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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2015
Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each: (10 × 1 = 10)
How is the term Demography derived?
The term Demography is derived from two Greek words i.e. demos (people) and graphein (describe), implying the description of people.
Name one district of Karnataka having imbalance in the sex ratio.
Mandya and Belagavi.
What is pakka food?
Food prepared out of Ghee and Oil.
Who coined the term ‘Scheduled Caste’?
It was coined in 1928 by the Simon Commission and the Government of India Act 1935 used it officially.
Where is the Headquarters of Lijjat located?
What is Tarawad?
Matriarchal Joint family among the Nair communities of Kerala.
Who considered Indian villages as Little Republics?
Who created World Wide Web?
Tim Berners Lee.
Name the First Social reformer who revolted against the tyranny of caste.
Jyothi Ba Phule.
M. N. Srinivas, in his book ‘Social Change in Modern Indian’ explains Westernization in these words. The changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, and the term includes changes occurring at different levels like technology, institutions, ideology, values etc.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each: (10 × 2 = 20)
What does DEMARU stands for?
D stands for daughter and E for elimination in English. MARU stands for killing in Hindi. In short, it is killing of a girl child.
Distinguish between sex and gender.
Sex is of biological nature. Gender is identity as male or female as per social and psychological perceptions, learnt through a process of socialisation.
Write any two problems of Scheduled Caste.
Exclusion from any honourable and more profitable employments and restricting to dirty and menial occupations. Restrictions on lifestyle, especially in the use of goods indicating comfort or luxury, riding on horseback, use of bicycles, umbrella, footwear, the wearing of gold and silver ornaments, and the use of palanquins to carry bridegrooms all of these were forbidden in many areas.
Mention any two determinants of dominant caste.
Numerical Strength, Economic and Political power.
Mention two characteristics of Micro finance.
- Loans without security.
- Loans to people who live in BPL.
Mention any two disadvantages of a joint family.
- Some of the members become idlers without taking any serious responsibilities.
- Restrictions and control lead to misunderstanding and quarrels.
State any two characteristics of slums.
- Dilapidiated and poor housing facilities.
- High density of population.
What is virtual market?
It is the new form of marketing and transactions which is taking place through online with the help of information and Communication Technology. E-commerece, online purchase, online trading of stocks and shares are the latest in the market activities. Such transactions and activities are called as virtual market.
What is McDonaldization?
According to George Ritzer, McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.
Mention any two women’s organizations in India.
Stree Mukti Sanghatana and Vimochana.
Name any two characteristics of Modernization.
- It is the process of social change whereby less developed societies acquire the characteristics common to developed societies.
- Reasoning and rationalism.
M. N. Srinivas initially defines it as the tendency among the low castes to move higher in the caste hierarchy within a generation or two by adopting vegetarianism and toetotalism and by sanskritizing its rituals. M. N. Srinivas redefines sanskritization as a process by which a low caste Hindu or a tribal changes his customs, rituals, ideology, and way of life in the direction of the upper, frequently twice-born caste,
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Explain any five major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India.
The Major characteristics of the Demographic Profile of India:
- Size and Growth of India’s population.
- Age structure of the Indian population.
- Sex-Ratio in India.
- Birth rate and Death rate.
- Increasing Literacy rate of the Indian population.
- Increasing Rural-Urban differences.
1. Size and Growth of India’s Population:
India is the second-most populous country in the world after China. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 121 crores(1.21 billion). Between 1901-1951 the average annual growth rate did not exceed 1.33%, a modest rate of growth. In fact between 1911 and 1921 there was a negative rate of growth of – 0.03%.
This was because of the influenza epidemic during 1918-19. The growth rate of the population substantially increased after independence from British rule going up to 2.2% during 1961-1981. Since then although the annual growth rate has decreased it remains one of the highest in the developing world.
2. Age structure of the Indian population:
India has a very young population – that is, the majority of Indians tend to be young, compared to most other countries. The share of the less than 15 age group in the total population has come down from its highest level of 42% in 1971 to 29% in 2011. The share of the 15-60 age group has increased from 53% to 63%, while the share of the 60+ age group is very small but it has begun to increase (from 5% to 8%) over the same period.
But the age composition of the Indian population is expected to change significantly in the next two decades. 0-14 age group will reduce its share by about 11% (from 34% in 2001 to 23% in 2026) while the 60 plus age .group will increase its share by about 5% (from 8% in 2001 to about 12% in 2026).
3. The declining Sex-ratio in India:
The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population. The sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males. The trends of the last four decades have been particularly worrying – from 941 in 1961 the sex ratio had fallen to an all-time low of 927 in 1991 before posting a modest increase in 2001.
According to the Census of India 2011, the sex ratio has increased and now it is 940 females per 1000 males. But what has really alarmed demographers, policymakers, social activists, and concerned Citizens is the drastic fall in the child sex ratio. The sex ratio for the 0 – 6 years age group (known as the juvenile or child sex ratio) has generally been substantially higher than the overall sex ratio for all age groups, but it has been falling very sharply.
In fact, the decade 1991-2001 represents an anomaly in that the overall 1 sex ratio has posted its highest ever increase of 6 points from the all-time low of 927 to 933, but the child sex ratio in 2011 census has dropped from 927 to 914, a plunge of 13 points taking it below the overall sex ratio for the first time.
4. Increasing literacy rate of Indian population:
Literacy varies considerably across gender, regions, and social groups. The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. However, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy, partly because it started from relatively low levels. Female literacy rose by about 11.2 percent between 2001 and 2011 compared to the rise in male literacy of 6.2 percent in the same period.
Female literacy which was 8.9% in 1951, has increased to 65.4 in 2011. Male literacy in the same period was 27.2% which has increased to 82.17. The total literacy rate of 18.3% in 1951 has increased to 74.04 in 2011.
5. Increasing Rural-Urban differences:
According to the 2011 Census, 68.8% of the population lives in rural areas while 31.2% of people live in urban areas. The urban population has been increasing steadily, from about 17.3% in 1951 to 31.2 in 2011, an increase of about two-and-a-half times.
Explain Tribal Panchasheela.
Jawaharlal Nehru laid down the policy of Integration to five principles (1957) in his foreword note to Verrier Elwin’s book, called “The Philosophy of NEFA” (NEFA – North East Frontier of Assam). The tribal panchasheela as enunciated by him is as follows:
1. People should develop along the lines of their own genius and we should avoid imposing anything on them. We should try to encourage in every way their own traditional – arts and culture.
2. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
3. We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to work and manage administration and development. Some technical personnel from outside will, no doubt be needed especially in the beginning. But we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory.
4. We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes. We should rather work through and not in rivalry to their own social and cultural institutions.
5. We should judge the results not by statistics or the amount of money spent but by the quality of human character that is evolved.
Explain the role of Mahatma Gandhi in eradicating untouchability?
Freedom struggle and eradication of untouchability were both very important for Gandhiji. He preached against untouchability and has set a model by his deeds, and words. He himself lived with the Harijans and shared their sorrows and sufferings. He made them participate in worships, prayers keerthanas. He wrote extensively in Harijan and ‘Young India’ about the condition of Harijans and propagated in favour of various legal provisions against several kinds of injustice meted out to the untouchables.
He cleaned the streets and toilets of Scheduled Castes. By his selfless, sincere self effort he created awareness among the Harijans regarding cleanliness, sanitation, and health. After 1931, Indian National Congress set up a council to consider the problem of untouchability. It was due to ceaseless effort of this council that Harijan Sevak Sangh came into existence.
The sangh also provides the Harijan students with financial assistance and scholarships. Kasturaba Balika Ashram in Delhi, Harijan Balika Vidyalaya at Sabarmati are just two examples of schools started by the Sangh for the cause of female education.
The Sangh has branches all over the country and it is maintaining 120 boarding houses. Gandhiji called untouchables as Harijana and popularised the word Harijana. The word Harijana was first coined by Gujarathi saint Narasimha Mehatha.
Explain the agricultural and economic problems of Indian villages.
Following are the important economic and agricultural problems:
Economic growth in contemporary India is marked by considerable disparities of region and class. The Nobel-prize-winning economist Amartya Sen worries that, “As these inequalities intensify, one half of India will come to look and live like California, the other half like subSaharan Africa.” Already, prosperity coexists with misery, technological sophistication with human degradation.
2. Discriminatory Policies:
Farmers as a group today feel let down by the policies of the State that puts them relatively in a disadvantageous position. This is made abundantly clear by many analysts in the recent past. In other words, it is not that the state is discriminatory against the farmers as a group, but the policies are sufficiently provocative in widening the gap between the net incomes of farmers and agricultural labourers on the one hand and the remaining professions on the other.
During the decade of the 1990s, the situation became aggravated, both due to policy failure and the successive droughts. At the end, the prices did not pick up even in the event of low production. This was compounded by the economic reforms which took the agricultural sector for granted overlooking their needs.
3. Vulnerability of the Agricultural Sector:
The agricultural sector operates under a large number of constraints. State policies dictate prices of most of the factors of production required for agriculture: electricity, water, fertilisers, pesticides and minimum wages.
The credit market operations are largely dictated by the credit policy of the Reserve bank, as well as the difficulties in access to credit. Difficulties in accessing institutional credit compel the farmers to approach moneylenders and a new emerging institution; namely the input dealer.
Weather uncertainties, availability of irrigation water and inputs like fertilisers and pesticides are a cause of concern. These are compounded by product market imperfections and the price fluctuations that the farmer faces. The process of globalisation has intensified some of these concerns, both because of the prominence of trade and the resulting commercialisation process in the agricultural sector.
4. Increase in cost cultivation and Environmental degradation:
Increasing cost of cultivation and environmental degradation on one side due to significant increase in the input prices, technology and un-protected farming based on the monsoon on the other makes the farmers hopelessly vulnerable. Farmers also face high transaction costs and low bargaining power, which leave them with poor returns.
The ecological crisis in the rural regions where declining water tables, loss of agricultural bio diversity and the onset of a range of plant diseases and pests have become a challenge to the conduct of agriculture.
5. The deliberate withdrawal of Welfare Programmes from State:
The deliberate withdrawal of the state from its welfare role for the farmers and agriculture labourers has contributed to the accentuation of the agrarian crisis. The capitalist agriculture in India could thrive because of the proactive role of the state in providing infrastructure, irrigation, and credit through institutional agencies.
The gradual reduction in the state investment in agriculture was also instrumental in the decline in agricultural productivity and production. The partial withdrawal of subsidy given to the farmers or to agriculture and free power to agriculture and also the fact that the power tariff has been increased, have added to the woes of farmer drastically.
6. Globalization Resultant Competition and Exploitation by Big Corporates:
The agrarian crisis is due to adoption of World Trade Organization model of agriculture or what is called McKinsey Model of development that created spaces for industry driven agriculture which ultimately resulted in agribusiness development including Information Technology. This model of development has not only exacerbated the crisis leading to an environmental catastrophe but also destroyed millions of rural livelihoods.
7. Peculiar Banking Practices and Non-Availability of Loans from Institutional Sources:
NABARD (National Bank For Agriculture and Rural Development) refinances the cooperative banking institutions and therefore imposes certain conditions for delivery and recovery of the credit. ‘Eligibility’ is probably the most important concept in dictating the performance of the sector.
A branch of a cooperative bank is categorized as eligible/ non-eligible based on the repayment performance and naturally the Primary Credit Cooperative Societies in the underdeveloped regions have lower repayment performance. As a consequence over the years, these societies, do not get adequate supply of credit and therefore, farmers from these regions have to depend upon the other informal sources of credit.
8. The Failure of the Cooperative Sector:
The Cooperative sector could have helped the farmers in overcoming their debts. The Karnataka government failed to make the cooperative movement a success. For instance, in Karnataka, there are 32,382 cooperative societies at the village level, almost 40 percent of them are running heavy losses while nearly 20 percent of them are either defunct or on the verge of Bankruptcy.
9. Dependence on Ground Water for Irrigation:
Irrigation is another major source of agricultural growth. The actual area under canal and tank irrigation has been declining since the 1990’s. On the other hand, there is a phenomenal increase in the dependencey on the ground water resources through the wells and bore wells. It is aptly noted that the unstable growth of bore wells combined with monsoon failure and increase in surface irrigated area that has led to drying up of borewells due to inadequate recharge.
10. Rise in Drought prone Areas:
Drought prone Areas in India is rising. Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharastra are considered as the major drought prone states. Karnataka ranked second in the drought prone areas. It has increased from 63% to 72 percent owing to erratic monsoon and lack of drought proofing methods. In 2011-12, 123 taluks in 23 districts were declared as drought hit. A total of 157 taluks and 64 taluks were declared drought hit in 2012-13 and 2013-14 respectively according to NABARD.
Explain Agrarian crisis and farmers suicide – in Karnataka.
R. S. Deshpumde and Saroja Arora’s work ‘Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides’ is a field work based study. It was Conducted by the Center for Rural Studies, Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy and Administration, Mussoori in 2007. This volume deals with the problems of farmers suicides across the state. Agrarian crisis in Karnataka can be understood in the following way.
It is acknowledged fact that between 1993 and 2003,100,248 farmers committed suicide in India. Suicide is not confined to Karnataka alone. It has been reported among the sugarcane growers of UP, cotton growers of Andhra Pradesh and spice/ coffee growers of Kerala. It has been reported from Orissa and West Bengal as well.
Karnataka has no history of farmers committing suicide even during the situation of acute agrarian crisis. Even the unorganised farmers would resort to other tactics such as throwing agricultural commodities on the roads, burning their crops and so on. However, suicide was an attempt to retain the identity as a distinct social category within the larger economy.
In this context, the report of the Agricultural Department, Government of Karnataka is important. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 2909 farmers committed suicide. On the contrary, the Central Government claimed that from 2000-01 to 2005-06, around 8600 farmers committed suicide which is the highest figure when compared to any other state in fact Maharashtra is relegated to the third position in the suicide rate.
However if we calculate the statistics provided by the Veeresh Committee report, including other press reports one can estimate the number of suicides is more than 5000.
Region-wise the highest suicide rate was reported from the Old Mysore areas, followed by the Old Bombay Presidency areas and the Old Hyderabad region. The Old Madras Presidency area, as well as Coorg also reported suicides, however their number is less. In fact, Old Mysore and Old Bombay Presidency areas are better known for irrigation. Most of these who committed suicide lived near the tail end of the canal.
The beginning of the suicides can be traced back to the year 1998, when farmers in Bidar, who were involved in cultivating toor dal, a market-oriented agricultural crop committed suicide. In the two years, farmer suicides were largely concentrated in the drought-prone districts of north Karnataka or confined to economically backward, drought-prone regions such as Gulbarga and Bidar.
However, after 2000, the phenomenon shifted to relatively advanced agricultural regions, particularly Mandya, Hassan, Shimoga, Davanagere, Koppal and even Chikamagalur and Kodagu.
Explain the factors which led to agrarian movements according to Kathaleen Gough.
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:
- Restorative rebellions
- Religious movements
- Social banditry
- Terrorist vengeance and
- Mass insurrections
1. Restorative Rebellions:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.
2. Religious Movements:
This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.
3. Social Banditry:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17th and 18th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.
4. Terrorist Vengeance:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve the elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.
5. Mass Insurrections:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott, etc. They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Discuss briefly the challenges to National Integration.
There are many challenges to National integration. They are as follows;
- Linguism and
- Extremism and Terrorism.
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely
- Demand for separation from the Indian union.
- Demand for a separate statehood.
- Demand for a full-fledged statehood.
- Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems. Communalism is an ideological tool for the propagation of economic and political interests. It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.
4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfill one’s objectives.
In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal (1986).
Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to Prof. Rama Ahuja, there are four types of terrorism India,
- Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab
- Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
- Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.
- ULFA terrorism in Assam.
The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of a theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/ youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.
Explain the criteria of backwardness according to Mandal Commission.
The Second Backward Classes Commission came into existence in 1979, under the chairmanship of B. P. Mandal. The Mandal commission in its report has listed 3743 castes and communities in the central list: The commission has recommended 27% reservation for other backward castes.
One of the primary objectives of the Mandal commission was to find out the criteria to be used to determine the socially, economically and educationally backward people. The commission found out 11 criteria for determining the social, economic and educational backwardness of the communities. These criteria fall into three categories as mentioned below.
A. Social Criteria:
- Social backwardness as considered by others.
- Dependence mainly on manual labour for livelihood.
- Marriage of 25% girls and 10% boys in rural areas, and of 10% girls and 5% boys in urban area at an age below 17 years.
- Female work participation 25% above the state average.
B. Educational Criteria:
- Children between 5 and 15 years never attending school is 25% above the state average.
- Student drop-out rate is 25% above the state average.
- Matriculation rate is 25% below the state average.
C. Economic Criteria:
- Average value of family assets 25% below the state average.
- Families living in kachcha houses 25% above the state average.
- Sources of drinking water at a distance beyond 500 meters for more than 50% of the families.
- Compulsion to take loan by households 25% above the state average.
These criteria were differently weighted; three points each for social indicators, two points each for educational indicators, and one point each for economic indicators, adding up to 22 points. Any caste getting more than 11 points was counted as backward. The criteria of backwardness recommended by the Mandal Commission are widely applied today to determine the relative backwardness of a community.
Explain the five factors for changing the joint family.
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families. This struck at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in the joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture has come down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs. The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life concerning transport and communication, sanitation and health, education and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. A gradually joint family hold is losing its control and nuclear families in cities have become the norm.
3. Rapid Growth of Population:
The rapid growth of the population has brought a corresponding increase in pressure on land. Agriculture is the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth face the problem of unemployment. People have begun to move to cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which have resulted in the breakdown of jointness.
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into various better-paying jobs or professions. Modern education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideologies of the people but has also created the individualistic feelings. The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment leading to economic independence.
5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements and awareness among the women of their own position, all these have affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modern education has enlightened women. Education has made them conscious of their rights and status in society. It has brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family. They are no longer prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position.
Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothiba Phule, Maharshi Karve, Pandit Ramabai and many others have worked and achieved considerable success to the cause of women. All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that, the process of disintegration has set in the joint family system.
6. Social Legislations:
Legislation enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the Rights of Women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of Inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937. Sati Prevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 has brought changes in family relations.
After independence, the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to adult males and females to many according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds.
All these legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old-age pension, widow pension, etc.
What is Green Revolution? Explain its effects.
Since mid 1960s the traditional agricultural practices are gradually being replaced by modem technology and farm practices and a revolution is taking place in the country. Initially, the new technology was tried in 1960-61 on pilot projects in seven districts and was called Intensive Agricultural District programme (IADP).
Later, High Yielding Varieties programme (HYVP) was also added to the AIDP and the strategy extended to cover the entire country. India’s Green Revolution was led by M.S. Swaminathan known as the father of Green Revolution in India. This strategy has been called by various names. Modem Agriculture Technology, seed fertilizer, water technology or Green Revolution.
The traditional agriculture relies heavily on indigenous inputs such as the use of organic manures, seeds, simple ploughs and other primitive agricultural tools, bullocks, etc. Modem technology on the other hand, consists of chemical fertilisers, pesticides, improved varieties of seeds, agricultural machinery, extensive irrigation, use of power, etc. Since 1966, the use of modem agricultural inputs has increased at a compound rate of 10% per annum in contrast to the traditional inputs rising at the rate of only one percent per annum during the same period.
The successful adoption of the new technology has led to continuous expansion in agriculture. Modernisation of agriculture has strengthened the linkages between agriculture and industry. It has made the farmer market oriented. At the same time, the demand for agricultural credit has also increased. An increased production of commercial crops would enable the expansion of agro-based industries. This unprecedented growth in the land produce is green revolution.
Describe Women’s movement in India.
Indian Women’s Movement (IWM) emerged as a part of the social reform movement during the British rule. Initially men and later women reformers devotedly bore social ridicule, religious excommunication and loneliness to fight against some of the injustices perpetrated on women, especially the ill-treated widows, such as Sati, prostitution, child marriage, etc.
After a prolonged campaign and much reluctance on the part of the British, a law banning Sati was passed in 1829. Women remained confined, by purdah and feudal custom, to household chores. The first Mahila Mandals organised by the Aiya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj, the reformist organisations, provided the space for reformation.
By the early 1900s, women’s organisations based on language, religion or welfare services proliferated, mainly in urban centres. For example a Brahmin Women’s Home was built by Subbalakshmi Ammal in Madras, the Mahila Seva Samaj in Mysore, the Bhagini Samaj in Pune, the Chamanbai Maternity and Child Welfare Board in Baroda, etc.
The All India Women’s Conference (AIWC), which was established in 1924, and became the single largest voice of the divergent groups, infused all its old and new demands with an equal rights perspective. They demanded for co-education, while the reform law included marriage, divorce, and inheritance; economic equality included a right to one’s husband’s income and pension for widows; and surprisingly the right to abortion was also included.
Independence brought many promises and dreams for women too the dream of an egalitarian, democratic society in which both men and women would have a voice. After Independence, the dust and din of women’s activism gave way to the development of institutions and organisations.
Many middle class women found a place in the expanding service and educational sectors, government structures or the professions. This numerically small but conspicuous entry into formerly prohibited areas gave rise to an image of the ‘new’ emancipated Indian woman.
By the 1960s, it was clear that many of the promises of independence were unfulfilled. Thus the 1960s and 1970s saw a spate of movements in which women took part in campaigns against rising prices, movements for land rights, peasant movements, etc. Women from different parts of the country came together to form groups both inside and outside political parties.
Towards the beginning of the 1980s in Mumbai the Stree Mukti Sanghatana, the Socialist Women’s Group organised study circles and the first women activists’ meeting. The Stree Shakti Sanghatana in Hyderabad influenced the formation of the Purogami Sanghatana in Pune. The Stree Sangarsh and the Mahila Dakshata in Delhi, Pennurimai gyakkam in Chennai, Vimochana in Bengaluru were a few of the new well-known organisations.
Rallying around specific instances of violence against women, the feminists sought to create public awareness through protest marches, sit-in strikes and media publicity. Women’s organisations established in the post-independence days have, consistently attacked the anti-women bias in society, provided support to women in distress and remained vigilant against sexist bias in national policies and implementations.
These include: invasive reproduction and family planning technologies; discriminatory practises in education and employment; and laws that countervail gender equality.
The women’s movement in India has, over the years, seen different splits and alliances, organisations and platforms, and responded to different issues with different answers and actions. The leadership of the women’s movement has remained predominantly middle class The women’s movement in India has chosen to influence and pressurize the State and its organs rather than oppose, fight and seize State power.
Write a short note on Pushkar Annual Fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become an important tourist attraction.
Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow.
It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poomima, the full moon day of Kartik in Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu God Brahma sprung up from the Pushkar Lake. Lot of people take a holy dip in its sacred waters.
There are many such fairs having socio, economic and religions importance taking place in Karnataka also. Fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar are some noteworthy examples.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 20-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Define diversity and explain types of diversity in India.
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people: geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of variety of groups and cultures. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity.
Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are;
- Regional diversities
- Linguistic diversities
- Religious diversities and
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities.
1. Regional Diversities:
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite a lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora, and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature, and physical configuration. There is the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year.
The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts, and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo – Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.
This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions. As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges. Apart from that for people with different mother tongues, communication becomes a problem.
3. Religious Diversities:
There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults. Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktas (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects.
Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Diganibars and Shwetambars are the two divisions of Jains. Indian Muslims are broadly divided into Shias and Sunnis. Indian Christians, apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants have other small regional denominational churches.
Sikhism is a synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Parsis even though a small community has played an important role in India’s industrial development. The Jews have a white and black division.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture, and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc.
Causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”.
Explain the traditional characteristics of caste.
Life of every member of the Indian society is to a large extent influenced by three systems viz., joint family, caste system and village community. They influence one’s occupation, food, dress habits, philosophy, and marriage. The study of caste system is important because caste in India is an all pervasive and deep rooted social institution.
Definitions of Caste:
1. Herbert Risley has defined caste as “A collection of families or a group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from a mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarding by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community”.
2. S. V. Kethkar in his work ‘History of Caste in India’ states that A caste is a group having two characteristics
- Membership is confined to only those who are born of other members.
- The members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group (Endogamy)”.
Traditional characteristics of caste:
1. Caste as a Segmental Division of Society:
The society is divided into various castes with a well-developed life of their own. The membership in a caste is determined by birth. Caste has hereditary status, which is determined.by birth. Each caste has a council of its own, known as caste Panchayat. Caste panchayats imposed certain restrictions on social intercourse between castes like marriages commensal and occupational interactions. By these restrictions each caste had its own way of life. Violation of caste norms attracted punishment from the caste panchayat depending on the seriousness of the violations.
The whole society is divided into distinct castes with a concept of high and low, or as superior and inferior associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins were placed at the top of the hierarchy and regarded as pure. The degraded castes or untouchables occupied the other end of the hierarchy. They were subjected to manifold disabilities.
3. Restrictions on Feeding and Social Intercourse:
There are minute rules as to what sort of food or drink can be accepted by a person and from what castes, who should accept food or drink at the hands of whom is defined by caste.
4. Civil and Religious Disabilities and Privileges of the Different Sections:
Segregation of individual castes or groups of castes in a village is the most obvious mark of civil privileges and disabilities and it has prevailed in a more or less definite form all over India. Generally, untouchables were made to live on the outskirts. Certain parts of the town or village are inaccessible to certain castes. Restrictions on using public roads, water facilities, Hotels, etc.
5. Restrictions on occupations:
According to G.S. Ghurye, every caste was associated with a traditional occupation. The technical skill of the occupation was made hereditary. Since a distinction was made between occupation being clean and unclean. The hereditary occupations reflected a caste status.
6. Restrictions on Marriages (Endogamy):
Finally, every caste also maintained its rank and status regarding marriages, inter-caste marriages, were prohibited. Hence they practiced endogamy. Caste is an endogamous group. “Endogamy is the essence of the caste system. Every caste was segmented into subcastes, and these sub-castes were the units of endogamy.”
Describe the characteristics of village.
1. Small in size:
Indian villages are small in size. Due to that the density of population is less in Indian villages.
2. Importance to Primary Relations:
Villages share so many daily requirements and their relationships are close and intimate and face to face interactions.
3. Social Homogeneity:
Village is more homogeneous in language, belief, mores, and pattern of behavior. In their occupations, villagers participate together and share common interests.
4. Informal Social Control:
Individual behavior is controlled by family, traditions, customs, religion, etc.
5. Agriculture and its allied occupations:
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, fishing, mining and apiculture, and cottage industries are the other occupations.
6. Role of Neighbourhood and simplicity of life:
Neighbourhood relation plays an important role in the social life of village people and a simple way of life is common. There is an interdependent neighbourhood relations.
7. Village Autonomy:
Each village is relatively self-sufficient and independent. Charles Metcalfe called ‘Indian villages as Little Republics’. Recent studies proved that the Indian villages were never self-sufficient and Republic.
Explain the impact of Globalization on Mass Media.
1. Globalization and Regional Print Media:
As is evident, the reasons for this amazing growth in Indian language newspapers are many. First, there is a rise in the number of literate people who are migrating to cities. The Hindi daily Hindustan in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005. The reason was that, of Delhi’s population of one crore and forty-seven lakhs, 52 percent had come from the Hindi belt. Out of this, 47 percent have come from a rural background and 60 percent of them are less than 40 years of age.
Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and Eenadu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and block editions. Dina Thanthi, another leading Tamil newspaper, has always used simplified and colloquial language. In Kannada Prajavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Kannada Prabha have adopted the same techniques.
The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets. Marketing strategies have also marked the Dainik Bhaskar group, Vijayakarnataka’s growth as they carry out consumer contact programmes, door-to-door surveys, and research. Cross media ownership trend becoming visible among the major players such as Eenadu group, Times group, Dainik Jagaran, and Sahara who plunged into TV news after their long innings in newspapers.
2. Globalization and the English Newspapers:
While English newspapers, often called ‘National Dailies’ i.e. The Times of India, The Hindu, The Indian Express, The Economic Times. Hindustan Times, Deccan Herald and, etc. circulate across regions, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the rural hinterland.
In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres. Increasing dependence on the sponsors of advertisements and many feared that the rise in electronic media would lead to a decline in the circulation of print media. This has not happened. Indeed it has expanded. Globalization and Television
In 1991 there was one state controlled TV channel Doordarshan in India. By 1998 there were 70 channels. Privately run satellite channels have multiplied rapidly since the mid-1990s. While Doordarshan broadcasts over 20 channels. The staggering growth of private satellite television has been one of the defining developments of contemporary India.
The Gulf War of 1991 (which popularised CNN), and the launching of Star-TV in the same year by the Whampoa Hutchinson Group of Hong Kong, signalled the arrival of private satellite Channels in India. In 1992, Zee TV, a Hindi-based satellite entertainment channel, also began beaming programs to cable television viewers in India.
By 2000, many private cable and satellite channels were available including several that focused exclusively on regional-language broadcasting like Sun-TV, Eenadu-TV, Udaya-TV, Raj-TV, and Asianet. Zee TV has also launched several regional networks, other languages. Indian based English news channels like NDTV 24X7, CNN IBN, Times Now, Headlines Today are also popular among English speaking people.
Most of the news channels are on 24 × 7. The for-mat for News is lively and informal. Television news has fostered public debate and is expanding its reach every passing year. This brings us to the question whether serious political and economic issues are neglected. There are growing number of news channels in Hindi, English and regional channels are an equally large number of reality shows, talk shows, Movie shows, family soaps, interactive shows, game shows, and comedy shows.
Entertainment television has produced a new cadre of superstars who have become familiar household names. Reality shows like Kaun Banega Crorepati or Indian Idol or Big Boss have become increasingly popular. Most of these are modelled along the lines of western programmes.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Patriarchal Joint Family.
The patriarchal joint family is father-centred. The eldest male member of the family looks after the family affairs. Examples: The patriarchal joint families are found among the Nambudris of Kerala, the Mundas of Chotanagapura, and the Angami Nagas of Assam. The Nambudri joint family is generally called Illom. The Nambudris were landowners.
Land was considered indivisible, and indivisibility was ensured by the rule of primogeniture. The Nambudri Illom consisted of a man, his wife or wives, his children, and his younger brothers. Sometimes, the Illom included his old parents or his eldest son’s children.
The continuation of Illom property among the Nambudris are facilitated by the custom of the eldest son marrying girl from his caste, while other sons, although not theoretically debarred from marrying women from their caste, generally do not marry Nambudri women. It is only when the eldest son fails to have children that the next senior member marries and continues the family. The right of partition being restricted, junior members of the family have only the right to maintenance.
The eldest son of the Illom though has absolute control over the family property: he has no power to alienate it by sale or gift without the consent of the other members. Even the female members have to give their consent in order to alienate it.
List out the strategies for women empowerment.
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal Strategies: After Independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men. Some of the legislation are as follows:
- Hindu Marriage Act of 1955
- Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
- Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
- Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act of 1984.
- Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.
2. Social Strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:
- Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
- Legal literacy of women through mass media.
- Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
- Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
- Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.
3. Economic Strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:
- Educational and vocational training for women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically dependent.
- Technological aids that will be labour saving devices and will lighten women’s burden, of heavy daily tasks.
- Training for women in both formal and non-formal education.
- Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment.
- Programmes of placing women in important positions at various levels.
Write a short note on Backward Classes Movement.
The concept of Backward Classes Movement is aimed at removing or lessening the caste inequalities in society. It also addresses the ways and means of promoting the economic advancement of the poor and the downtrodden. It strives to obtain for the deprived and lower castes, equal educational facilities and political opportunities.
It signifies the social awakening that has taken place among the lower castes and the determined efforts on their part to seek avenues of social upward mobility. Jyothiba Phule of Poona was the first to revolt against the upper cast domination and her Satya Shodak Samaj was the first such social reform movement.
Define Barbie Doll is a Global Citizen.
Barbie Doll is Truly a Global Citizen:
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel corporation and launched in March 1959. The doll sells at the rate of two per second, bringing the Mattel Corporation based in Los Angeles, U.S.A., well over a billion dollars in P annual revenues.
Although Barbie sells mainly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, it can also be found in 140 countries around the world. She is truly a global citizen. Barbie was never made in the United States. The first doll was made in Japan in 1959, when that country was still recovering from Second World War and wages were low. As wages rose in Japan, Barbie production moved to other low- wage countries in Asia.
Barbie’s multiple origins today tell us a great deal about the operation of global commodity chains. Barbie is designed in the United States, where her marketing and advertising strategies are devised and where most of die profits are made. But the only physical aspect of Barbie that is made in the USA is her cardboard packaging, along with some of the paints and oils that are used to decorate the doll. Barbie’s body and wardrobe span the globe in their origins. Barbie begins her life in Saudi Arabia, where oil is extracted and then refined into ethylene that is used to create her plastic body.
Taiwan’s State owned oil Importer, the chinese Petroleum Corporation buys the Ethylene and sells it to Taiwan’s Formosta Plastic Corporation, the world’s largest producer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The pellets are then shipped to southern China, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The plastic moulded body of Barbie are made in U.S.A. Once Barbie’s body is moulded she gets her Nylon hair from Japan, her Cotton dresses are made in China and shipped into Hong Kong.
Thus Barbie in a way is a global citizen. But, in perspective, according to Anthony Giddens, “What Barbie production and consumption shows is the effectiveness of globalization processes in connecting together the world’s economics. However, it also demonstrates the unevenness of globalization’s impact, which enables some countries to benefit at the expense of others. This means that we cannot assume that global commodity chains will inevitably promote development right across the chains of societies involved.”