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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper June 2018
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Which year referred as the ‘demographic divide’?
Which is the ancient civilization of India?
Indus valley civilization.
Who popularised the term ‘Harijan’?
In which year the programme ‘Stree Shakti’ was launched?
What is Illum?
Patriarchical Joint Family of Nambudiri Brahmins.
Name the Health Insurance Scheme for the welfare of village farmers.
Yeshasvini Health Scheme.
What is urbanization?
Urbanization has been often used to denote the process of population concentration in an urban area. It is the movement of population from rural to urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural places.
Television Rating Point.
Who founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj?
Who introduced the term ‘Sanskrit-ization’?
M. N. Srinivas.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2 to 3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
Define National integration.
National integration refers to national unity and a sense of belonging to the nation.
What is demographic dividend?
Demographic dividend refers to demographic or population advantage which is obtained due to the numerical domination of the young people in the population. It is an advantage due to less dependency ratio.
Name any two dominant castes of Karnataka.
Vokkaligas and Lingayath.
Mention any two objectives of Stree Shakti.
- To strengthen the process of economic development of rural women and create a conducive environment for social change.
- To form a self-help group based on thrift and credit principles which builds self-reliance and enable women to have greater access and control over resources.
Mention any two types of joint family.
Matriarchal joint family and patriarchal joint family.
Write any two importances of village studies.
- Field work is an antidote to book view.
- Calculated opposition to change.
Mention any two problems of Indian cities.
Slums, transportion, and traffic.
What is virtual market?
The new form of marketing and transactions are of taking place through online with the help of information and communication technology. E-commerce, online purchase, online trading of stocks and shares are the latest in the market activities. Such transactions and activities are called as virtual activity of market.
Mention two types of mass media.
Print media and electronic media.
Write any two components of social movement according to M.S.A. Rao?
- Collective mobilization
- Leadership and organization
- Change orientation.
Write two objectives of SNDP.
Encouraging education by starting educational institutions; to uplift the Ezhavas, a depressed caste group of Kerala.
Mention two dimensions of global outlook.
- A global community.
- Transnational identity.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain the racial groups of India classified by Dr. B. S. Ghuha.
B.S.Guha has identified six major racial elements in the population of India:
- Western Brachycephals and
In the south, the Kadars, the Irulas, and the Paniyans, and in the Andaman Islands the Onges, Jar was and the great Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angami Nagas and the Bagadis of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.
The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad – all derogatory terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches – Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto-Mongoloid.
Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.
The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with the Dtavidian languages and cultures.
The Nordics were the last major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a profound impact on its culture and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valiev Civilization.
Explain briefly the changes in caste system during the British period.
The impact of British rule on caste system in India may be studied under the following heads.
- Introduction of universalistic Legal system
- Impact of English Education
- Impact of Social Reform Movement
- Influence of New Social Formation
- Impact of Freedom struggle
- Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization
1. Introduction of Universalistic Legal System:
The establishment of British courts removed authority from the purview of caste panchayats. They introduced a new principle s of justice, according to which all are equal before the law, and the caste panchayat in proportion lost their former importance. Some of the legislation which brought changes in the caste system can be made as the, following.
a. The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850 This act served to remove some of the disabilities associated with castes including the practice of untouchability.
b. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, This act made legal provision for the Hindu widows to remarry.
c. The Special Marriage Act of 1872 which considered marriage as a civil- contract and legalized inter-caste or inter-religious marriage.
d. Other Legislative and Administrative Measures. In 1858 British government announced that all schools maintained by the government shall be open to all the classes of its subjects without any discrimination. In 1923, the government issued a resolution that no grants would be paid to any aided educational institutions, which refused admission to the children of the depressed classes.
In 1925, a bill was passed by the Madras- legislative council, throwing open all public office, well, tank, or place of public resort, to all classes of people including the depressed. Montogue-Chelmshford reforms made constitutional provisions for the special representation of depressed classes in the local as well as in the legislative bodies.
2. Impact of English Education:
British education was based on scientific, secular and universal principles. It made an accessible to everyone, irrespective of caste or community, who could pay for it. It remained liberal in content. It propagated principles such as the liberty equality and fraternity. As education spread to the lower strata, It kindled libertarian impulses among them.
Western education provided an indispensable passport to the new economic opportunities. Members from the lower castes became different professionals and took new commercial opportunities offered, by the western education.
3. Impact of Social Reform Movements:
Social reforms movements brought changes in ‘the caste system in British period. They were set out to eradicate caste and to establish a casteless and, classless society. They were against the fictitious difference between caste. They attacked the tendencies of separatism and Inequality in the caste system. Some important social reform movements are:
- The Brahma Samaj founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy
- Prarthana Samaja’s Athma Rama Pandurang Justice M. Ranade
- The Arya Samaja founded by Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi
- The Ramakrishna Mission represents the synthesis of the ancient and the modem thoughts. Swamy Vivekananda started Ramakrishna Mission.
- Other Reform Movements such as Annie Beasant’s Theosophical society, Maharshi Arabindo Ghosh’s Divine life Society and etc. Thus all these organizations aimed at the destruction of caste system and social reconstruction of Indian society.
4. Impact of New Social Formations:
The new economic system brought about a new grouping of the population in the economic sphere. The Indians could be differentiated into such categories as capitalists, workers, peasants, propritiators, merchants, tenants, landlords, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and technicians.
Each category being composed of individuals belonging to various castes, but having identical material and political, interests.
This division weakened the vertical caste lines. Thus there came into existence such organization as Mill Owners Associations, All India Trade Union Congress, All India KishanSabhaand, etc., these groups struggled for their own interests.
In the process of this struggle, they developed a new consciousness and outlook and a new solidarity, which slowly weakened the caste consciousness.
5. Impact of Freedom Struggle:
The growth of the nationalist movement played a great role in weakening caste consciousness. In India, the presence of foreign rule was a permanent stimulus to the Indians to unite on a national basis. Thus the growth of the national movement undermined the caste consciousness.
6. Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization:
The growth of Industries destroyed the old craft and provided new ways to earn a livelihood. Occupational t mobility and movement from compact ancestral village started breaking down in the caste norms. New transport facilities, specially crowed trains and buses, which threw together millions of people of all castes and left little room for the necessities of ceremonial purity.
Taboos on food and water gradually weakening when industrial workers belonging to various castes started working under one roof. The demarcation observed by the members of different castes regarding eating food, physical contact with those of other castes, steadily crumbled in cities.
Explain the main features of micro-finance.
MicroFinance is defined as, financial services such as Savings Accounts, Insurance Fund & credit provided to poor & low-income clients so as to help them to rise their income & thereby improve their standard of living. Microfinance is a source of financial services for entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
Major Features of Microfinance
- Loan without security
- Loans tp people who live BPL (Below Poverty Line)
- Even members of SHG may get benefit from Micro Finance
- The maximum limit of loan under microfinance is relatively small amount.
- The terms and conditions given to poor people are decided by SHG.
For some, microfinance is a movement whose object is a world in which as many poor to have permanent access to an appropriate range of high-quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers.
Many of those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. For others, microfinance is a way to promote economic development, employment and growth through the support of micro-entrepreneurs and small businesses.
Explain any five characteristics of the joint family.
1. Depth of Generations:
Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents, and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins, and great-grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment, etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately.
Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members are engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is a unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity or ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious traditions. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites, and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint-stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met out of that.
6. Exercise of Authority:
In the patriarchal joint family usually, the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family, the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises supreme authority.
7. Arranged Marriages:
In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is undermined. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days selecting a life partner for a family member is more democratic in nature.
8. Identification with Mutual Rights and Obligations towards the Family:
Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as guides for junior members.
Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It meets the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. No other type of family is self-reliant that way today.
Explain any five characteristics of the villages.
1. Small in size:
Indian villages are small in size. Due to that, the density of population is less in Indian villages.
2. Importance to Primary Relations:
Villages share so many daily requirements and their relationships are close and intimate and face to face interactions.
3. Social Homogeneity:
Village is more homogeneous in language, belief, mores, and pattern of behavior. In their occupations, villagers participate together and share common interests.
4. Informal Social Control:
Individual behavior is controlled by family, traditions, customs, religion, etc.
5. Agriculture and its allied occupations:
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, fishing, mining and agriculture, and cottage industries are the other occupations.
6. Role of Neighbourhood and simplicity of life:
Neighbourhood relation plays an important role in the social life of village people and a simple way of life is common. There is an interdependent neighbourhood relations. Metcalfe called ‘Indian villages as Little Republics’. Recent studies proved that the Indian villages were never self-sufficient and Republic.
Write a note on Bastar Tribal market.
The weekly market as a social institution, the links between the local Tribal economy and the outside, and the exploitative economic relationships between adivasis and others, are illustrated by a study of a weekly market in Bastar district. This district is populated by Gonds, an adivasi group.
At the weekly market, you find local people, including tribals and non-tribals, as well as outsiders-mainly traders of various castes. Forest officials also come to the market to conduct business with adivasis who work for the Forest Department, and the market attracts a variety of specialists selling their goods and services. The major goods that are exchanged in the market are
- Manufactured goods (such as jewellery and trinkets, pots and knives),
- Non-local foods (such as salt and haldi (turmeric)),
- Local food and agricultural produce and manufactured items (such as bamboo baskets), and
- Forest produce such as tamarind, oil-seeds and etc. The forest produce that is brought by the adivasisis purchased by traders who carry it to towns.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain any five functions of mass – media.
The media like T.V., newspapers, and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.
6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation-building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.
The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.
7. National Consciousness:
It was only in the mid 19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation, and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience. People living in different corners of the country found themselves reading or hearing the same news.
It has been suggested that this was in many ways responsible for people across a country to feel connected and develop a sense of belonging or ‘we feeling’.
Explain any five factors facilitating Malaprabha agitation.
A dam was to construct over Malaprabha in 1960 at an estimated cost of Rs. 30 crores. But, it had consumed 162 crores up to 1980 and yet was incomplete. The project which was considered to be a boon for the three districts of Belgavi, Vijayapurand Dharwad. The catchment area under Malaprabha project had been a part of the chronically draught-prone region.
Into this traditional agriculture, irrigation was introduced in 1973-74 under Malaprabha project lead to salinity and water-logging. Factors Facilitating Malaprabha Agitation. We may analyse the factors responsible for Malaprabha agitation as follows:
1. The issue of Price Stability:
Farmers were encouraged to grow Varalaxmi cotton and hybrid varieties of war. The market price of these crops was appealing and hence farmers did not mind purchasing costly seeds, manure, pesticides, etc. Despite the poor quality of seeds, new techniques of cultivation which they were unaware of, etc., their hopes soared high.
In 1978-79 the price of Varalaxmi cotton came down form Rs. 1000 to Rs. 350 per quintal. As if fuelling to this situation there was a steep hike in the prices of fertilizers.
2. The Levy Issue:
Other causes of Malaprabha agitation is imposition of betterment levy with retrospective effect on the basis of increase in land value following irrigation. It varies from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 per acre, to be paid in 20 years.
What caused resentment was the peasants were asked to pay levy on all their land in the catchment area without considering whether or not the whole area was under cultivated or irrigated, etc. Apart from this inadequate channel management created the problems of water-logging and salinity.
3. The Role of Local Bureaucracy:
The most important factors to be noticed are – corruption, apathy of the Bureaucrats, Redtapism, forced recoveries and failure of political leadership.
Explain the major issues of the Karnataka Rajya Rayta Sangh Movement.
Major issues of Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha Movement:
1. Loan Recovery Issue and Banning Corrupt Officials and Politicians in Villages:
This has led to farmers’ movement headed by KRRS over loan recovery issue. KRRS took up this issue and led the farmers’ movement. Boards were put up banning officials and corrupt politicians from entering villages without prior permission.
They also launched a counter-seizure of property of those officers who they thought were corrupt, in addition to their own properties that were attached for non-payment of loans.
2. Environmental Issue:
Farmers have agitated over issues related to the environment. KRRS saw some commercial interest in expanding the area under eucalyptus for use by the paper and pulp industry and hence, has opposed it. This tree affects the fertility of the soil in the long run and depletes the under ground water level.
3. Mining Issue:
KRRS has also taken up the granite quarrying issue. Granite was extracted and exported with no benefit to the villagers. KRRS opposed this and made them pay royalties for village betterment in addition to clearing of government dues. In due course, sand, timber, etc. were also included in their list.
4. Opposing KFC and MNCs:
Recently, KRRS has taken up the issue of patenting of seeds. It has opposed the entry of multi-nationals and patenting of seeds. After the 1985 assembly poll, KRRS has become less militant. This may be because of the reason that the Janata Government in the state successfully created an impression that it was pro-farmer and the problems were due to non-cooperation of the centre.
5. Neera Movement:
During the 1990’s, the coconut farming belt of Karnataka was affected by pests and no amount of pesticide or conventional methods could save die trees and the pest affected coconut trees were unable to produce coconuts. The Neera Movement demanded assistance from the Government by allowing Neera tapping and producing neera by-products such as jaggery, Chocolates, etc.
Farmers opined that the Government must lend a helping hand to coconut farmers. As the agitation intensified, it turned violent, and the conflict between the agitators and the police led to golibar which claimed two lives. At a later stage, die pest epidemic was controlled and yield from coconut trees improved considerably.
List out the problems of women.
Despite a long history of protest by the women’s movement, women in India continue to be the most backward – illiteracy and maternal mortality rate is extremely high and sex ratio is adverse. Marginalization in public life, negligible representation of women in politics.
This powerlessness of women through the entry of various Hitech cost-effective systems of production and marketing into their traditional economic spheres, and thus making their skills ineffective. The present new economic policies and their impact on women, the growth of consumerism has increasingly devalued women as sex objects are the major problems.
Explain the areas of westernization.
Westernization is a major cultural process of change. The term Westernization is introduced in Indian Sociology by M. N. Srinivas. It has been used to analyze the exogenous source of social changes in contemporary India. M. N. Srinivas, in his book ‘Social Change in Modem India’, explains Westernization in the following words.
“The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term subsumes changes occurring at different U levels; technology, institutions, ideology, values”. Westernization virtually indicates the process of imitation of western lifestyles by the Indian.
The process of westernization brought about a number of socio-cultural changes in the Indian Society, among which the following may be noted in three main areas: Technology, Institutions, Ideology, and values.
The new and large scale industries introduced by the British exposed the average Indian to the influence of Western Technology. The widespread use of the western technology led to the process of industrialization. The process of industrialization is normally associated with the growth of towns and cities which started attracting people from the rural areas.
Cities provided a favourable atmosphere for the spread of western influence. Technology led to the development in the fields of Communication, Post and Telegraph, Telephone and Radio, Railways, Roadways, etc.,
2. New Institutions:
Westernization brought about changes in institutional systems also. For example
a. In the place of Traditional Educational Institutions, the western type of formal educational Institutions such as Schools, Colleges, Technical Institutes, Research Centres, Universities, etc., got established. English became the medium of instruction in these Institutions and gained prominence. It also served to spread the English culture,
b. In the place of Traditional caste panchayats, the modem law, legislation, court, police, and other legal systems came to stay.
c. The modem capitalist mode of Economy gave a fatal blow to the erstwhile Jajmani System. New Commercial Establishments, banks, and new accounting system came into practice.
d. New institutional arrangements such as Social Welfare Schemes, Life insurance schemes, Social security schemes, etc., were introduced in order to provide protection and security to people where ever required.
3. Ideology and Values:
Westernization implies certain value preferences also. Humanitarianism, Rationalism, Egalitarianism, and Secularism are associated with westernization. These ideologies and values had a great impact on Indians. They changed the traditional attitudes and outlook of the people. Western ideologies and values provided inspiration for social reform movements, such as Brahma Samaja, Arya Samaja, Ramakrishna Mission, etc.,
Explain the causes of modernization.
According to Myron Weiner, the causes for modernization are:
It includes a sense of national loyalty and creates skills and attitudes essential for technological innovation.
The development of mass communications (including telephone, TV, radio, movies, etc.) is an important means of spreading modern ideas at a faster rate.
3. Ideology based on Nationalism:
The nationalistic ideologies serve as unifying influence in bridging social cleavages within plural societies. They also help the political elite in changing the behaviour of the masses.
4. Charismatic Leadership:
A charismatic leader is in a better position to persuade people to adopt modem beliefs, practices and behaviour patterns because of the respect and loyalty he commands.
5. Coercive Government Authority:
If the government authority is weak, it may not succeed in implementing the policies aimed at the modernization process, but if the government in strong, it may even adopt coercive measures to compel people to accept attitudes and behaviour patterns which aim at development.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Define demography and explain the major characteristics of demographic profile of India.
Demography is the systematic study of population. The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people. The term Demography was coined by Achille Guillard in 1855.
Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population including – changes in population size; patterns of births, deaths, and migration; and the structure and composition of the population, such as the relative proportions of women, men, and different age groups.
There are different varieties of demography, including Formal demography which is a largely quantitative field, and Social demography which focuses on the social, economic or political aspects of population. All demographic studies are based on processes of counting or enumeration – such as the census or the survey – which involve the systematic collection of data on the people residing within a specified territory.
In India, census was conducted by the British Indian government between 1867-72, and regular ten yearly (decennial) censuses have been, conducted since 1881. Independent India continued the practice, and seven decennial censuses have been conducted since 1951, the most recent being in 2011.
Demographic data are important for the planning and implementation of state policies, especially those for economic development and general public welfare.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population
- Age structure of the Indian population
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate
- Increasing Literacy rate of the Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact, between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%.
This who because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19. The growth rate of population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011.
The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all-time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio.
The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overal 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels.
Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period. Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. Total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Explain briefly the Backward Classes Commissions of Karnataka.
The backward class movement in Karnataka is desire of the underprivileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are better off and some are not so due to the opportunities they get.
By such opportunities people who are already well off equip themselves and pursue careers which give them prestige and profit. By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves.
A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats, and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins.
By 1917, these groups formed an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali. In 1918, this mandali pleaded with Maharaja of Mysore for representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions. In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller was formed to study this.
Miller committee recommended the acceptance of all their demands. Since then, Backward classes in Mysore state have availed benefits in the field of education, employment, and political arena.
A. Naganna Gowda Commission:
The Karnataka Government appointed a Backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda, It is the First Backward Class Commission in Karnataka. The Commission submitted its report in 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing a total of 68% of reservation.
The government’s attempt to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However, in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
B. L. G Havanoor Commission:
In 1972, the government appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G. Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities, there was no constitutional provision for giving it.
Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However it was challenged in Supreme Court and govt, gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
C. Venkataswamy Commission:
In 1983, the government appointed the Venkataswamy Commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created wide spread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish one more commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
D. Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy Commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs quota is 32%.
Based on the Mandal Commission’s report, the Supreme Court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission at the centre as well as in states and union territories. Accordingly, a permanent Backward Classes Commission was set up in Karnataka.
Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih (2003-2006), Dr. G. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011 – 13) headed the Backward Classes Commission in Karnataka.
At present H. Kantharaj is the Chairman of the Karnataka State Backward class Commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Tribes are enlisted as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.
Explain the role of Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar in eradicating untouchability.
Freedom struggle and eradication of untouchability were both very important for Gandhiji. He preached against untouchability and has set a model by his deeds and words. He himself lived with the Harijans and shared their sorrows and sufferings. He made them participate in worships, prayers, keerthanas.
He wrote extensively in ‘Harijan’ and ‘Young India’ about the condition of Harijans and propagated in favour of various legal provisions against several kinds of injustice meted out to the untouchables. He cleaned the streets and toilets of scheduled castes.
By his selfless, sincere self-effort he created awareness among the Harijans regarding cleanliness, sanitation, and health. After 1931, Indian National Congress set up a council to consider the problem of untouchability.
It was due to ceaseless effort of this council that ‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’ came into existence. The sangh also provides the Harijan students with financial assistance and scholarships. Kasturaba Balika Ashram in Delhi, Harijan Balika Vidyalaya at Sabarmati are just two examples of schools started by the Sangh for the cause of female education.
The Sangh has branches all over the country and it is maintaining 120 boarding houses. Gandhiji called untouchables as Harijana and popularised the word Harijana. The word Harijana was first coined by Gujarathi saint Narasimha Mehatha. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, popularly known as Baba Saheb stood for the emancipation of untouchables.
Being the chief architect of the constitution, he has legalised the upliftment of the untouchables through the inclusion of many articles. The Constitution of India guarantees, protects, and safeguards the rights and interests of all in general and of untouchables in particular. Ambedkar wanted to instil in the hearts of untouchables, the ideas of self-dignity, self-confidence and self-respect.
For the very same purpose he had started the ‘Bahishikrita Hitakarini Sabha’. The movement he had started was known as ‘self-respect movement’. In order to attain a respectable position in society, he asked untouchables to follow five principles, i.e. pancha sutras’. They are self-improvement, self-dependence, self-respect, self-confidence, and self-progress.
In order to create awareness among the untouchables Ambedkar started a paper called Mooka Nayaka. He brought them under one banner; organized ‘All-India Depressed Classed Conference’ in 1942 at Nagpur. In his dalit movement, Ambedkar suggested three principles, i.e. education, agitation, and organization.
Explain the recent government policy initiatives to mitigate farmer’s suicide.
1. Loan waivers and relief:
In 2008, the Government of Karnataka waived the principal amount of outstanding loan to all farmers up to Rs 25,000 and waived the interest to those who have borrowed. above Rs 25,000, if they pay the principal amount before 31 March 2008.
2. Exorbitant Interest Rate Act-2004:
The Government of Karnataka has enacted the Karnataka Prohibition of Levying of Exorbitant Rates of Interest Act, 2004, to check levying exorbitant rates of interest by private money lenders.
It has provisions for taking stringent action against those money lenders who violate the Money Lenders Act and levy exorbitant interest. Any such violation would attract imprisonment up to three years and a fine of Rs 30,000 or both.
G.K. Veeresh Committee came out with a series of recommendations such as
- The creation of, farmer’s welfare fund,
- Establishment of nodal department for the welfare of farmers,
- Social security measures and so on.
Following this, the Government of Karnataka had taken a series of steps in the distress, in consultation with the members of the Committee. These are listed below:
a. Health Insurance Scheme for the farmers, namely Yeshaswini was put in place and the farmers had direct access to the best medical facilities available in the State-run hospitals. This has significantly reduced the expenditure of farmers on health.
This has been introduced throughout the rural region of Karnataka in 2000 for a premium payment of Rs 120 per year per family. Participants are covered for all surgical interventions and for outpatient services at any of the designated network hospitals.
b. The interest rates on loans from Co-operative banks were reduced to 6% per annum. Reduction of the interest rate reduced to 4% per annum in the 2007- 0.8. These loans significantly helped the farmers.
c. Review of compensation policy to the family of the victims (who have committed suicide) was thoroughly reviewed and compensation was allowed only in the case where suicide was directly related to the farming activities.
d. Information facility to Rayat Samparka Kendras were provided internet access and telephone facilities, so that the initial signals of distress were transmitted directly to the state headquarters. Similarly, in the extension wing of the Department of Agriculture Telephone links were established to reach the concerned official with ease.
e. Crop insurance was taken up to Hobli level and compensation provided to the farmers based on the Hobli level data.
f. Scheme on seed subsidy was announced and farmers were provided seeds with a subsidy of up to 50%.
g. Waters led development programme. The investment on watershed development programmes was increased tenfold and that created increased employment opportunities in the rain-fed areas.
h. The Market Intervention Scheme:
This scheme was reviewed and the corpus fund for the scheme was increased to rupees three billion. Similarly, the market intervention scheme was made operational at the regulated market yard.
i. Priority to agricultural Research:
Agricultural Universities were directed to focus on research and development responding to the demand, rather than providing the ‘supply driven’ research priorities.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Explain the Dr. Satnpurnanand Committee recommendations to strengthen national integration.
The Central Education Ministry organized a ‘Committee for National Integration’ in 1961 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand. The Integration Committee gave some recommendations to promote and strengthen national integration. Some of them are stated below:
1. Re-organization of the syllabi at various levels – primary, secondary, college and university levels- to promote national integration.
2. Giving due encouragement to extra-curricular activities besides imparting formal knowledge to the students with the intention of promoting national unity.
3. Improvement of textbooks helps a great deal in giving a true national perspective to the students. They can be made to understand their rich cultural heritage and feel proud of their nation.
4. Conducting community programmes such as mass prayers, mass meetings, speeches by respected leaders, etc., to help to bring the people together.
Apart from the governmental efforts to achieve the goal of national unity, various stakeholders such as educational institutions, religious/cultural associations and mass media should involve in chalking out action-based programmes to enhance awareness/dissemination of traditional values among the masses and increase cultural exchange banking on the richness of our cultural heritage and diversity.
Special steps should be taken by various interest groups to speed up development of economically and socially backward groups who are the easy victims of violent activities.
Explain the causes for changes in joint family.
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families.
This struck at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture has come down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs.
The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life concerning transport and communication, sanitation and health, education and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. Gradually joint family hold is losing its control and nuclear families in cities have become the norm.
3. Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapid growth of population has brought corresponding increase of pressure on land. Agriculture being the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth face the problem of unemployment. People have begun to move to cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which has resulted in the breakdown of jointness.
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into various better-paying jobs or professions. Modern education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideologies of the people but has also created the individualistic feelings.
The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment leading to economic independence.
5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements and awareness among the women of their own position, all these have affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modern education has enlightened women. Education has made them conscious of their rights and status in the society. It has brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family.
They are no longer prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position. Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothiba Phule, Maharshi Karve, Pandit Ramabai and many others have worked and achieved considerable success to the cause of women.
All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that the process of disintegration has set in the joint family system.
6. Social Legislations:
Legislations enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the Rights of Women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of Inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937. Sati
Prevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 have brought changes in family relations.
After independence the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to adult males and females to many according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds.
All these. legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old-age pension, widow pension, etc.
Write the solutions to urban problems.
Solutions to urban problems are:
1. Systematic development of cities and creation of job opportunities, which can permit multifunctional activities to sustain people in cities.
2. To check migration, regional planning to provide employment at their native places is essential.
3. Encouraging industries to move to Backward areas. This will take care of linear development of metropolitan and big cities and also there will not be regional imbalance.
4. Municipalities should find their own financial resources. A city must bear the cost of its own development.
5. Encouraging private transportation facilities in view of the better services.
6. Adopting pragmatic housing policies and encouragement of private investment, use of new and advanced technologies. Building of low-cost houses, promotion of co-operative housing societies, etc. It has to develop special schemes for the poor and low-income people.
Structural decentralization of municipal activities and community participation in the city activities. Modified and controlled liberalization, accountable bureaucrats and responsible elected body must work for the sake of area in the honest manner.
Write a note on Pushkar Annual fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock, it has become an important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place.
Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in the Hindu calendar.
The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu God Brahma sprung up from the Pushkar Lake. A lot of people take a holy dip in its sacred waters. There are many such fairs having socio, economic and religions importance taking place in Karnataka also.
Fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere(dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar are some noteworthy examples.