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Karnataka 2nd PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019
Time: 3 hrs 15 min
Max. Marks: 100
I. Answer the following questions in a sentence each. (10 × 1 = 10)
Name any one ancient name of India.
Which year is referred as the “Demographic Divide”?
Who popularized the term Harijan?
Where is the Headquarters of Lijjat located?
Who is Karnavan?
Senior male member of Tarawad.
Urbanization has been often used to denote the process of population concentration in an urban area. It is the movement of population from rural to urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural places.
Who considered Indian Villages as Little Republics?
Who authored Asian Drama?
Dalita Sangharsha Samithi.
What is Sanskritization?
“The tendency among the low castes to move higher in the caste hierarchy in a generation or two by adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism and by sanskritizing its rituals.
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in 2-3 sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20)
What is Regionalism?
Regionalism refers to an extreme loyalty or love to a particular region which may undermine the interest of the nation.
Write any two racial groups of India.
Negritos and Mongoloids.
Mention any two social reform movements.
Brahma Samaja, Arya Samaja.
What is Women Empowerment?
Women Empowerment is the act of empowering women i.e. to give them the power or authority.
Mention two types of joint family.
Matriarchical and Patriarchical Joint Family.
Define rural development.
Rural Development is designed to improve the economic and social well being of rural poor. The concept of Rural Development connotes the overall development of rural areas. It is an improvement of the quality of life of rural people.
What is slum?
“A slum area means any area where such dwellings predominate of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of buildings, narrowness and faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, lack of sanitation facilities, inadequacy of open spaces and community facilities or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health or morale.”
Mention the two epics which popularizes the Doordarshan.
Ramayan & Mahabharatha Serials.
What do you mean by Market?
Market is a social institution where parties are engaged in the exchange of goods and services.
Mention the types of Farmer’s movements according to Katheleen Gough.
Kathleen Gough presented a five-fold typology of peasant movements in India They are:
- Restorative rebellions
- Religious movements
- Social banditry
- Terrorist vengeance
- Mass insurrections.
Mention the three phases of the pre¬independent Dalit movements.
In Karnataka, Dalit movement may be studied under two phases; the pre-independent and the post-independent. Further, the pre-independent movement is subdivided into three phases. They are,
- Basaveshvara and the Dalit movement
- Dalit movement in the old Mysore region
- Dalit movement in the Mumbai-Karnataka region
Mention any two factors contributing to globalization.
- The rise of information and communications technology
- Information flows.
III. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Discuss briefly the challenges to National Integration.
The term Diversity denoting collective differences so as to find out dissimilarities among the people: geographical, religious, linguistic, etc. Thus all these differences presuppose collective differences or prevalence of a variety of groups and culture. Indian society is characterized by unity as was diversity. The Nature of Diversities in India
Primarily there are major four types of diversities in India, which are;
- Regional Diversities
- Linguistic Diversities
- Religious Diversities
- Cultural and Ethnic Diversities
1. Regional Diversities:
It is evident that there are extreme regional diversities in its geographic features. Indian territory contains huge mountains, thick forests, numerous rivers and etc. It is only in India that there are different regions, different, types of climates and the temperatures. India is a vast country. From the Himalayas in the North to the Indian Ocean in the south.
There, are differences in altitude, temperature, Flora, and Fauna, India has every conceivable type of climate, temperature, and physical configuration. There is the scorching heat of Rajasthan and the biting cold of the Himalayas, Rainfall varies from 1200 to 7.5 cms per year. The result is that India has some of the wettest and driest areas in the world. India also possesses arid desserts and fertile riverine lands, bare and hilly tracts, and luxuriant open plain.
2. Linguistic Diversities:
Language is another source of diversity. It contributes to collective identities and even to conflicts. The Indian Constitution has recognized 22 languages in the 8th schedule for its official purposes but as many as 1652 languages and dialects are spoken in the country. According to Grierson’s Linguistic Survey of India, these languages belong to five linguistic families, namely; Indo-Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Austric languages, Tibeto – Burman languages and European languages.
- The Indo-Aryan languages including in the Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Panjabi, Bihari, Rajasthani, Assami, Sindhi and Kashmiri languages spoken by 3/4th of Indian population.
- The Dravidian languages include Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam.
- The Austric languages include Mundari, Santhali, Maithili, Dogriandetc.
- Tibeto – Burman languages:
Tribal languages and dialects of North and North-East India belong to this category. For example Manipuri, Bodo, Ladiki, Khuki, etc.
- The European languages include English, Portuguese and French. These last two languages are spoken mostly people in Goa and Pondicherry. This makes language planning and promotion difficult. But the mother tongue does evoke strong sentiments and reactions.
- As a consequence of this multiplicity, there is considerable bilingualism and administration has to use more than one language. Linguistic diversity has posed administrative and political challenges.
3. Religious Diversities:
There are eight. major religious communities in India. Hindus constitute 82.7%, Muslims 11.8%, Christians 2.6%, Sikhs 2%, Buddhists 0.7%, Jains 0.4%, Zoroastrians 0.3%, and Jews 0.1%. Each major religion is subdivided along the lines of religious documents, sects, and cults.
The Hindus are now broadly divided into Shaivite (worshippers of Shiva), Vaishnavaite (worshippers of Vishnu and his incarnations), Shakta (worshippers of the MotherGoddess in various manifestations. Even among them, there are subdivisions based on doctrinal and ritual differences.
Buddhism was spread widely in India once, it lost its hold in the country of its birth and remained confined only to a few pockets. Jainism too once held wide sway in India, and though its followers are now numerically small, they are found in both the northern and southern States. They have two main divisions: Digamber-unclothed, and Shwetamber. The Indian Muslims are divided broadly into the Sunni and Shia communities.
Indian Christians are divided into Roman Catholics and Protestants and into many denominational churches. Sikhism is synthesizing religion that emphasizes egalitarianism. Grantha Sahib is the holy book and Amritsar Golden Temple, is one of their holy piligrimage. The Parsis are a small community, but they have played an important role in India’s industrial development.
The Jewish has been established in India for over a millennium. They also had White and Black divisions and prohibition on inter-marriage and inter-dining, but they all worshipped in the same synagogues. The Jati-like restrictions are. much less in Bombay and Cochin, to where many Jews have migrated.
4. Cultural and Ethnic Diversities:
Another important source of diversity is the cultural diversity. The people differ considerably in their social habits. Cultural difference varies front state to state. The conflicting and varying shades of blood, strains, culture, and modes of life, the character, conduct, beliefs, morals, food, dress, manners, social norms, Socio-Religious customs, rituals and etc.
Causes cultural and ethnic diversities in the country. Dr. R.K. Mukherji rightly said that “India is a museum of cults and customs, creeds and culture, faiths and tongues, racial types and social systems”. Another important source of diversity is the cultural identity of particular communities and region.
Briefly explain changes in caste system during British rule.
The impact of British rule on the caste system in India may be studied under the following heads.
- Introduction of universalistic Legal system
- Impact of English Education
- Impact of Social Reform Movement
- Influence of New Social Formation
- Impact of Freedom.Struggle
- Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization.
1. Introduction of Universalistic Legal System:
The establishment of British courts removed authority from the purview of caste panchayats. They introduced a new principle s of justice, according to which all are equal before the law, and the caste panchayat in v proportion lost their former importance.
Some of the legislation which brought changes in the caste system can be made as the, following.
a. The Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850 This act served to remove some of the disabilities associated with castes including the practice of untouchability.
b. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, This act made legal provision for the Hindu widows to remarry.
c. The Special Marriage Act of 1872 which considered marriage as a civil-contract and legalized inter-caste or inter-religious marriage.
d. Other Legislative and Administrative Measures. In 1858 the British government announced that all schools maintained by the government shall be open to all the classes of its subjects without any discrimination. In 1923, the government issued a resolution that no grants would be paid to any aided educational institutions, which refused admission to the children of the depressed classes.
e. In 1925, a bill was passed by the Madras- legislative council, throwing open all public office, well, tank, or place of public resort, to all classes of people including the depressed. Montogue-Chelmshford reforms made constitutional provisions for the special representation of depressed classes in the local as well as in the legislative bodies.
2. Impact of English Education:
British education was based on scientific, secular and universal principles. It made an accessible to everyone, irrespective of caste or community, who could pay for it. It remained liberal in content. It propagated principles such as the liberty equality and fraternity.
As education spread to the lower strata, It kindled libertarian impulses among them. Western education provided an indispensable passport to the new economic opportunities. Members from the lower castes became different professionals and took new commercial opportunities offered, by the western education.
3. Impact of Social Reform Movements:
Social reforms movements brought changes in ‘the caste system in the British period. They were set out to eradicate caste and to establish a casteless and, classless society. They were against the fictitious difference between caste. They attacked the tendencies of separatism and Inequality in the caste system. Some important social reform movements are:
- The Brahma Samaj founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
- Prarthana Samaja’s Athma Rama Pandurang Justice M. Ranade.
- The Arya Samaja founded by Swamy Dayananda Saraswathi.
- The Ramakrishna Mission represents the synthesis of the ancient and the modem thoughts. Swami Vivekananda started Ramakrishna Mission.
- Other Reform Movements such as Annie Beasant’s Theosophical society, Maharshi Arabindo Ghosh’s Divine life Society and etc. Thus all these organizations aimed at the destruction of the caste system and social reconstruction of Indian society.
4. Impact of New Social Formations:
The new economic system brought about a new grouping of the population in the economic sphere. The Indians could be differentiated into such categories as capitalists, workers, peasants, proprietors, merchants, tenants, landlords, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and technicians. Each category being composed of individuals belonging to various castes, but having identical material and political, interests.
This division weakened the vertical caste lines. Thus there came into existence such organization as Mill Owners Associations, All India Trade Union Congress, All India KishanSabhaand, etc., these groups struggled for their own interests. In the process of this struggle, they developed a new consciousness and outlook and a new solidarity, which slowly weakened the caste consciousness.
5. Impact of Freedom Struggle:
The growth of the nationalist movement played a great role in weakening caste consciousness. In India, the presence of foreign rule was a permanent stimulus to the Indians to unite on a national basis. Thus the growth of the national movement undermined the caste consciousness.
6. Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization:
The growth of Industries destroyed the old craft and provided new ways to earn a livelihood. Occupational t mobility and movement from compact ancestral village started breaking down in the caste norms. New transport facilities, specially crowed trains and buses, which threw together millions of people of all castes and left little room for the necessities of ceremonial purity.
Taboos on food and water gradually weakening when industrial workers belonging to various castes started working under one roof. The demarcation observed by the members of different castes regarding eating food, physical contact with those of other castes, steadily crumbled in cities.
Explain the objectives of equality report.
Objectives of the Towards Equality Report -1974 are the following:
- To examine the Constitutional, legal, and administrative provisions that have a bearing on the social status of women, their education and employment.
- To assess the impact of these provisions during the last two decades on the status of women in the country, particularly in the rural sector and to suggest more effective programmes.
Explain the five characteristics of a joint family.
1. Depth of Generations:
A joint family consists of people of three or more generations including grandparents, parents, and children. Sometimes, other kins such as uncles, aunts, cousins, and great-grandsons also live in a joint family.
2. Common Roof:
Henry Maine called the joint family a ‘Greater Home’. Members of the joint family normally reside together under the same roof. It is a place to uphold the family Heritage. It is a place for Socio, Economic, Religious, Entertainment, etc. Due to the scarcity of accommodation members of the joint family may reside separately. Still, they try to retain regular contacts and the feeling of belonging to the same family. They have emotional and economic links with the original family.
3. Common Kitchen:
Members eat the food prepared jointly at the common kitchen. Normally, the eldest female member of the family (the wife of the Karta) supervises the work at the kitchen. Rest of the female members engaged in different kitchen work. A single kitchen under a common roof is a unique element of joint family.
4. Common Worship:
Joint family derives its strength from religion. Hence, it is associated with various religious rituals and practices. Every family may have its own deity of ‘Kula devata’ and its own religious tradition. Members of the family take part in common worship, rites, and ceremonies. At least once a year they join other members to take part in the festivals, feasting, marriage ceremonies and so on.
5. Common Property:
The members hold a common property. As O’ Malley writes: “The joint family is a co-operative institution similar to a joint-stock company in which there is a co-operative institution similar to a joint-stock company in which there is a joint property”. The ‘ total earnings of the members are pooled into a common purse of the family and family expenses are met without of that.
Define Panchayati Raj. explain the functions of Gram Panchayat.
Panchayat Raj is as a real democratic political apparatus, which would bring the masses into active political participation to establish a genuine political of rural India; Generally, it is also called as “Decentralization of Democracy”.
Since 1959 “Democratic Decentralization has been gradually extended throughout India. After the implementation of the constitution 73rd Amendment act 1992. Panchayat Raj has brought politics down to village level. Balawant Rai Mehta committee recommended three Tier Structure of the Panchayat Raj institution. Namely,
- Village Panchayat – at the village level.
- Panchayat Samithi – at Block level and
- Zilla Panchayat – at the District level
In brief, we can understand the general functions of panchayat raj.
Functions of Village Panchayat: The functions of Village Panchayat are
- Provision of water supply
- Maintenance of minor irrigation
- School buildings,
- Family Planning
- Construction of wells and tanks.
Analyse the factors facilitating Mala prabha movement. Promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries, promotion of village and cottage industries providing electric facility. Construction and maintenance of Roads and Bridges, creating awareness regarding primary and secondary education, maintenance of Public Health, general Sanitation and Welfare of weaker section, maintenance of public properties and regulation and fairs and festivals and promotion of social and cultural activities.
A dam was to construct over Malaprabha in 1960 at an estimated cost of Rs. 30 crores. But, it had consumed 162 crores up to 1980 and yet was incomplete. The project which was considered to be a boon for the three districts of Belgavi, Vijayapurand Dharwad. The catchment area under the Malaprabha project had been a part of the chronically draught-prone region.
Into this traditional agriculture’, irrigation was introduced in 1973-74 under Malaprabha project lead to salinity and water-logging. Factors Facilitating Malaprabha Agitation. We may analyse the factors responsible for Malaprabha agitation as follows:
1. The Issue of Price Stability:
Farmers were encouraged to grow Varalaxmi cotton and hybrid varieties of war. The market price of these crops was appealing and hence farmers did not mind purchasing costly seeds, manure, pesticides, etc. Despite the poor quality of seeds, new techniques of cultivation which they were unaware of, etc., their hopes soared high. In 1978-79 the price of Varalaxmi cotton came down form Rs. 1000 to Rs. 350 per quintal. As if fuelling to this situation there was a steep hike in the prices of fertilizers.
2. The Levy Issue:
Other causes of Malaprabha agitation is the imposition of betterment levy with retrospective effect on the basis of the increase in land value following irrigation. It varies from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,500 per acre, to be paid in 20 years. What caused resentment was the peasants were asked to pay levy on all their land in the catchment area without considering whether or not the whole area was under cultivated or irrigated, etc. Apart from this inadequate channel management created the problems of water-logging and salinity.
3. The Role of Local Bureaucracy:
The most important factors to be noticed are corruption, apathy of the Bureaucrats, Redtapism, forced recoveries and failure of political leadership.
IV. Answer any four of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (4 × 5 = 20)
Briefly explain the Dr.Sampurnananda Committee recommendations to strengthen National Integration.
The Central Education Ministry organized a ‘Committee for National Integration’ in 1961 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand. The Integration Committee. gave some recommendations to promote and strengthen national integration. Some of them are stated below:
1. Re-organization of the syllabi at various levels primary, secondary, college and university level to promote national integration.
2. Giving due encouragement to extracurricular activities besides imparting formal knowledge to the students with the intention of promoting national unity.
3. Improvement of textbooks helps a great deal in giving a true national perspective to the students. They can be made to understand their rich cultural heritage and feel proud of their nation.
4. Conducting Community programmes such as mass prayers, mass meetings, speeches by respected leaders, etc., to help to bring the people together, Apart from the governmental efforts to achieve the goal of national unity various stakeholders such as educational institutions, religious/cultural associations and mass media should involve in.
Chalking out action-based programmes to enhance awareness/dissemination of traditional values among the masses and increase cultural exchange banking on the richness of our cultural heritage and diversity. Special steps should be taken by various interest groups to speed up the development of economically and socially backward groups who are the easy victims of violent activities.
Explain the factors responsible for the changes in joint family.
With the establishment of factories in many places of the country, agriculture was pushed to the background . and with it changed those social institutions which were its products. The industrial centers pulled persons of different families out of the traditional peasant society comprising of joint families. This struck at the roots of joint families and the process of change started. Furthermore, the process of change in joint family gained momentum from the rapid development of transport and communication.
The percentage of workers dependent on agriculture comes down and more and more people migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs. The urban centers also provide people with various amenities of life communication, sanitation, and health, education, and employment, etc., People are tempted by the lure of urban facilities and there is a rural to urban type of migration. Gradually they lost control over the Joint family remained an independent in cities in nuclear families.
3. Rapid Growth of Population:
Rapid growth of population brought corresponding increased of the pressure on land. Agriculture being the prime occupation of the villagers, the rural youth faced the problem of unemployment. People began to move into cities and industrial centers in search of jobs. Thus they had to leave the traditional joint families which resulted in the breakdown of jointness.
Education changes the attitude of people. It enables people to get into jobs or profession. Modem education leads to occupational mobility. It has not only brought changes in the attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideologies of the people but has also created the individualistic feelings. The increasing education not only brings changes in the philosophy of life of men and women but also provides new avenues of employment and led to economic independence.
5. Changing Status of Women:
Social reform movements, awareness among the women for their own position, all affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family system. The spread of modem education enlightened the women. Education made them conscious of their rights and status in the society. It brought about drastic changes in the practices and ideals of family.
They were no more prepared to remain within the four walls of the household in the traditional subordinate position. Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Keshab Chandra Sen, Jyothi Rao Phule, Maharshi Kar-ve, Pandit Ramabai, and many others worked and achieved considerable success for the cause of women. All these factors affected the patriarchal authority of the joint family. As a sequel to that, the process of disintegration started in the joint family.
6. Social Legislations:
Legislations enacted during the British rule proved harmful for joint family. Gains of Learning Act of 1930, the right of women to share in the property of the joint family by the Hindu Law of Inheritance Act of 1929, and the Hindu women’s Right to Property Act of 1937. Sati Prevention Act 1782, Hindu Widow Remarriage Act 1856, Child Marriage Restraint Act 1902 have brought changes in family relations. After independence the process has continued and fundamental changes in the law of inheritance have been brought about by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Civil Marriage Act, 1957 gave the freedom to the adult males and females to marry according to their choice and helped the women to seek divorce on certain grounds. All these legislations gave enough facility to the members to divide the joint family immediately after the death of the father. The necessity of jointness has also weakened due to various governmental provisions relating to old-age pension, widow pension, etc.
Explain the characteristics of the village.
1. Small in size:
Indian villages are small in size. Due to that, the density of population is less in Indian villages.
2. Importance to Primary Relations:
Villages share so many daily requirements and their relationships are close and intimate and face to face interactions.
3. Social Homogeneity:
Village is more homogeneous in language, belief, mores, and pattern of behavior. In their occupations, villagers participate together and share common interests.
4. Informal Social Control:
Individual behavior is controlled by family, traditions, customs, religion, etc.
5. Agriculture and its allied occupations:
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, fishing, mining and apiculture, and cottage industries are the other occupations.
6. Role of Neighbourhood and simplicity of life:
Neighbourhood relation plays an important role in the social life of village people and a simple way of life is common. There is an interdependent neighbourhood relations.
7. Village Autonomy:
Each village is relatively self-sufficient and independent. Charles Metcalfe called ‘Indian villages as Little Republics’. Recent studies proved that the Indian villages were never self-sufficient and Republic.
Explain the characteristics of the market.
A market is one of the social institutions, whereby parties engage in exchange of goods and services. Markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers. It can be said that a market is the process by which the prices of goods and services are established.
In the field of Sociology, the concept of a market is a structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services, and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a Transaction.
The features of Market are as follow;
1. Market is a place where things are bought and sold:
In common usage, the word ‘market’ may refer to particular markets that we may know of, such as the market next to the railway station, the fruit market, or the wholesale market.
2. Market is not just a physical place, but the gathering of people – buyers and sellers:
Thus, for example, a weekly market may be found in different places on different days of the week in neighbouring villages or urban neighbourhoods.
3. Market is a type of trade or business:
Market refers to an area or category of trade or business, Such as the market for cars or the market for readymade clothes.
4. Market includes the entire spectrum of economic activities and institutions:
In this very broad sense, then, ‘the market’ is almost equivalent to ‘the economy’. We are used to thinking of the market as an economic institution, but this chapter will show you that the market is also a social institution. In its own way, the market is comparable to more obviously social institutions like caste, religion or family.
Briefly explain the components of Social movements.
M.S.A. Rao in his edited volume on Social Movements in India has highlighted the significance of ideology, collective mobilization, organization and leadership in social movements.
1. Ideology provides a broad frame of action and collective mobilisation in the social movement. It also provides legitimacy to the process of interest articulation and organized collective action.
2. Collective Mobilization The nature and direction of a social movement is widely shaped by the nature of collective mobilisation. Collective mobilisation may be radical, non- institutionalized, spontaneous, large scale or it may be non-violent, institutionalized, sporadic and restricted.
3. Leadership and Organization are closely linked to the process of collective mobilisation. A leader can be a charismatic figure or a democratically elected one.
Explain any five factors contributing to Globalization.
Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of societies across the world, with the spread of 5 the same culture and economic interests across the globe. For example, media and consumer products are often produced for a world market, by the same firms running business all over the world.
Factors Contributing to Globalization:
Anthony Giddens has explained the following factors as contributing to Globalization:
1. The Rise of Information and Communications Technology:
The explosion in global communications has been facilitated by a number of important advances in technology and the world’s telecommunication infrastructure. The spread of communication satellites has also been significant in expanding international communications.
Today a network of more than 200 satellites is in space to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe. The use of Satellites, Internet, Telephones, Computer Networking, known as Information and Communication Technologies – ICT – have revolutionised the way the world communicates.
You could be chatting online, through the internet, with your friend or family, who is thousands of miles away, and feel that you share your everyday travails much more than a person who is closer home like your neighbour. You could be working in India for a company that is located in the United States of America through telecommunication technologies.
2. Information Flows:
It has also facilitated the flow of information about people and events in distant places. Every day, the global media brings news, images, and information into homes, linking them directly and continuously to the outside world. Some of the most gripping events of the past three decades such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, the violent crackdown on democratic protesters in China’s Tiananmen Square and the Terrorist attacks on Mumbai on 11 September 2001, Spring movement in Arabian countries, have unfolded through the media before a global audience.
Such events, along with thousands of information, have resulted in a reorientation in people’s thinking from the level of the nation-state to the global stage. In the case of natural disasters, such interventions take the form of humanitarian relief and technical assistance. In recent years, earthquakes in Armenia and Turkey, floods in Mozambique and Bangladesh, famine in Africa and hurricanes in Central America have been rallying points for global assistance.
3. Knowledge Society:
The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment, and Telecommunications into their everyday lives. The very operation of the global economy reflects the changes that have occurred in the information age. Many aspects of the economy now work through networks that cross national boundaries, rather than stopping at them.
4. Transnational Corporations:
In globalization, the role of transnational corporations is particularly important. Transnational corporations are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. For example Coca-Cola., Pepsi, Johnson and Johnson, Ford, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Indian corporations like Reliance, TATAs, Birla Groups, Infosys, Mahindras, TVS group, Wipro, etc. Even when trans-national corporations have a clear national base, they are oriented towards global markets and global profits. Transnational corporations are at the heart of economic globalization.
5. The Electronic Economy:
Globalization is also being driven forward by the integration of the world economy. In contrast to previous eras, the global economy is no longer primarily agricultural or industrial in its basis. Rather, it is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media, and entertainment products and Internet-based services.
The ‘Electronic Economy’ is another factor that underpins economic globalization. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors are able to shift funds internationally with the click of a mouse. As the global economy becomes increasingly integrated, a financial collapse in one part of the world can have an enormous effect on distant economies.
6. Political changes:
Another driving force behind contemporary globalization is related to political change. These are;
a. The collapse of Soviet-style communism in 1991. The collapse of communism has hastened processes of globalization but should also be seen as a result of globalization itself.
b. The important political factor leading to intensifying globalization is the Growth of International and Regional Mechanisms of Government namely The United Nations and the European Union. SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation) and BRICS (Brazil; Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are the two most prominent examples of international organizations that bring together nation-states into a common political forum.
Finally, globalization is being driven by International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) and International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs). An IGO is a body that is established by Participating governments and given responsibility for regulating or overseeing a particular domain of activity that is transnational in scope. The first such body, The International Telegraph Union, was founded in 1865. Since that time, a great number of similar bodies have been created.
In 1909, there were only 37 IGOs in existence to regulate transnational affairs; by 1996, there were 260. Some of the best-known INGOs such as Greenpeace, Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders), the Red Cross and Amnesty International-are involved in environmental protection and humanitarian efforts. But the activities of thousands of lesser-known groups also link together countries and communities.
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 25-30 sentences each: (2 × 10 = 20)
Define unity and explain the factors of unity in India.
Unity implies one-ness or a sense of we-ness. Meaning of integration wherein hitherto divisive people and culture are synthesized into a united whole, along with higher levels of cooperation, mutual understanding, shared values, common identity, and national consciousness.
It lightly holds together the various relationships of ethnic groups or institutions in a neatly combined through the bonds of planned structure, norms, and values. In India aspects of Diversity and Unity co-exist as follows:
1. Regional Unity:
The Natural boundaries provide India a geographical unity. In ancient times India was known as Bharatavarsha, Bharathakanda, Jambudweepa. This symbolizes the significance of historical unity. The very name “Bharatavarsha” has occupied an important place in the minds of poets, political philosophers, and religious thinkers. Each of them has conceived the country as a single expanse from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari, a country ruled by one king Bharatha. The concept of Mother India also indicates the realization of geographical unity.
2. Linguistic Unity:
Despite the presence of a number of languages, India also possesses lingual unity. Sanskrit as a common base of Indian languages provides the basis of unity as a result of which the linguistic multiplicity has been solved. Simultaneously, Sanskrit became the language of Hindu culture and all classics were composed in this language, which demanded reverence and respect.
People may speak different languages in different regions but they have a common language of English and Hindi to communicate with each other. The formation of linguistic states and using regional languages as medium of teaching at schools, colleges and universities are the products of Independence.
In 2004, the government declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a classical language in India. Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005)7 Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013) and Oriya (2014) were declared as classical languages of India. Thus it is an effort to restore the linguistic heritage of India.
3. Religious Unity:
In spite of the religious diversities, it possesses religious unity. The feelings of each religious groups are the same, each accepts the truth of immortality of soul, temporary nature of world, belief in rebirth, the doctrine of karma, salvation, contemplation, etc., There may be differences in the way these elements are treated but each religion preaches a fundamentally single religious faith and shares a belief in purity and values of life in respect of belief in unseen power, benevolence, piety, honesty, and liberality, with every religious faith.
The worshippers may visit different centres of pilgrimage, but all have a common goal of ‘Earning religious merit by visiting a sacred place’. India is the sacred land not only for the Hindus but also for Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists. Muslims and Christians to have several sacred centres of pilgrimage in India.
4. Cultural Unity:
In art and architecture, dress and food, literature, music and dance, sports and cinema, medicine and technology there is a fusion of style and the emergence of new forms which are the result of their combined efforts. Thus it becomes apparently clear from the above account, that running through various diversities. India has been helped both by nature and nurture, by her geographical condition and historical experiences, by her religious ethics, and political ideas.
To realize a unity to perceive, preserve and strengthen the thread of basic unity which makes India a fine example of unity in diversity, transcending birth, caste, language, ethnicity, and religious groupings to establish a big society and a big nation. Modern education, the development of a network of transport and communications, industrialization and urbanization have provided new bases for unity.
Give a brief overview of backward class commissions of Karnataka.
The backward Class movement in Karnataka is a desire of the underprivileged people to develop their own potentialities and contribute to the economic development of the nation. In every society, some groups of people are higher and some are lower due to the opportunities they have in general. By such opportunities, well-off people equip themselves and pursue careers which giver them prestige and profit.
By contrast, the lower or other backward classes have no opportunities to equip themselves. A new awareness arose among the non-Brahmins in the princely state of Mysore. Vokkaligas, Lingayats, and Muslims of Mysore had realized their position of relative deprivation as against the Brahmins.
By 1917, these groups form an alliance called Prajamitra Mandali in 1918, this mandali pleaded Maharaja of Mysore for the representation in legislature, reservation in posts of public services and educational institutions. In 1918, a committee of six non-official members presided over by Sir Leslie Miller.
Miller committee recommended the acceptance, of all the demands. Sirtoe then Backward Classes in princely Mysore state have availed benefits in the field erf education, employment, and political arena.
1. Naganna Gowda Commission:
The Karnataka Government appointed a backward class commission in 1960 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Naganna Gowda. It is the First Backward Class Commission off Karnataka, The commission has submitted its report on 1961, which recommends 15% for SCs, 3% for STs and 50% OBCs, providing total 68% of reservation, The government attempted to implement the report was stayed by the Supreme Court. However, in 1963 the government issued an order guaranteeing 15% of reservation to SCs, 3% STs and 30% to OBCs.
2. L. G Havanoor Commission:
In 1972 the government has appointed the second backward class commission headed by Sri L. G Havanoor. This commission in its report submitted in 1975 stated that though more than 75% of the people in the state belonged to backward classes and deserved reservation facilities. There was no constitutional provision for giving it. Hence, it made provision for up to 50% reservation. Government made provision for 58% reservation. However it was challenged in Supreme Court and govt, gave a submission to court stating to initiate a new commission.
3. Venkataswamy Commission:
In 1983, the government has appointed the Venkataswamy Commission, which gave its report in 1986. The report created widespread dissatisfaction. The government decided not to implement the report but to establish a new commission to find an amicable settlement to this problem.
4. Chinnappa Reddy Commission:
The government instituted the Chinnappa Reddy commission in 1990, which has been comparatively more widely welcomed. The commission seems to have tried its best to uphold social justice. In Karnataka, the SCs and STs together enjoyed 18% while the OBCs, quota is 32%.
Based on the Mandal commission’s report, the supreme court of India gave directions to establish a permanent Backward Classes Commission in the centre as well as in states and union territories. Accordingly, a permanent backward classes commission was set up in Karnataka Sri K. Narayana Rai (1994-1997), Prof, Ravi Verma Kumar (1997-2000), Sri Muniraju (2001-2003), Sri Siddalingaih. (2003-2006), Dr. C. S. Dwarakanath (2007-2010) N. Shankarappa (2011 – 13) headed the Backward Classes Commission in Karnataka.
At present, H. Kantharaj is the chairman of Karnataka state Back word-class commission. The commission recommends for inclusion or exclusion of a caste in the backward class list. In Karnataka 101 and 51 Triber are enlisted as scheduled caster and scheduled tribes Respectively.
Explain the developmental programmes for the upliftment of schedule castes.
1. Appointment of a National Commission for the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Tribes:
A National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been set up by the Central Government to safeguard the interests of the SCs and STs. It functions as an advisory body on issues and policies related to the development of the SCs and STs.
2. Educational Opportunities:
Due attention is paid to extend the educational opportunities of SCs and STs and hence special provisions have been made in this regard. Free education, free distribution of books, stationery, uniform, etc. giving scholarships, educational loan facilities, providing mid-day meal, arranging for free boarding and lodging facilities, reserving seats for SCs and STs in all the government and government-aided g institutions, etc.
3. Expansion of Economic Opportunities:
The government has taken up economic programmes also for the benefit of SCs and STs. Examples: Landless SC labourers are allotted land. Land reforms have been undertaken to bring benefits of land ownership for them. Poor SC farmers are supplied with seeds, agriculture implements, fertilizers, pesticides, interest-free loans, pair of bullocks for ploughing, subsidy for developing dairy farming, poultry farming, piggery, animal husbandry, handicrafts, spinning, and weaving.
4. Expansions of Employment Opportunities and Reservation:
In order to enhance the economic position of the SCs and STs, the Constitution has provided for the reservation in services. Reservation exists in all these for the SCs and STs to the extent of 15% and 7.5% respectively.
5. Upliftment of Scheduled Castes through Five Year Plans:
The welfare of the Scheduled Castes has been given special attention in the Five Year Plan. The Central Government sponsored a comprehensive three strategies for the development of the SCs during the 6th Five Year Plan [ 1980-85]. This consisted of three schemes:
a. Special Component Plan [SCPs]
b. Special Central Assistance [SCA]
c. Scheduled Development Corporation (SCDCs).
a. Special Component Plan [SCP]:
The main objective of this plan is to assist the SC families to improve their income substantially. This plan envisages the identification of schemes of development which would benefit SCs, quantification of funds from all programmes of specific targets as to the number of families to be benefited from these programmes.
b. Special Central Assistance [SCA]:
The main purpose of this scheme is to provide additional assistance to the States from the Centre to help the economic advancement of the maximum possible number of Schedule Caste families living below the poverty line.
c. Scheduled Caste Development Corporation (SCDC):
These SCDCs provide money and loan assistance to SC families and help them to increase the. flow of funds from financial institutions to SC families. These Corporations established in the States are expected to act as interface between the SC families and financial institutions including banks. Both the Central and the State Governments contribute grants to these SCDCs.
Explain the policy initiative of the Government to mitigate farmer’s suicide.
The Government, of Karnataka, had taken a series of steps in order to mitigate the distress of the farmers in consultation with the members of the committee. They are:
1. Health Insurance Scheme:
For the farmers, Yashaswini Health Scheme was introduced by paying Rs. 120 per year per family, to get the best medical facilities available in the state-run hospitals covered for all surgical interventions and outpatient services at any of the designated network of hospitals.
2. Reduced interest rate:
The Government reduced the interest on loans taken from Co¬operative banks, from 6% to 4% which helped the farmers a lot.
To the family of the victims who have committed suicide was thoroughly reviewed and compensation was allowed only in the cases where suicide was directly related to farming activities.
4. Raita Sampaka kendras:
were provided with internet access and telephone facilities so that the initial signals of distress were transmitted directly to the State headquarters.
5. Crop insurance:
Was taken up to Hobli level and compensation provided to the farmers based on the Hobli level data. In case of crop failures, compensation will be given according to the estimate. Seed and medicine subsidy up to 50% have also allowed to farmers been The investment on Watershed Development programmes was increased tenfold and that has created increased employment opportunities in the rainfed areas. Narega programmes have been also introduced. These are the steps taken by Government to mitigate farmer’s suicides.
VI. Answer any two of the following questions in 15 sentences each: (2 × 5 = 10)
Write a note on Radio.
Radio broadcasting which commenced in India through amateur ‘HAM’ Broadcasting Clubs in Kolkata and Chennai in the 1920s, matured into a public broadcasting system in the 1940s during World War II when it became a major instrument of propaganda for Allied forces in South East Asia. At the time of independence, there were only 6 radio stations located in the major cities catering primarily to an urban audience.
A Radio Transmission center called Akashavani was started by Dr. M.V. Gopalaswamy, at Mysore University in 1935 through private effort. The station was later taken over by the State Government in January 1941 and it was shifted to Bangalore in November 1955. The first AIR station in the North Karnataka Region started functioning at Dharwad, on 8th November 1950.
In 1964, Vividh Bharathi (CBS) was added to Dharwad unit. Auxiliary stations at Bhadravathi and Gulbarga were started in 1965 and 1966 respectively. Apart from All India Radio (AIR), there is Vividh Bharati, a channel for entertainment that was primarily broadcasting film songs on listener’s request.
Vividh Bharati, which soon began to carry sponsored programmes and advertisements, grew to become a money-spinning channel for AIR. Akasha Vani (Kannada version of AIR) headquarters is at Bangalore and there are regional centres at Mysore, Bhadravathi, Dharwad, and Gulbarga covering broadcasting news, entertainment, sponsored programmes, and commercial programmes, etc.
Explain the importance of Kagodu Sathyagraha.
Kagodu movement is the movement of people who fought to claim their rights over land. It was first of its kind in the post-independent India. Kagodu movement, or Kagodu Satyagraha as it is popularly called, took place in the Kagodu and neighbouring villages of Sagar taluk in the district of Shimoga.
In Kagodu, the feudal system was prevalent during the time of the British rule. Jodidars, Inamdaars, Jahagirdars and the Desais were the local landlords. Tenants had to pay the landlords a fixed measure of the agricultural produce. Although this measure was fixed as sixty measures (60 kolaga). Kolaga is a traditional measure) in other places, the landlords of Kagodu had fixed the measure at sixty-three.
During 1950-1951, the tenants agitated against the feudal lords to claim their rights over the land, and also to protest against fixing of excess of agricultural produce to be given by them to the landlords. This agitation began in the surrounding villages of Kagodu and was aimed at a single slogan ‘land to the tiller’.
Villagers of Sooraguppe, Valakundli, Chikkanellooru, Maasooru, Kaanle, Tadegalale and keladi joined the agitation under the leadership of H. Ganapatiyappa, Shantaveri Gopalagowda, Sadashivaraya, and many others. This agitation had the support of the great thinker and socialist.
Dr. Rammanohar Lohia. With his entry, the movement took a new turn. The ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’, which began immediately after independence, had drawn the attention of the entire nation. The tenants involved themselves in the movement so deeply that, the government was forced to announce its decision to allot the land to the tiller. About two and a half decades later, ‘Land to the tiller’ was legalized and was introduced in the 20 point programme of the Government. The seeds of such a move were sown in the ‘Kagodu Satyagraha’
Define Barbie Doll is a Global Citizen.
1. Barbie Doll is truly a Global Citizen:
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel corporation and launched in March 1959. The doll sells at the rate of two per second, bringing the Mattel Corporation based in Los Angeles, U.S.A., well over a billion dollars in P annual revenues. Although Barbie sells mainly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, it can also be found in 140 countries around the world. She is truly a global citizen. Barbie was never made in the United States.
The first doll was made in Japan in 1959 when that country was still recovering from the Second World War and wages were low. As wages rose in Japan, Barbie production moved to other low- wage countries in Asia. Barbie’s multiple origins today tell us a great deal about the operation of global commodity chains. Barbie is designed in the United States, where her marketing and advertising strategies are devised and where most of the die profits are made.
But the only physical aspect of Barbie that is made in the USA is her cardboard packaging, along with some of the paints and oils that are used to decorate the doll. Barbie’s body and wardrobe span the globe in their origins. Barbie begins her life in Saudi Arabia, where oil is extracted and then refined into ethylene that is used to create her plastic body.
Taiwan’s state-owned oil Importer, their Chinese Petroleum Corporation buys the Ethylene and sells it to Taiwan’s Formosa Plastic Corporation, the world’s largest producer of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The pellets are then shipped to southern China, Indonesia and Malaysia. The plastic moulded body of Barbie are made in the U.S.A. Once Barbie’s body is moulded she gets her Nylon hair from Japan, her Cotton dresses are made in China and shipped into Hong Kong. Thus Barbie in a way is a global citizen.
But, in perspective, according to Anthony Giddens, “What Barbie production and consumption shows is the effectiveness of globalization processes in connecting together the world’s economics. However, it also demonstrates the unevenness of globalization’s impact, which enables some countries to benefit at the expense of others. This means that we cannot assume that global commodity chains will inevitably promote development right across the chains of societies involved.”
Write a note on Pushkar Annual Fair.
The Pushkar Fair is the annual camel and livestock fair, held in the town of Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan. It is one of the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying and selling of livestock, it has become ah important tourist attraction. Thousands of people go to the banks of the Pushkar Lake where the fair takes place.
Men buy and sell their livestock, which includes camels, cows, sheep, and goats. The women go to the stalls, full of bracelets, clothes, textiles, and fabrics. A camel race starts off the festival, with music, songs, and exhibitions to follow. It is celebrated for five days from the Kartik Ekadashi to Kartik Poornima, the full moon day of Kartik in the Hindu calendar.
The full moon day is the main day and the day, according to legend, when the Hindu god Brahma sprung up the Pushkar Lake, thus numerous people swim in its sacred waters. There are many such fairs having socio, economic and Religions importance has taken place in Karnataka also.
For example fair at Yamanur in Dharwad Dt, Bavashankari in Bagalkote and Tippe Swamy fair in Dhavanagere (dt), Ground Nut fair in Bangalore, Cauvery Theerthodbhava at Bhagamandala, Antarajgange fair in Kolar, etc.