You can Download Chapter 4 Software Concepts Questions and Answers, Notes, 1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank with Answers Karnataka State Board Solutions help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
Karnataka 1st PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 4 Software Concepts
1st PUC Computer Science Software Concepts One Mark Questions and Answers
What is software?
Software is the application and programming instructions, needed to make the computer hardware do useful work.
It is a set of coded instructions that are stored permanently in read-only memory.
What is system software?
System software is a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs.
What is application software?
Application software is a set of programs that direct computers to perform specific information processing activities for end-users.
Mention the different types of application software.
General-purpose application software and specific purpose application software.
Define an operating system.
An operating system or OS is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software.
Give examples for operating systems.
Linux, MS-DOS, Windows 8, etc.,
The term GUI means Graphical User Interface.
What is the machine language?
A set of instructions for a specific central processing unit, designed to be usable by a computer without being translated is called machine code/language.
Mention the different parts of machine language instructions.
The two parts of machine language instructions are opcodes and operand codes.
What is assembly language?
It is a low-level programming language in which mnemonics and alphanumeric symbols are used to code operations and addresses.
Give examples for high-level languages.
C and C++ are the two examples for high-level languages.
What is the use of language translators in computers?
They translate user written high-level language programs to equivalent machine or assembly language programs.
What is meant by machine-dependent language?
The set of programs that can run only on a specific types of CPU are called machine dependent language.
What is meant by machine-independent language?
Programs that can run on a variety of different types of computers are called machine-independent language.
What is a compiler?
It is a computer language translator that checks the entire user-written program and if error-free, produces a complete program in machine language.
What is an interpreter?
Interpreter is a language translator which translates high-level programs one statement at a time and, if error-free, executes them.
Write any one function of operating systems.
It is responsible to handle system resources such as computer memory and sharing of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices.
Give the function of the loader.
The main function of a loader is to load the program into the main memory for execution.
Give the function of the linker.
The linker takes several object files and libraries as input and produces one executable object file.
What are utility programs?
It is a program that performs a very specific task, usually related to managing system resources. Operating systems contain a number of utilities for managing disk drives, printers, and other devices.
Mention different types of operating systems.
Single user operating system, Batch operating system, Distributed operating system and network operating system.
What is multitasking?
Running two or more programs at the same time on the same single-processor (single CPU) computer is called multitasking.
Name anyone single-user operating system.
The single-user operating system is MS-DOS.
Name anyone’s multi-user operating system.
The multi-user operating system is UNIX.
1st PUC Computer Science Software Concepts Two/Three Marks Questions and Answers
Define source code and object code.
- Source code:
The source code is any collection of computer instructions written using some human-readable computer language.
- Object code:
The object code is usually a machine code that can be understood directly by a specific type of CPU.
Give the difference between software and hardware.
Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. Hardware is a device that is physically connected to the computer or something that can be physically touched. Without any hardware, the computer can not exist and software would have nothing to run on.
Write any two functions of an operating system.
- Memory management:
The operating system allocates memory for a requesting process and frees the memory when the process is completed.
- Device management:
The operating system is responsible to allocate input and output devices as and when they are required by any process.
What is a single-user operating system? Give an example.
A single user operating system allows only one user to use the system resources at any particular time including the CPU. For example, DOS (disk operating system).
What is a batch operating system? Give an example.
In a batch processing operating system, the interaction between the user and the processor is limited or there is no interaction at all during the execution of work. Data and programs that need to be processed are bundled and collected as a ‘batch’ and executed together. For example, IBM OS/2.
What is a multitasking operating system? Give an example.
In a multitasking operating system, several applications may be simultaneously loaded and used in the memory. While the processor handles only one application at a particular time at switches between the applications and simultaneously executes each application. For example, Windows operating system.
What is a multi-user operating system? Give an example.
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to simultaneously use the system, as the processor splits its resources and handles one user at a time. For example, UNIX.
Describe real-time system. Give an example.
A real-time operating system processes inputs simultaneously, fast enough to affect the next input or process. Real-time systems are usually used to control complex systems that require a lot of processing like machinery and industrial systems. For example, Linux OS.
What a distributed operating system? Give an example.
In a distributed system, software and data may be distributed around the system, programs, and files may be stored on different storage devices which are located in different geographical locations and may be accessed from different computer terminals. For example, Amoeba.
What is a multi-threaded operating system? Give an example.
An operating system is known as multi-threaded, when several “tasks” (also known as processes) may be run at the same time. For example, Sun Solaris.
1st PUC Computer Science Software Concepts Five Marks Questions and Answers
Explain system software.
System software refers to the files and programs that make up a computer’s operating system. System files include libraries of functions, system services, drivers for printers and other hardware, system preferences, and other configuration files. The programs that are part of the system software include assemblers, compilers, file management tools, system utilities, and debuggers.
The system software is installed on a computer when the operating system is installed. Users can update the software by running programs such as “Windows Update” for Windows or “Software Update” for Mac OS X. However, unlike application programs, system software is not meant to be run by the end-user. For example, while you might use your Web browser every day, you probably don’t have much use for an assembler program (unless, of course, you are a computer programmer).
Write a short note on application software.
Application software consists of programs that direct computers to perform specific information processing activities for end-users. These programs are called application packages because they direct the processing required for a particular use, or application, which users want to perform. Thousands of application packages are available because there are thousands of different jobs end-users want computers to do.
Kinds of Application Software:
Application software includes a variety of programs that can be subdivided into general-purpose and application-specific categories.
1. General-Purpose Application Programs:
General-purpose applications packages are programs that perform common information processing jobs for end users. For example, word processing programs, electronic spreadsheet programs, database management programs, graphics programs, communications programs and many other sales for general purposes.
This packaged software is also called off-the-shelf software packages because these products are packaged and available for sale. Many features are common to most of the packaged programs.
2. Application-Specific Software:
Many application programs are available to support specific applications of the end-users. Business Application Programs and Scientific Application Programs are a few application-specific software. There are so many other application areas also, such as educate on, music, art, medicine, etc.
Explain various functions of operating systems.
The operating system is responsible for creating the link between the resources, the user and the applications (word processor, video game, etc.). When a program wants to access a resource, it sends the information to the operating system, which conveys it to the relevant peripheral via its driver.
Functions of the operating system:-
The operating system has various functions:
1. Management of the processor:
The operating system is responsible for managing the allocation of the processor between the different programs.
2. Management of the random access memory:
The operating system is responsible for managing the memory space allocated to each application and, where relevant, to each user.
3. Management of input/output resources:
The operating system allows control of access to programs to material resources via drivers.
4. Management of execution of applications:
The operating system is responsible for the smooth execution of applications by allocating the resources required for them to operate.
5. File management:
The operating system manages reading and writing in the file system and the user and application file access authorizations.
Information management: The operating system provides a certain number of indicators that can be used to diagnose the correct operation of the machine.
Write a short note on components of an operating system.
The operating system comprises a set of software packages that can be used to manage interactions with the hardware. The following elements are generally included in this set of software.
- The kernel, which represents the operating system’s basic functions such as management of memory, processes, files, main inputs/outputs, and communication functionalities.
- The shell, allowing communication with the operating system via a control language, letting the user control the peripherals without knowing the characteristics of the hardware used, management of physical addresses, etc.
- The file system, allowing files to be recorded in a tree structure.
Explain different types of operating systems.
Single user operating system allows only one user to use the system resources at any particular time including the CPU. For example, DOS (disk operating system).
1. Batch operating system:
In a batch processing operating system interaction between the user and the processor is limited or there is no interaction at all during the execution of work. Data and programs that need to be processed are bundled and collected as a ‘batch’ and executed together. For example, IBM OS/2.
2. Multi-tasking operating system:
In a multitasking operating system, several applications may be simultaneously loaded and used in the memory. While the processor handles only one application at a particular time is switches between the applications and simultaneously execute each application. For example, the Windows operating system.
3. Multi-user operating system:
This multi-user operating system allows multiple users to simultaneously use the system as the processor splits its resources and handles one user at a time. For example, UNIX.
4. Real-time system:
Areal-time operating system processes inputs simultaneously, fast enough to effect the next input or process. Real-time systems are usually used to control complex systems that require a lot of processing like machinery and industrial systems. For example, Linux OS.
5. Distributed operating system:
In a distributed system, software and data may be distributed around the system, programs and files may be stored on different storage devices which are located in different geographical locations and may be accessed from different computer terminals. For example, Amoeba.
6. Multi-threaded operating system:
An operating system is known as multi-threaded when several “tasks” (also known as processes) may be run at the same time. For example, Sun Solaris.
Compare between CUI and GUI.
|CUI stands for Character User Interface.||GUI stands for Graphical User Interface.|
|In CUI, the user has to interact with the application by making use of the codes.||GUI is the user interface where users interact through the application by making use of graphics.|
|Anything where you are allowed to work only with the keyboard.||When you are allowed to work with any pointing device like a mouse.|
|In CUI only one task runs at a time. Everything is done by commands.||In GUI many tasks can run simultaneously. Work is done by pointing devices like a mouse.|
|Everything is done through commands.||Very user-friendly.|
|DOS is a CUI based operating system.||Windows is a GUI based operating system.|
Write the features of DOS.
1. Command Line Interface:
MS-DOS uses a command-line interface, forcing the user to input commands at a prompt.
2. Single Tasks:
Because Microsoft intended MS-DOS to run on early PCs without much in the way of RAM, MS-DOS features no ability for programs to multitask. When the user runs a program, that program consumes system resources until it stops, and then another program may access memory.
One distinctive characteristic of MS-DOS is its “8+3” file naming system. File names are limited to eight characters, with a three-character suffix denoting the type of file.
4. Drive Letters:
Another prominent characteristic-of MS-DOS is its use of letters to refer to drives. Typically, A and B designate floppy drives, while C and anything later in the alphabet, refers to hard drives or optical drives.
Write the features of UNIX OS.
The features of the UNIX operating system are:-
More than one program can be run at a time
Only the kernel (<10%) is written in assembler tools for program development a wide range of support tools (debuggers, compilers). The system is written in high-level language making it easier to read, understand, changed and, therefore move to other machines.
The System hides the machine architecture from the user, making it easier to write applications that can run on micros, mins, and mainframes.
4. Multi-User Operations:
UNIX is a multi-user system designed to support a group of users simultaneously. The system allows for the sharing of processing power and peripheral resources, while at the same time providing excellent security features.
5. Hierarchical File System:
UNIX uses a hierarchical file structure to store information. This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping information in a way that reflects
its natural state. It allows for easy maintenance and efficient implementation.
Write a short note on Linux OS.
It is a freely available version of the UNIX operating system
- It started by Linus Torvalds in 1991.
- Programmers from around the world contribute code.
- Main portion of Linux: The Linux Kernel.
- It can be downloaded from a number of sites (www.linux.org) as well as purchased in packages (called distributions) from companies such as RedHat (www.redhat.com) and Suse (www.suse.com).
Compare interpreter with compiler.
Differences between interpreter and compiler:
|1. Translates Program line by line||Translates a whole program at a time.|
|2. Remains in RAM after translation||Leaves RAM after translation.|
|3. Suitable for small translations.||Suitable for long computation|
|4. Slower access||Faster access.|
|5. Can be built into the system||It cannot be built into the system.|
|6. One interpreter own translate different High-level languages||Each High-level language must have a different compiler.|