bathing facilities. The inconvenience they have to undergo is aggravated during the rainy days. Almost all the above mentioned conditions are found in shawls of Mumbai, that as of Kanpur, bastis of Kolkata, cheris of Chennai as well as in Dhowrahas of the mining centres and barracks of the plantations in India.
These are made of brick walls and iron roof or huts consisting of bamboo walls and thatched roofs. The lanes are too narrow and the huts are built back to back. These lack facilities like bathing, washing and toilets, etc.
4. Sanitation and Pollution:
It is accompanied with corrupt Municipal administration and inefficiency. According to UNICEF, lakhs of urban children in India die or suffer from diarrhea, diphtheria, tetanus and measles etc.
5. Transportation and Traffic:
Transportation and traffic picture in Indian cities is troublesome. Majority of people use buses and other vehicles, while a few use rails as transport system. The increasing number of two wheelers and other types of vehicles make the traffic problem worse.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each. (2 × 5 = 10)
Prepare a note on farmer’s suicide in Karnataka.
R. S. Deshpumde and Saroja Arora’s work ‘Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides’ is a field work based study. It was Conducted by the Center for Rural Studies, Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy and Administration, Mussoori in 2007. This volume deals with the problems of farmers suicides across the state. Agrarian crisis in Karnataka can be understood in the following way.
It is acknowledged fact that between 1993 and 2003,100,248 farmers committed suicide in India. Suicide is not confined to Karnataka alone. It has been reported among the sugarcane growers of UP, cotton growers of Andhra Pradesh and spice/ coffee growers of Kerala. It has been reported from Orissa and West Bengal as well.
Karnataka has no history of farmers committing suicide even during the situation of acute agrarian crisis. Even the unorganised farmers would resort to other tactics such as throwing agricultural commodities on the roads, burning their crops and so on. However, suicide was an attempt to retain the identity as a distinct social category within the larger economy.
In this context, the report of the Agricultural Department, Government of Karnataka is important. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 2909 farmers committed suicide. On the contrary, the Central Government claimed that from 2000-01 to 2005-06, around 8600 farmers committed suicide which is the highest figure when compared to any other state in fact Maharashtra is relegated to the third position in the suicide rate.
However if we calculate the statistics provided by the Veeresh Committee report, including other press reports one can estimate the number of suicides is more than 5000.
Region-wise the highest suicide rate was reported from the Old Mysore areas, followed by the Old Bombay Presidency areas and the Old Hyderabad region. The Old Madras Presidency area, as well as Coorg also reported suicides, however their number is less. In fact, Old Mysore and Old Bombay Presidency areas are better known for irrigation. Most of these who committed suicide lived near the tail end of the canal.
The beginning of the suicides can be traced back to the year 1998, when farmers in Bidar, who were involved in cultivating toor dal, a market-oriented agricultural crop committed suicide. In the two years, farmer suicides were largely concentrated in the drought-prone districts of north Karnataka or confined to economically backward, drought-prone regions such as Gulbarga and Bidar.
However, after 2000, the phenomenon shifted to relatively advanced agricultural regions, particularly Mandya, Hassan, Shimoga, Davanagere, Koppal and even Chikamagalur and Kodagu.
Discuss the role of anyone of non-governmental organizations in Women Empowerment.
Shri Mahila Griha Udyog:
Lijjat Papad, popularly known as Lijjat, is an Indian women’s cooperative involved in the manufacturing of various fast moving consumer goods. The organisation’s main objective is empowerment of women by providing them employment opportunities. Started in the year 1959, with a seed capital of Rs. 80, Lijjat has an annual turnover of around Rs. 6.50 billion in 2010, with Rs. 290 million in exports. It provides employment to around 42,000 women. Lijjat is headquartered in Mumbai and has 67 branches all over India. Lijjat is primarily a cottage industry, urban by its origin, that has spread to the rural areas. It is considered as one of the most remarkable entrepreneurial initiatives by women that are identified with female empowerment in India.
Self-Employed Women Association – SEWA:
Self-Employed Women Association has made significant contribution to the empowerment of women. It has strived to integrate self-employed poor women with the mainstream economy through the twin strategies of struggle and development.
Women are the worst victims of poverty. Poor women generally experience a variety of socio economic and cultural depreciation in society. The root causes of their plight are unemployment, lack of income and economic dependency.
The self-employed women of Ahmadabad organized and formed the Self-Employed Women Association — (SEWA) in 1972. The motivation and guidance was furnished by the leadership Ela Bhatt. SEWA has strived to create conditions of full employment and self-reliance for all its members.
The central concern of SEWA has been to secure the existence of its members by furnishing financial support in the form of micro-credit to self- employed women. In order to provide finance facility at the earliest, the Shri Mahila SEWA Sahakari Bank Ltd. was registered in 1974. In the beginning, SEWA Bank started functioning in urban areas; later on it extended its operations to rural areas. SEWA began its activities in rural areas in 1975.
Write a note on demographic profile of Karnataka.
According to the 2001 census, Karnataka with an area of 1,91,791 sq. km. has a population of 52,850,562 with 26,898,918 males and 25,951,644 females. According to the 2011 Census, the population of Karnataka has increased to 6,10,95,297. (Males-3,09,66,657; Females- 3,01,28,640) with a sex ratio of 973 females for every 1000 males. Karnataka retains the ninth rank as in 2001, in population among the States and accounts for 5.05 percent of the country’s population.
1. Rural – Urban population in Karnataka:
Among the districts within the State, f Bengaluru District is the most populated
District with 96,21,551 persons and accounts for 15.75 percent of the State’s total population while Kodagu District with a population share of 0.91 percent is the least populated District. In terms of percentage, 61.33 percent are Rural residents and 38.67 percent are Urban residents.
In terms of urbanization, the State has witnessed an increase of 4.68 percent in the proportion of Urban population in the last decade. Among the districts, Bengaluru is the most urbanized District followed by Dharwad District, Dakshina Kannada District and Mysuru District. The least urbanized District in the State is Kodagu preceded by Koppal District.
Among the districts, Bengaluru District, has witnessed the highest decennial growth rate of 47.18 percent followed by Yadgir, the newly created District, with 22.81 percent. Chikkamagaluru District, a predominantly plantation area in the Malnad region, is the only District in the State which has registered a negative growth rate of -0.26 percent. Kodagu District another plantation area in the Malnad region with a growth rate of 1.09 percent ranks 29 Just above Chikkamagaluru District.
2. Sex Ratio in Karnataka:
The Sex Ratio in Karnataka has increased from 965 in 2001 to 973 in 2011. The Sex Ratio for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe population is identical at 990 and is significantly higher than that, of the State. Among the districts, the highest overall Sex Ratio of 1094 is recorded in Udupi District and the lowest of 916 is recorded in Bangalore District.
Female population is higher than male population in Chikmagalur, Kodagu (1019), Hassan, (1012) Dakshina Kannada (1020) and Udupi (1094). Inspite of favourable Sex Ratio, it has declined in Udupi (-36) and Dakshina Kannada (2).
3. Population Density in Karnataka:
According to 2001 census, Bengaluru Urban District has registered the highest density of 2,985 persons per sq. km and the lowest density per sq.km, was recorded in Kodagu (134) and Uttara Kannada (132) districts. The density of population of the state was 319 in 2011 as against 276 in 2001. The density of population of Bengaluru metropolitan city was 4,378 in 2011 as against to 2985 in 2001. Uttara Kannada (140) and Kodagu (135) have the lowest density of population in the State.
4. Scheduled caste population in Karnataka:
The Scheduled Caste population in the State has increased from 85,63,930 in 2001 to 1,04,74,992, in 2011, registering a decennial growth rate of22.32 percent. The Scheduled Caste population constitutes 17.15 percent of the total population of the State. The highest proportion of Scheduled Caste population is returned from Kolar District with 30.32 percent, followed by Chamarajanagar District with 25.42 percent. The least proportion of Scheduled Caste population is recorded in the coastal district of Udupi (6.43 percent) District.
5. Scheduled Tribe population in Karnataka:
The Scheduled Tribe population in the state has increased from 34,63,986 in 2001 Census to 42,48,987 in 2011, registering a decennial growth rate of 22.66 percent. The proportion of the Scheduled Tribe population to total population of the State is 6.95 percent. The highest proportion of Scheduled Tribe population is in Raichur District (19.03 percent) and the least proportion is returned from Mandya District (1.24 percent)
6. Literacy rate in Karnataka:
Literacy rate of the State has increased from 66.64 percent in 2001 to 75.36 percent 2011. While the male literacy has increased from 76.10 percent to 82.47 percent, the female literacy rate has increased from 56.87 percent to 68.08 percent.
Among the districts, Dakshina Kannada t District with overall Literacy rate of 88.57 percent retains its top position, closely followed by Bengaluru District (87.67 percent) and Udupi District (86.24 percent). The lowest overall Literacy rate of 51.83 percent is recorded in the newly created Yadgir District, preceded by Raichur District which has recorded 59.56 percent.
Explain the importance of Kagodu Sathyagraha.
Kagodu movement is the movement of people who fought to claim their rights over land. It was first of its kind in the post-independent India. Kagodu movement, or Kagodu Satyagraha as it is popularly called, took place in the Kagodu and neighbouring villages of Sagar taluk in the district of Shimoga.
In Kagodu, feudal system was prevalent during the time of the British rule. Jodidars, Inamdaars, Jahagirdars and the Desais were the local landlords. Tenants had to pay the landlords a fixed measure of the agricultural produce. Although this measure was fixed as sixty measures (60 kolaga). Kolaga is a traditional measure) in other places, the landlords of Kagodu had fixed the measure at sixty three.
During 1950-1951, the tenants agitated against the feudal lords to claim their rights over the land, and also to protest against fixing of excess of agricultural produce to be given by them to the landlords. This agitation began in the surrounding villages of Kagodu and was aimed at a single slogan ‘land to the tiller’. Villagers of Sooraguppe, Valakundli, Chikkanellooru, Maasooru, Kaanle, Tadegalale and keladi joined the agitation under the leadership of H. Ganapatiyappa, Shantaveri Gopalagowda, Sadashivaraya and many others. This agitation had the support of the great thinker and socialist.
Dr. Rammanohar Lohia. With his entry, the movement took a new turn. The ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’, which began immediately after independence, had drawn the attention of entire nation. The tenants involved themselves in the movement so deeply that, the government was forced to announce its decision to allot the land to the tiller. About two and a half decades later, ‘Land to the tiller’ was legalized and was introduced in the 20 point programme of the Government. The seeds of such a move were sown in the ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’.