2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016

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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2016

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in a word or a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)

Question 1.
Name any one ancient name of India.
Answer:
Bharatha Khanda.

Question 2.
Mention the sex ratio of India according to 2011 census.
Answer:
940 females per 1000 males.

Question 3.
Name any one Backward Classes Commi¬ssion appointed by the Government of India.
Answer:
Mandal Commission.

Question 4.
Which Article of the Constitution of India abolishes untouchability?
Answer:
Art 17 of the Indian Constitution.

Question 5.
What is Tarawad?
Answer:
Matriarchal Joint family among the Nair communities of Kerala.

Question 6.
Expand IRDP.
Answer:
Integrated Rural Development Programme.

Question 7.
Name the Health Insurance Scheme introduced by the Government, for the welfare of rural people.
Answer:
Yashaswini Health Scheme.

Question 8.
Which was the first newspaper of India?
Answer:
Samvad Koumudi by Rajaram Mohan Roy – (1821)

Question 9.
Who founded ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’?
Answer:
Jyothibha Phule.

Question 10.
Who introduced the term ‘Modernisation’?
Answer:
Daniel Learner.

II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)

Question 11.
Mention any two factors responsible for decline of child sex ratio.
Answer:

  1. Forcible abortion of female foetus.
  2. Lack of interest in nurturing femlae child.

Question 12.
Write any two characteristics of demographic profile of India.
Answer:

  1. Decrease in demographic profile
  2. Increase in education.

Question 13.
Name two dominant castes of Karnataka.
Answer:
Vokkaligas and Lingayats.

Question 14.
Mention any two objectives of Stree Shakti.
Answer:
1. To strengthen the process of economic development of rural women and create a conducive environment for social change.

2. To form self help groups based on thrift and credit principles which builds self reliance and enable women to have greater access and control over resources.

Question 15.
Write any two advantages of joint family.
Answer:

  1. Economic advantage
  2. Protection of members.

Question 16.
Mention any two characteristics of Indian villages.
Answer:
Small in size and Social Homogenity.

Question 17.
Write any two major problems of Indian cities.
Answer:
Poverty and proliferation of slums.

Question 18.
Mention any two features of market.
Answer:

  1. Market is a place where things are bought and sold.
  2. Market is not just a physical place, but a place where people (buyers and sellers) meet.

Question 19.
Mention two types of mass media.
Answer:

  1. Print media – Newspapers and magazines
  2. Electronic Media: Radio, Television, Internet and Social Networking.

Question 20.
Write any two causes responsible for Malaprabha Agitation.
Answer:

  1. The Issue of price stability
  2. The levy issue.

Question 21.
Name any two popular Kannada news channels.
Answer:
Suvarna TV, Udaya TV, Public TV, Doordarshan (Chandana)

Question 22.
Mention any two areas of westernization.
Answer:

  1. Technology
  2. New Social Institution.

III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 ×5 = 20)

Question 23.
Discuss briefly the challenges to National Integration.
Answer:
There are many challenges to National integration. They are as follows;

  1. Regionalism.
  2. Communalism.
  3. Linguism and
  4. Extremism and Terrorism.

1. Regionalism:
Regionalism is expressed in the desire of people of one region to promote their own regional interest at the expense of the interests of other regions. It has often led to separatism and instigated separatist activities and violent movements. Selfish politicians exploit it. Thus, regionalism has challenged the primacy of the nationalistic interests and undermines national unity. Regionalism is mainly of four forms namely.

  • Demand for separation from the Indian union.
  • Demand for a separate statehood.
  • Demand for a full-fledged statehood.
  • Inter-states disputes-Border disputes.

2. Communalism:
Communalism is the antagonism practiced by the members of one community against the people of other communities and religions. Communalism is the product of a particular society, economy, and polity, which creates problems. Communalism is an ideological tool for the propagation of economic and political interests. It is an instrument in the hands of the upper class to concentrate power by dividing people. The elites strive to maintain a status quo against transformation by dividing people on communal and religious lines.

3. Linguism:
Linguism implies one-sided love and admiration towards one’s language and prejudice and hatred towards other languages. India is a land of many languages and it has been called a ‘Museum of languages’. Diversity of languages has also led to linguism. It has often been manifested into violent movements posing threat to national integration. Linguistic tensions are prevailing in the border areas which are bilingual.

4. Extremism and Terrorism:
Extremism and terrorism have emerged during recent years as the most formidable challenges to national integration. Extremism refers to the readiness on the part of an individual or group to go to any extreme even to resort to undemocratic, violent and harmful means to fulfill one’s objectives.

In the past India has been facing the problems of terrorism since independence. India has faced this problem in Nagaland (1951), Mizoram (1966), Manipur (1976), Tripura (1980) and West Bengal (1986).

Terrorism in India is essentially the creation of politics. According to Prof. Rama Ahuja, there are four types of terrorism India,

  • Khalistan oriented terrorism in Punjab.
  • Militants terrorism in Kashmir.
  • Naxalite terrorism in West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh Telangana, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh,
  • Jharkhand, Chattisgarh.ULFA terrorism in Assam.

The Khalistan oriented Sikh terrorism was based on a dream of a theocratic state, Kashmir militants are based on their separate identity. Naxalite terrorism is based on class enmity. Terrorism in North-Eastern India is based on the identity crisis and the grievance situation. In addition to these factors, corruption, poverty, unemployment/ youth unrest, widening gap between rich and poor, which are also the major challenges for national integration.

Question 24.
Explain the geographical distribution of tribals in India.
Answer:
1. The North and the North-Eastern Zone:
This zone comprises the Sub-Himalayan Region and the Mountain Ranges of the North-Eastern Frontier of India, the Tista valley and the Jamuna-Padma portion of the Brahmaputra. It includes Himachal Pradesh, Northern UP, Sikkim and the seven states of the Northeast consisting of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura.

They belong to the Mongoloid race and their language resembles the languages of Austric family. This zone is inhabited by the Tribes such as Gurung, Limbu, Lepcha, Aka, Mishmi, Mikir, Rabha, Kachari, Garo, Khasi, Chakmas, Naga, Angami, Serna, Pham, Chang and so on.

2. The Central Zone:
The Central zone comprises the plateau and mountains between the Indo-Gangetic plains in the North and the Krishna River in the South. It includes West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Southern UP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The important Tribes among these are the Gonds of Madhya Pradesh, Bhils of Rajasthan, Santhalas of Chotanagpur, Ho of Singhbhum, Manbhumi, Khond and Kharia of Orissa, Sawara of Ganjam and the Mundas.

Madhya Pradesh has the largest concentration of tribal population (23.27%). Santhalas of this zone are more advanced. Some of the tribes are engaged in small-scale cottage industries and settled form of cultivation. Some of them live in very dense forests and difficult terrains.

3. The Southern Zone:
These are the Tribes of South India (Andhra Pradesh, Tarrtilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala and two Union territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep). The Tribes of this zone are the original inhabitants of India and these people speak Dravidian languages. This zone consists of the Tribes like Chenchu, Kota, Kurumba, Badaga, Toda, Kadar, Malaya, Muthuran, Koya, Soliga, Kannikar, Paniya, Yeravas, Irula, Kadu Kuruba, Jenu Kuruba, Akki Pikki, etc.

In the Andaman and Nicobar islands, there are six Tribes namely the great Andamanees, the Onges, the Sentinelese, the Jarawas represent the Negritos race and the Nicobares and Shompens belong to the Mongoloids race. The Nicobares numbering about 22000 are comparatively an advanced Tribe and are settled in the Nicobar Islands. The remaining five Tribes are numerically very small and have been declared as the primitive Tribes.

Question 25.
Explain the strategies for Empowerment of Women.
Answer:
The strategies for empowerment of women can be classified as legal, social and economic.
1. Legal Strategies:
After Independence, several laws were drafted with the aim to treat women on par with men. Some of the legislation are as follows:

  • Hindu Marriage Act of 1955.
  • Hindu Succession Act of 1956.
  • Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act of 1956.
  • Dowry Prohibition (Amendment) Act of 1984.
  • Domestic Violence Act 2005 etc.

2. Social Strategies:
Social strategies are as follows:

  • Establishment of Women Welfare Services.
  • Legal literacy of women through mass media.
  • Help of neighbours to be sought in the cases of abused women.
  • Conducting public education and awareness programmes in order to help women.
  • Males are also to be educated to realize their new roles in the changed times and the necessity of their own contribution to family life.

3. Economic Strategies:
Economic strategies are as follows:

  • Educational and vocational training for women which will enable them to seek jobs and become economically dependent.
  • Technological aids that will be labour saving devices and will lighten women’s burden, of heavy daily tasks.
  • Training for women in both formal and non-formal education.
  • Credit facilities to start small-scale industries/self-employment.
  • Programmes of placing women in important positions at various levels.

Question 26.
Explain any five characteristics of Joint family.
Answer:
1. Depth of Generations:
Joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins and great grandsons also live in a joint family.

2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.

3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members are engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is an unique element of joint family.

4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity or ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious traditions. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.

5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint stock company in which there is a joint property”. The total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met out of that.

6. Exercise of Authority:
In the patriarchal joint family usually the eldest male member known as ‘Karta’ exerscises authority. The super-ordination of the eldest member and the subordination of all the other members to him is a keynote of the joint family. His commands are normally obeyed by others. Karta ruled his family by love and affection. Similarly, in the matriarchal joint family the eldest female (matriarch) member exercises supreme authority.

7. Arranged Marriages:
In the joint family, the elders consider it as their privilege to arrange the marriages of the members. The individual’s right to select his/her life-partner is undermined. The younger members rarely challenge their decisions and arrangements. But now-a-days selecting a life partner for a family member is more democratic in nature.

8. Identification with Mutual Rights and Obligations towards the Family:
Every member has his own duties and obligations towards the family. The family in turn, protects the interests and promotes the welfare of all. The senior members of the family act as guides for junior members.

9. Self-Sufficiency:
Joint family is relatively self-sufficient. It meets the economic, recreational, medical, educational and other needs of the members. No other type of family is self-reliant that way today.

Question 27.
Describe the social problems of Indian villages.
Answer:
Social problems of Indian villages are as follows:
a. Illiteracy:
Illiteracy is a major social problem in Indian villages. Lack of educational institutions and poor quality education, coupled with high dropout rates has aggravated the situation. Majority of the educational institutions are suffering from lack of educational infrastructures like adequate buildings, libraries and reading rooms, sports grounds, etc. There is a great disparity among rural and urban regions of our society regarding educational opportunities. Further, basic facilities like drinking water, sanitation facilities, transport and communications facilities are not up to the mark.

b. Rural Poverty:
On the basis of an empirical study in seven districts in Rajasthan in 1996 sponsored by the World Bank it has identified the following causes for poverty in rural areas:

Inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes, Low percentage of population engaged in non-agricuitural pursuits. Non-availability of irrigational facilities and erratic rainfall. Dependence on traditional methods of cultivation and inadequate modem skills. Non-availability of electricity for agriculture, Poor quality of livestock.

Imperfect and exploited credit CLI market, communication facilities and markets, Low level of education. Absence of dynamic community leadership. Failure to seek women’s cooperation in developmental activities and associating them with planned programmes. Inter-caste conflicts and rivalries. Spending a large percentage of annual earnings on social ceremonies like festivals, marriages, death feast, etc., People unwilling to discard expensive customs.

c. Health Problems:
About 74% of the doctors are in urban areas, when it 70% of the total population living in villages, the extent to which provision of skilled medical care is lacking in the villages becomes quite obvious. Fertility and Birth rate as well as death rates are very high in villages.

Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high. The problems of malnutrition, the sporadic outbreak of epidemic diseases like Cholera, Malaria. Plague, Dengue and other communicable diseases are quite common. The housings are very much unsanitary while the addiction to alcohol and nicotine drugs makes the state of health condition even worse. Pesticides like Endosulfan also have caused much health hazard in rural areas.

There are more than 5000 people affected by endosulfan in Uttara Kannada District alone. At the same time soil has been degraded rendering it infertile due to excessive use of chemicals and fertilisers and it affects not only the yield but also the health of the agriculturists.

Question 28.
Describe the factors responsible for Farmers movements according to Kathleen Gough.
Answer:
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India. They are:

  1. Restorative rebellions
  2. Religious movements.
  3. Social banditry
  4. Terrorist vengeance and
  5. Mass insurrections

1. Restorative Rebellions:
This type of movement is aimed at the restoration of old systems in place of the current systems. The Santal tribal agitation against the British is one example of this type of movement.

2. Religious Movements:
This type of movement is based on the belief that their consolidated efforts would bring about a golden period and a charismatic leader will free them of their misery. Such movements are therefore called as ‘Millennium movements’ or ‘Messianic movements’. Stephen Fuchs, however, states that more than 50% of the peasant movements in India are religious movements. An example is the Kerala’s Mapillai agitations from 1836 to 1921.

3. Social Banditry:
Looting the rich landlords of villages and distributing the loot among the poor is termed as Social banditry. This arises as an expression of anger against feudal landlords, and the bandits become heroes in the eyes of the villagers. Dacoity by thugs between the 17th and 18th century in the Central India, and dacoity by Narasimha Reddy and his team in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, during 1946-47 are some examples for this type of movement.

4. Terrorist Vengeance:
Revenge is the sole motive of such movements. Such movements involve the elimination of individuals who are thought to be enemies. Feudal lords, corrupt government officials are often victims of such homicidal acts.

5. Mass Insurrections:
This type of movement is spontaneous in nature. They are often triggered by dissatisfaction over long pending issues. Initially, dissent is expressed through strikes, non-cooperation, shouting slogans, boycott, etc. They turn violent when the authority attempts to control them by the use of force. Such movements are often not backed by ideologies or charismatic leaders. For example, in recent years in Delhi, a movement against corruption and violence against women.

IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)

Question 29.
Explain the racial groups classified by B.S. Guha.
Answer:
B.S.Guha has identified six major racial elements in the population of India:

  1. Negrito
  2. Proto-Australoid
  3. Mongoloid
  4. Mediterranean
  5. Western Brachycephals and
  6. Nordic

In the south, the Kadars, the Irulas, and the Paniyans, and in the Andaman Islands the Onges, Jarwas and the great Andamanese have definite Negrito characteristics. Some traits of this group are found among the Angami Nagas and the Bagadis of the Rajmahal hills. On the western coast, there are some groups with pronounced Negrito traits, but they perhaps represent later arrivals, who came to India with the Arab traders.

The Proto-Australoid group is numerically more significant; most of the tribes of middle India belong to it. These were the people described by the Indo-Aryans as Anas, Dasa, Dasyu, and Nishad – all derogatory terms. The Mongoloid group is sub-divided into two branches – Paleo-Mongoloid and Tibeto-Mongoloid. Tribal groups in the Himalayan region and those in the north-east are of Mongoloid stock. Some Mongoloid features are seen in the non-tribal population of the eastern States – Assam, West Bengal, Manipur, and Tripura.

The Western Brachycephals (sub-divided into the Alpinoid, Dinaric, and Armenoid groups), Alpinoid and Dinaric characteristics are seen in some groups of northern and western India; the Parsis belong to the Armenoid section. The Mediterraneans are associated with the Dtavidian languages and cultures. The Nordics were the last major ethnic element to arrive in India and make a profound impact on its culture and society. But before they came a unique civilization had slowly developed in India. It is known as the Indus Valiev Civilization.

Question 30.
Explain the factors responsible for the changes in Joint family.
Answer:
1. Industrialization:
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families. This struck at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in the joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.

2. Urbanization:
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture has come down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs. The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life concerning transport and communication, sanitation and health, education and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. A gradually joint family hold is losing its control and nuclear families in cities have become the norm.

3. Rapid Growth of Population:
The rapid growth of the population has brought a corresponding increase in pressure on land. Agriculture is the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth face the problem of unemployment. People have begun to move to cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which have resulted in the breakdown of jointness.

4. Education:
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into various better-paying jobs or professions. Modern education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideologies of the people but has also created the individualistic feelings. The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment leading to economic independence.

5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements and awareness among the women of their own position, all these have affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modern education has enlightened women. Education has made them conscious of their rights and status in society. It has brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family. They are no longer prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position.

Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothiba Phule, Maharshi Karve, Pandit Ramabai and many others have worked and achieved considerable success to the cause of women. All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that, the process of disintegration has set in the joint family system.

6. Social Legislations:
Legislation enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the Rights of Women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of Inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937. Sati Prevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 has brought changes in family relations.

After independence, the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to adult males and females to many according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds.

All these legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old-age pension, widow pension, etc.

Question 31.
Define Panchayat Raj and explain the functions of Village Panchayat.
Answer:
Panchayat Raj is a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political reign of rural India. Generally it is also called as ‘Decentralization of Democracy’.

Since 1959 Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the 73 rd Amendment Act of the Constitution 1992, Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta Committee recommended a three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,

  1. Village Panchayat – at the village level.
  2. Panchayat Samithi – at the Block level and
  3. Zilla Panchayat – at the District level.

Functions of Village Panchayat:
The functions of the Village Panchayat are:

  • Provision of water supply.
  • Maintenance of minor irrigation.
  • School buildings.
  • Family Planning.
  • Construction of wells and tanks.
  • Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries.

Apart from the above, they also manage promotion of village and cottage industries, providing electric power, construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation, Welfare of the weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.

Question 32.
Explain the functions of Mass media.
Answer:
1. Information:
The media like T.V., newspapers and radio provide a continuous flow of information about the world and reports about the political, sports, entertainment activities and weather reports, the stock market and news stories and issues that affect us personally.

2. Correlation:
The media explains and helps us to understand the meaning of the information. It provides support for established social norms and has an important role in the socialization of children.

3. Continuity:
The media has a function in expressing the culture, recognizing new social developments and forging common values.

4. Entertainment:
The media provides amusement, diversion and reduces social tension.

5. Mobilization:
To encourage economic development, work, religion or support in times of war, the media can campaign to mobilize society to meet these objectives.

6. Social Reformation:
The beginnings of the print media and its role in both the spread of the social reform movement and the nationalist movement have been noted. After independence, the print media continued to share the general approach of being a partner in the task of nation building by taking up developmental issues as well as giving voice to the widest section of people.

The gravest challenge that the media faced was with the declaration of Emergency in 1975 and censorship of the media Fortunately, the period ended and democracy was restored in 1977. India with its many problems can be justifiably proud of a free media.

Question 33.
Explain the components of social movements.
Answer:
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.

1. Ideology:
provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.

2. Collective Mobilization:
The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non-institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.

3. Leadership and Organization:
These are closely linked to the process of collective mobilisation. A leader can be a charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.

Question 34.
Explain the major factors of sanskritization.
Answer:
1. Rituals:
Inspite of the Theoretical existence of certain restrictions, the low castes or other groups did manage to imitate the customs and rites of ‘Twice-born’ (DWIJAS) castes. This is the best way of claiming higher position in the caste hierarchy.

2. Marriage:
According to a strict rule of Brahminism, pre-puberty marriages were commonly practiced. It was the foremost duty of a Brahmin father to give his daughter in marriage before she attains puberty, otherwise he would be committing a great sin. Marriages among the Brahmin was indissoluble.

On the other hand, among the lower Hindu castes, post-puberty marriages were very common and the dissolution of marriage was possible. Now, in order to rise up in the caste hierarchy, the lower Hindu castes started practicing pre-puberty marriages and marriages also became indissoluble.

3. Treatment of Widows:
The normal existence of a brahmin widow was very pathetic. For instance, a Brahmin widow was not allowed to re-marry and got a miserable, treatment. She was required to shave off her head rind not allowed wearing ornaments. She was regarded inauspicious, and not allowed to attend any important functions.

On the other hand, among the low castes, marriages are dissoluble and widow re-marriages are permitted. Widows are not required to shave their heads. The codes which regulate sexual behaviour are not as strict as those among the higher castes. In the imitation process, these groups also banned widow-remarriages and started treating the widows in the same way like ‘High’ Hindus.

4. Treatment of Women:
Comparatively, women among the high caste Hindus receive bad treatment and hold a secondary position. Virginity in brides and chastity in wives is preferred. A wife is expected to treat her husband as God. Women perform a number of ‘Vratas’ or Religious vows with the aim of ensuring a long life for the husbands.

During menstruation and child birth, women from the high castes were treated as untouchables, and their presence was considered as inauspicious. Hence they are not allowed to attend important religious functions. Women among the lower castes generally receive a better treatment and occupy a good position. In order to imitate the higher castes, they too started treating their women in a bad manner and put them in a secondary position.

5. Kinship:
According to M.N. Srinivas, “In the sphere of kinship, sanskritization stresses the importance of the patrilineal lineage, and it results in increasing the importance of sons.” The members of higher castes prefer sons to daughters, whereas among the lower castes both boys and girls are equally preferred. For instance, among non-Brahmins though a son is preferred, a daughter is also in demand. The treatment that a girl child receives is not as harsh as that of a Brahmin girl. Nowadays, even lower castes prefer sons to daughters.

6. Ideology:
Sanskritization has also resulted in the use of certain Ideas and values which have been frequently expressed in Sanskrit literature, such as Karma, Dharma, Papa, Punya, Maya, Samskara, Moksha etc. The Twice-born castes use these ideas in their conversation. Through the process of Sanskritization, lower caste groups are getting exposed to these ideas and values and use them in their conversation.

7. Food Habits:
Brahmins in India are by and large strict vegetarian except Kashmiri, Saraswath and Bengali Brahmins. The lower castes usually are non-vegetarian. Sanskritization results in the change of food habits in the direction of high, frequently twice-born castes. Some of the lower cashes have become strict vegetarians and practice teetotaiism in order to raise the caste hierarchy.

8. Dress Habits:
As has already been pointed out, Dwijas are entitled to wear the sacred thread ‘yagnopaveeta’ after the vedic rites of upanayana, while Shudras are not eligible for that. Some lower castes do wear the sacred thread and also imitate the dress style of the upper caste such as wearing dhoti, shalya, turban, kachche, panche etc.

9. Nomenclature:
Many of the low castes started giving names to their new borns names normally associated with the higher castes. For example, in place of the traditional and typical names such as Kariya, Kempa, Kempi, Kala, Honni, Thimmi, etc., they have started giving names such Rama, Krishna, Shankara, Madhava, Gowri, Parvathi, Lakshmi, Shobha, Radha and so on to their kids.

V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)

Question 35.
Define diversity and explain the nature of diversity in India.
Answer:
The term diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among groups of people:
geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. All these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of variety of groups and cultures. Indian society is characterized by unity as well as diversity.

Primarily there are four major types of diversities in India, which are;

  1. Regional diversities.
  2. Linguistic diversities.
  3. Religious diversities and
  4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities.

1. Regional Diversities:
India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south, there are quite a lot of differences in altitude, temperature, Flora, and Fauna. India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature, and physical configuration. There is the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 ems per year.

The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts, and luxuriant open plain.

2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. These languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo – Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.

This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions. As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges. Apart from that for people with different mother tongues, communication becomes a problem.

3. Religious Diversities:
There are 8 major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute the majority followed by Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Jews are less than 1% each. Each major religion is further divided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults. Hindus are broadly divided into Shaivites, Vaishnavaites and Shaktas (worshippers of Shiva, Vishnu, and Mother Goddess – Shakthi respectively) and other minor sects.

Even though they took birth in India, both Jainism and Buddhism have lost their hold in India and are confined to a few small pockets. Diganibars and Shwetambars are the two divisions of Jains. Indian Muslims are broadly divided into Shias and Sunnis. Indian Christians, apart from Roman Catholics and Protestants have other small regional denominational churches.

Sikhism is a synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Parsis even though a small community has played an important role in India’s industrial development. The Jews have a white and black division.

4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies from state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture, and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc.

Causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”.

Question 36.
Explain the problems of Scheduled Tribes.
Answer:
Tribals are facing many problems and some of these problems are peculiar to some areas while some others are common to Tribals of all the areas. The problems of Tribals are as follows:

1. Geographical Isolation:
Tribals are people who have been living in remote forest areas and hill tracks, without any access to modem socio-economic inputs. For centuries, Tribals were isolated from the rest of the community, which has also given them wide cultural variations. Their geographical isolation from the mainstream deprived them the chances of progress.

2. Cultural Problems:
Due to contact with outside world, the tribal culture is undergoing a change. It has led to the degeneration of Tribal life and Tribal arts such as dance, music and different types of crafts. In several tribal areas, influence of other religions have affected their culture. This is also responsible for alienating the Tribals from their culture. These new eligions have divided them into several sects shattering their collective life.

3. Social Problems:
Due to the influence of outsiders Tribals are facing the problem of dowry, child marriage, infanticide and untouchability.

4. Economic Problems:
Tribal people are economically backward. The major economic problems of tribals are as follows:

  1. Alienation of Tribal Land to the Non-Tribals.
  2. Problem of Indebtedness.
  3. Exploitation in Forestry Operations.
  4. Primitive Methods of Cultivation.
  5. Lack of employment opportunities.

5. Educational Problems:
According to 2011 census literacy among the Scheduled Tribes was 29.6 percent Main causes of slow progress in literacy among the Scheduled Tribes are poverty of the parents, content of education, inadequate educational institutions and supporting services, absenteeism, medium of instruction and educational policy.

6. Exploitation of tribals by the moneylenders:
Tribals continue to be the victims of exploitation by the moneylenders. Indebtedness among the Tribals may be attributed to the following reasons:

Poverty loopholes in the existing money lending law lack of awareness about sources of institutional finances and existing legal protection, inability to follow complicated procedures to obtain loans and consumer credit from institutional sources, indifferent attitude of the Government and bank officials, private money lenders willingness to advance money to the Tribals without any security at exorbitant interest rate.

Absence of alternative credit facility has compelled the tribals to compromise their fate with moneylenders. Their accept indebted ness as an almost inescapable aspect of their existence.

7. Health problem:
The main cause of their sickness is the lack o clean drinking water, nutritive food and Under the health problem marked as absence of medical facilities and prevalence of communicable diseases.

Question 37.
Explain the development programmes for the upliftment of Scheduled Castes.
Answer:
1. Appointment of a national Commission for the Welfare of Scheduled castes and ” Tribes :
A National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been set up by the central Government to safeguard the interests of the SCs and STs. It functions as an advisory body on issues and policies related to the development of the SCs and STs.

2. Educational Opportunities:
Due attention is paid to extend the educational opportunities of SCs and STs and hence special provisions have been made in this regard free education, free distribution of books, stationery, uniform etc. giving scholarships, educational loan facilities, providing mid -day meal, arranging for free boarding and lodging facilities, reserving sears for SCs, and STs in all the
government and government aided institutions, etc.

3. Expansions of Economic Opportunities:
Government has taken up economic programmes also for the benefit of SCs and S is. Examples: Landless SC labourers are allotted land. Land reforms have been undertaken to bring benefits of land ownership for them. Poor SC farmers are supplied with seeds, agriculture implements, fertilizers, pesticide, interest-free loans, pair of bullocks for ploughing subsidy for developing dairy farming, poultry farming, piggery, animal husbandry, handicrafts, spinning and weaving.

4. Expansions of Employment Opportunities and Reservation:
In order to enhance the economic position of the SCs and STs the Constitution has provided for the reservation in services. Reservation exists in all these for the SCs and STs to the extent of 15% and 7.5% respectively.

5. Upliftment of Scheduled Castes through Five Year Plans:
The welfare of the Scheduled Castes has been given special attention in the Five Year Plan. The Central Government sponsored a comprehensive three strategies for the development of the SCs during the 6th five Year Plans [1980-85]. This consisted of three schemes:

  1. Special Component Plan [SCPs].
  2. Special Central Assistance [SCA].
  3. Scheduled Development Corporation [SCDCs].

1. Special Component Plan [SCP] :
The main objective of this plan is to assist the SC families to improve their income substantially. This plan envisages identification of schemes of development which would benefit SCs, quantification of funds from all programmes of specific targets as the numbers if families to be benefited from these programmes.

2. Special Central Assistance [SCA] :
The main purpose of this scheme is to provide additional assistance to the States from the Centre to help the economic advancement of the maximum possible number of Schedule Caste families living below the poverty line.

3. Scheduled Caste Development Corporation (SCDC) :
These SCDCs provide money and loan assistance to SC families and help them to increase the flow of funds from financial institutions to act as interface between the SC families and financial institutions to SC families. These Corporations established in the States are expected to act as interface between the SC families and financial institution including banks. Both the Central and the State Government contribute grants to these SCDCs.

Question 38.
Explain the recent policy initiatives of the Government to mitigate farmer’s suicide.
Answer:
The Government, of Karnataka had taken a series of steps in order to mitigale the distress of the farmers in consultation with the members of the committee. They are:

1. Health Insurance Scheme:
For the farmers, Yashaswini Health Scheme was introduced by paying Rs. 120 per year per family, to get the best medical facilities available in the state-run hospitals covered for all surgical interventions and outpatient services at any of the designated network of hospitals.

2. Reduced interest rate:
The Government reduced the interest on loans taken from Cooperative banks, from 6% to 4% which helped the farmers a lot.

3. Compensation:
to the family of the victims who have committed suicide was thoroughly reviewed and compensation was allowed only in the cases where suicide was directly related to farming activities.

4. Raita Sampaka kendras:
were provided with internet access and telephone facilities so that the initial signals of distress were transmitted directly to the State headquarters.

5. Crop insurance:
Crop insurance was taken up to Hobli level and compensation provided to the farmers based on the Hobli level data. In case of crop failures, compensation will be given according to estimate. Seed and medicine subsidy upto 50% have also allowed to farmers been The investment on Watershed Development programmes was increased tenfold and that has created increased employment opportunities in the rainfed areas. Narega programmes have been also the introduced. These are the steps taken by Government to mitigate farmers suicides.

VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)

Question 39.
Write a note on Pushkar Annual Fair.
Answer:
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock it has become an important tourist attraction.

Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place. Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow.

It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in Hindu calendar. The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu God Brahma sprung up from the Pushkar Lake. Lot of people take a holy dip in its sacred waters.

There are many such fairs having socio, economic and religions importance taking place in Karnataka also. Fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antaragange fair in Kolar are some noteworthy examples.

Question 40.
Write a note on Virtual Market.
Answer:
It is the new from of marketing and transactions that is of taking place though online, with the help of information and Communication Technology. E-commerce, online purchase, online trading of stocks and shares are the latest in the market activities. Such transactions and activities are called as virtual market. Virtual marketing is a from of electronic or e-commerce which allow s consumer or buyers to directly purchase goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser. Virtual market can be called as e-shop, internet shop, online store and virtual store.

In this modem market scenario, the seller and buyers need not go to the market rather the market comes to their place with all securities and cutting the barriers of time and space. In fact the modem institutions of marker are relatively mere fool proof as everything gets recorded and documented. It cut across all physical and social barriers.

More than the identity, Pursuance is important. The Present understanding is also a movement from traditional market place to post industrial market where markets are moving from physical entity to an abstract entity Even though the research for developing virtual market started early 1960, virtual market came to be a reality only after the 1990’s.

The concept of ‘‘Teleshopping” was first introduced by Michael Aldrich in 1979 and in the same year Videotext was being research. In France Mintel succeeded on the research of Videotext which allowed in online purchases, check share market, etc in 1982. The actual growth of online or virtual market started in 1990, when the first World Wide Web (WWW) server and browser created by time Berners-Lee in 1990 opened for, commercial use in 1991.

Question 41.
Briefly discuss the issues of Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha.
Answer:
Major issues of Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha Movement:

1. Loan Recovery Issue and Banning Corrupt Officials and Politicians in Villages:
This has led to farmers’ movement headed by KRRS over loan recovery issue. KRRS took up this issue and led the farmers movement. Boards were put up banning officials and corrupt politicians from entering villages without prior permission. They also launched a counter-seizure of property of those officers who they thought were corrupt, in addition to their own properties that were attached for non payment of loans.

2. Environmental Issue:
Farmers have agitated over .issues related to environment. KRRS saw some commercial interest in expanding the area under eucalyptus for use by the paper and pulp industry and hence, has opposed it. This tree affects the fertility of the soil in the long run and depletes the under ground water level.

3. Mining Issue:
KRRS has also taken up the granite quarrying issue. Granite was extracted and exported with no benefit to the villagers. KRRS opposed this and made them pay royalties for village betterment in addition to clearing of government dues. In due course, sand, timber etc. were also included in their list.

4. Opposing KFC and MNCs:
Recently, KRRS has taken up the issue of patenting of seeds. It has opposed the entry of multi-nationals and patenting of seeds. After the 1985 assembly poll, KRRS has become less militant. This may be because of the reason that the Janata Government in the state successfully created an impression that it was pro-farmer and the problems were due to non-cooperation of the centre.

5. Neera Movement:
During 1990’s, the coconut farming belt of Karnataka was affected by pests and no amount of pesticide or conventional methods could save die trees and the pest affected coconut trees were unable to produce coconuts.

The Neera Movement demanded assistance from the Government by allowing Neera tapping and producing neera by-products such as jaggery, Chocolates etc. Farmers opined that, the Government must lend a helping hand to coconut farmers. As the agitation intensified, it turned violent, and the conflict between the agitators and the police led to golibar which claimed two lives. At a later stage, die pest epidemic was controlled and yield from coconut trees improved considerably.

Question 42.
Explain any five factors contributing to Globalisation.
Answer:
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of societies across the world, with the spread of the same culture and economic interests across the globe. For example, media and consumer products are often produced for a world market, by the same firms running business all over the world.

Factors Contributing to Globalization:
Anthony Giddens has explained the following factors as contributing to Globalization:

1. The Rise of Information and Communications Technology:
The explosion in global communications has been facilitated by a number of important advances in technology and the world’s telecommunication infrastructure. The spread of communication satellites has also been significant in expanding international communications.

Today a network of more than 200 satellites is in space to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe. The use of Satellite, Internet, Telephones, Computer Networking, known as Information and Communication Technologies – ICT have revolutionized the way the world communicates.

You could be chatting online, through the internet, with your friend or family, who is thousands of miles away, and feel that you share your everyday travails much more than a person who is closer home like your neighbor. You could be working in India for a company that is located in the United States of America through telecommunication technologies.

2. Information Flows:
It has also facilitated the flow of information about people and events in distant places. Every day, the global media brings news, images, and information into homes, linking them directly and continuously to the outside world. Some of the most gripping events of the past three decades – such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, the violent crackdown on democratic protesters in China’s Tiananmen Square and the Terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 11 September 2001, Spring movement in Arabian countries, have unfolded through the media before a global audience.

Such events, along with thousands of information, have resulted in a reorientation in people’s thinking from the level of the nation-state to the global stage. In the case of natural disasters, such interventions take the form of humanitarian relief and technical assistance. In recent years, earthquakes in Armenia and Turkey, floods in Mozambique and Bangladesh, famine in Africa and hurricanes in Central America have been rallying points for global assistance.

3. Knowledge Society:
The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment, and Telecommunications into their everyday lives. The very operation of the global economy reflects the changes that have occurred in the information age. Many aspects of the economy now work through networks that cross national boundaries, rather than stopping at them.

4. Transnational Corporations:
In globalization, the role of transnational corporations is particularly important. Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Indian corporations like Reliance, TATAs, Birla Groups, Infosys, Mahindras, TVS group, Wipro, etc.

Even when trans-national corporations have a clear national base, they are oriented towards global markets and global profits. Transnational corporations are at the heart of economic globalization.

5. The Electronic Economy:
Globalization is also being driven forward by the integration of the world economy. In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer primarily agricultural or industrial in its basis. Rather, it is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media and; entertainment products and Internet-based services.

The ‘Electronic Economy’ is another factor that underpins economic globalization. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. As the global economy becomes increasingly integrated, a financial collapse in one part of the world can have an enormous effect on distant economies.

6. Political changes:
Another driving force behind contemporary globalization is related to political change. These are;

a. The collapse of Soviet-style communism in 1991. The collapse of communism has hastened processes of globalization but should also be seen as a result of globalization itself.

b. The important political factor leading to intensifying globalization is the Growth of International and Regional Mechanisms of Government namely The United Nations and the European Union. SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) and BRICS (Brazil; Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are the two most prominent examples of international organizations that bring together nation-states into a common political forum.

Finally, globalization is being driven by International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) and International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs). An IGO is a body that is established by Participating governments and given responsibility for regulating or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope.

The first such body, The International Telegraph Union, was founded in 1865. Since that time, a great number of similar bodies have been created. In 1909, there were only 37 IGOs in existence to regulate transnational affairs; by 1996, there were 260.

Some of the best-known INGO such as Greenpeace, Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross and Amnesty International are involved in environmental protection and humanitarian efforts. But the activities of thousands of lesser-known groups also link together countries and communities.