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Karnataka 1st PUC History Previous Year Question Paper March 2016 (North)
Time: 3.15 Hours
Max Marks: 100
- Write SI. No’s of questions correctly
- Visually challenged students need to answer questions No. 31 ‘B’ instead of Map question No. 31 ‘A ’ in Part – D
- Answer the questions according to the instructions given for the questions.
Part – A
I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each. ( 10 × 1 = 10 )
To which country did Herodotus belong?
Herodotus belonged to Greece.
Who was the greatest ruler of China?
Shih Hu Wang Ti was the greatest ruler of China.
Name the battle in which Alexander defeated Porus.
Alexander defeated Porus in the battle of Hydaspes or battle of Jhelum (326 BCE).
What is ROZA?
Roza means fasting which every Muslim should do during the holy month of Ramzan.
Who was called as the Navigator?
Prince Henry of Portugal was called as ‘Navigator’.
What were the followers of Ignatius Loyola called as?
The followers of Ignatius Loyola were called as ‘Jesuits’.
What was the famous policy of Bismark?
Bismark said that ‘The great questions of the time will not be resolved by speeches and majority decisions but by Iron and blood’ . This became popular as the ‘Blood and Iron’ policy of Bismarck.
Mention the immediate cause for the first world war?
The murder of the Crown Prince of Austria, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, was the immediate cause for the First World War.
Which day is celebrated as UN Day?
24th October is celebrated as the UN day.
Who was the first to use the word “Non-Aligned” ?
V.K. Krishna Menon, India’s External Affairs Minister was the first to use the word ‘Non-Aligned’.
Part – B
II. Answer any ten of the following questions in two words or two sentences each. ( 10 × 2 = 20 )
Which were the two chemicals responsible for the origin of life?
Hydrogen and Carbon which were present in the atmosphere were responsible for that.
Name any two ancient civilizations.
Egyptian and Indus valley civilizations were two ancient civilizations.
Name any two dramatists of Periclian age.
Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, were the Dramatists of Periclean age.
Which are the two parts of Bible?
The two parts of the Bible are the Old Testament and the New Testament.
Name any two universities that came into existence in Medieval Europe.
Oxford and Cambridge in England, Bologna and Naples in Italy and Paris and Montpellier in France were some of the Universities that came into existence in Medieval Europe.
Who invented Gas lighting on a large scale? Which was the city where the Gas lighting was introduced first?
William Sugg introduced Gas Lighting on a large scale. It was introduced in London.
What is Boston Tea Party?
British Parliament passed an act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company, which was resented by the colonists. When a ship loaded with tea packets arrived at Boston, the colonists disguised as Red Indians raided the ship and threw all the tea packets into the sea. This incident is called ‘Boston Tea Party’.
Name the two works of Karl Marx.
Das Capital and Communist Manifesto.
Name the architects of Italian unification.
Count De Cavour, Garibaldi, Joseph Mazzini
Name any two member countries of NATO.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation members are America, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway and others.
Name any two independent Baltic states.
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova etc.
Name the two leaders of Bandung Conference.
Nehru, Josip Broz Tito were two leaders of Bandung Conference.
Part – C
III. Answer any six of the following questions in 15-20 sentences each. ( 6 × 5 = 30 )
Explain the importance of Study of History.
1. History is the memory of the past events: The study of history gives us information about the biographies of great men and a record of major events of the world. According to Will Durant, “A country’s past is like an individual’s memory. If memory goes, sanity goes with it”. Hayes and Moon wrote “As memory is to man, History is to mankind”.
2. History helps to broaden our outlook: The study of history helps us to get knowledge about the people of different countries, traditions, customs, cultures and civilizations. Thus it broadens the outlook of mankind. The details recorded in history relating to Art, Architecture, Literature and Religion expands one’s horizon of knowledge.
3. History promotes international peace: The world has already witnessed the misgivings of the two World Wars. If another war takes place in the future, it would destroy the whole world. History has pointed out that unawareness of the culture of other countries and narrow nationalism has lead to such wars.
Today, there is a great deal of competition among different countries in possessing nuclear weapons and war equipments. For the development of cordial relations between nations, the study of world history is the need of the hour.
4. History has Professional uses: It is a competitive world. History is the main core subject for the competitive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS, etc. Historical knowledge is a matter of necessity for Students, Teachers, Lawyers, Journalists, Administrators and Statesmen. Thousands of historians are working in the Department of Archaeological Survey of India under Central and State Governments.
New job opportunities have opened up for the students of history at Museums, Archives, Tourism development and related fields. Thus, history has professional uses.
How was food and shelter responsible for human evolution.
Hominoids lived on tress. The trees provided them protection from the predators. The Hominoids were food gatherers. They procured food by gathering seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, tubers, etc. They were not meat eaters. Hominids adapted to land dwelling. They began to use caves and extended stone boulders as shelters. These shelters on land provided them with considerable safety from the predators and from rain, wind and the sun.
The Neanderthal man was the earliest cave dweller. The shortage of food made them to scavenge for food. They covered long distances to forage or scavenge for naturally dead animals or leftovers of animals killed by predators. The above activities made them gradually develop an upright posture and consequently the bipedal motion.
This was required for survival. Hominines and the archaic human species added planned hunting and fishing to the already existing gathering, foraging and scavenging techniques. Planned hunting and making tools stimulated the growth in the brain size. The growth in brain size in turn helped them to plan and make better tools.
Explain the life and teachings of Prophet Mohammad.
Mohammed was born in 570 C.E. at Mecca in Arabia. Abdullah and Ameena were his parents, He belonged to the Quareshi tribe of Mecca. He lost his parents early in his child hood and was brought up by his uncle Abu-Talib. Due to poverty, he could not receive any formal education, but he was trained to look after sheep and camels. He was known for his honesty and sincerity. As a youth he spent most of his time in travelling with the caravans. The co-merchants called him as Amin – one who is reliable.
He married Khadija, a widow, who was 15 years elder to him. They had two sons and two daughters. Daughter Fathima survived and other three died. She was given in marriage to Ali. Mohammed led a normal married life up to the age of forty. He spent most of his time in meditation and fasting. He was also seriously thinking about the social and religious evils of the Arabs. While meditating at the Hira cave, Gabriel a messenger of God preached him the holy Gospels while he was in a trance.
Mohammed realized the impact of Divine message of God. He also realized that, he was the chosen one, and had a great mission to fulfill. His wife, son-in-law, daughter, friend Abu-Bakr and his servant Syed Mohammed were his first disciples. He declared “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet”. He started teaching the principles of the new faith to the people of Mecca.
He criticized the meaningless ceremonials like Idol worship, polytheism and superstitions among Arabs. He preached purity of life, truth and faith in Allah. He said Allah is Omnipotent and kind to all. He preached Allah would reward the just and punish the wicked. Those who surrender themselves to the will of God were Muslims. His followers called him Prophet. Mohammed declared he was the prophet chosen by Allah to reveal his message to mankind. He said, “Allah was all merciful, all wise and all powerful”.
Discuss the merits and demerits of feudalism.
Feudalism developed in Western Europe. It was restricted to the periods between 5th and 12th centuries C.E. The 5th century marked the fall of Roman Empire and the 12th century marked the emergence of national Monarchies. Feudalism in general stands for the decentralized system of governance and economy based on land.
The merits of feudalism are:
1. Feudalism helped the growth of decentralized political administration. The King was not only advised by Vassals, but at times he was forced to accept their terms and conditions. This checked the growth of absolute monarchy.
2. Feudalism helped to preserve monarchy and Monarchs sanctioned fiefs to Vassals, who in turn took an oath of loyalty and co-operation to fight for him.
3. In due course of time, feudalism helped the growth of ‘strong Monarchy’ as the feudal Lords became the courtiers of the Monarchs.
4. No doubt the King and Vassals had personal interests, yet they were united against invasions. This led to national defence and rise of nationalism.
5. The constant conflict helped the growth of military techniques in terms of better arms, training and organization. It encouraged the concept of chivalry. The Nobles and Knights became more mindful towards the poor and needy. Chivalry also developed respect towards women.
6. Feudalism brought stability and order in the society. The collective defence and maintenance of law and order within the feudal estate ensured protection and justice to the people.
7. Feudalism also developed a sense of duty and order. It was the King’s duty to protect the rights of the Vassals over outlier lands, and that of Vassals to protect their serfs. Likewise the serfs had their duties towards Vassals and Vassals towards Kings.
Demerits of feudalism:
- There were often skirmishes and wars between Vassals or between Vassals and Kings. So there was no stability, peace and order. It had its own impact on society and economy.
- The vassals always favored nominal Monarchy and were against National Government and National interest.
- The Nobles were self interested. Their tyranny led to the sufferings of commoners and serfs. Serfs were the victims of violence. Often, war by nobles and war expenses led to the over taxing of common people.
- The loyalty of the people was restricted to the feudal Lords and not the Nation or King, which was a hindrance to the growth of Nationhood.
- Feudalism increased the gap between the rich and the poor. The poor led a subsistent life whereas the nobles led a life of leisure and idleness.
- The Church also participated in feudal system. It had vast lands and worked like feudal Lords. There were also conflicts.between the Bishops and Kings and his Vassals.
What were the causes for Renaissance?
1. Renaissance scholars or rise of new ideas: The teachings of the medieval age were not progressive as the Church controlled all activities of the people. Religious beliefs, political principles and social standards were all stagnant in this period. There were all round discontentment and the time was ripe for a major upheaval and people started questioning the authority of the Church.
2. The capture of Constantinople in 1453: In 1453, Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and forced the Greek and Latin Scholars to flee to Italy. The encouraging and peaceful conditions in Italy helped the study of classical literature and birth of Renaissance.
3. Geographical exploration: Medieval age Europeans came out off religious restrictions and superstitious ideas were shattered. People became bold and adventurous. The geographical discoveries not only brought great wealth but also expanded their knowledge. Coming in contact with other cultures brought them new ideas, thoughts and knowledge. Thinkers began to give importance to Reason, Observation and Experimentation. This prepared the ground for a great cultural revolution.
4. Patronage of Kings, Popes and Nobles: When the Greek and Latin scholars fled to Italy and other European countries along with their books and manuscripts, King, Popes, Nobles and the rich Merchants patronised these scholars. European people got exposed to Classical Art, Architecture and Learning and interest in these grew all over.
5. Nation-State idea: In the age of new learning, emphasis was laid upon the freedom and dignity of man as an individual. With the dawn of the new spirit, City-States lost their significance and the idea of Nation States took shape. As feudalism collapsed, the Monarchs were interested in the welfare of their subjects and gave importance to Classical literature and Education in general.
6. The invention of Printing Press: This was the chief factor in spreading new ideas and thoughts across the multitude. Printing helped the tremendous development of European civilization and culture. Production of books on varied subjects stimulated a general desire
Explain the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
After the First World War the Allied Powers met at Paris for the first time to arrange the terms of Peace. In the Paris Peace Conference the victorious Allies dictated the peace treaties.
The main participants in the conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of America, Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Clemenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy. Five separate treaties were signed by the Allied countries with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. Of them, the most important was the Treaty of Versailles signed between the Allies and Germany on 28th June, 1919.
The date was the fifth anniversary of the murder of Archduke, Francis Ferdinand of Austria. The Allied Powers strongly held Germany responsible for the destruction and suffering caused by the war. Germany was forced to sign the Treaty. It was humiliated and hurt by this Treaty.
Provisions of the Treaty:
1. Alsace and Loraine provinces of Germany were given back to France. France also acquired the Saar coal basin of Germany for a period of 15 years as a compensation for the destruction of the coal mines in the north of France.
2. Schleswig and Holstein were given to Denmark by Germany. Danzig was snatched away from Germany and declared a free port.
3. Rhineland area was completely demilitarized. All existing forts in the area were demolished and instructions were given not to build any more forts.
4. The independence of Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia was recognized by Germany.
5. Germany gave up all its colonies to the Allies. These were divided between England, France, Japan and others. Germany was made responsible for the losses of First World War. So, Germany was made to pay a huge war indemnity of 6,600 million Pounds.
6. Germany was disarmed. The sizes of its army and navy were reduced. German army was cut down to 1,00,000 soldiers. The import and export of weapons were prohibited. It also imposed restriction on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles. German warships were converted into commercial ships. Germany was not allowed to maintain Tanks, Submarines and Military aircrafts.
What are the factors responsible for the disintegration of Russia?
The factors responsible for the disintegration of U.S.S.R are:
- Too much restriction on individual liberty.
- Failure to establish equality among the people.
- Excessive importance to defence industry.
- Negligence of agriculture.
- Iron curtain policy.
- Liberal policies introduced by Gorbachev.
- Conflicting cultural and ethnic groups.
Describe the objectives of non-aligned movement?
The objectives of Non-Aligned Movements are as follows:
- To reduce the intensity of Cold War between the two powerful military blocs of America and Soviet Union and keep away from the two blocs.
- To settle international disputes through peaceful dialogues.
- To oppose colonialism and Imperialism and support movements against them.
- To support Atomic Weapon reduction agreement and come out of military agreements.
- To oppose racial conflicts, class discrimination and Apartheid and to stage a fight against them.
- To condemn the acts of aggression, injustice of the power blocks and to take measures to stop them.
- To safeguard the weaker countries from the Economic Exploitation by the developed countries. To give financial assistance to developing countries.
- To protect the fundamental human rights.
- To solve problems like poverty, hunger and illiteracy faced by Non-Aligned Nations.
- To support the programmes undertaken by the United Nations Organization.
- To remove Economic dependence and build self dependence.
- To uphold democratic principles and popularize them.
Part – D
IV. Answer the following as Indicated: ( 5 + 5 = 10 )
(A) Mark any five of the following Historical places on the outline map of the world . provided to you and add an explanatory note on each marked place in two sentences.
(b) Cape of Good Hope
(a) Constantinople: Presently called as Istanbul is in Turkey. Its original name was Byzantium, which was founded in 7th Century B.C.E. by a Greek King Byzas. Constantine the Great, made it the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 4th century C.E. Then it came to be known as Constantinople which means ‘The City of Constantine’. Ottoman Turks captured it in 1453, which led to the need to discover new sea routes to India.
(b) Cape of Good Hope: It is at the southern tip of South Africa. Bartholomew Diaz called it ‘Cape of Storms’. Later, Vasco-da-Gama renamed it as ‘Cape of Good Hope’ under the direction of King John of Portugal, since it gave hope for further explorations to reach India.
(c) Rome: It is the capital of Italy. It was also the capital of the Roman Empire. Vatican City in Rome is the centre of Pope, who is the religious head of the Catholics. According to a Roman legend, Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in 8th century B.C.E. According to another version the name is derived from the Greek word Rhome which means ‘strength’.
(d) Nagasaki: It is in Japan. Nagasaki means ‘Long Cape’. On 9th August 1945, US Air force dropped the second Atomic bomb called ‘Fat Man’ on Nagasaki. As a result of this, more than 70,000 people died. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in 16th Century.
(e) Geneva: It is in Switzerland. It was one of the centres of Protestant movement. International organizations like ILO, WHO, WTO and GATT are located here.
(f) Paris: It is the capital of France. The Bourbon family ruled over France from here, till the French Revolution of 1789. In modern times, many historical treaties have been signed here.
(g) London: It is the capital of U.K located on the banks of the river Thames. It was the main centre of Industrial Revolution. It is the famous centre of learning. According to one origin, London meant the place belonging to a man called ‘Londinos’. As per another view, it is derived from the word ‘Lowonida’ meaning ‘river too wide to ford’ referring to river Thames, which flows through London.
(h) Lisbon: It is the capital of Portugal. Most of the Portuguese navigators, including Vasco-da-Gama of the Age of discovery started their voyages from this city.
For Visually Challenged Students only
(B) Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences. ( 1 × 10 = 10 )
Describe the contributions of Roman civilisation.
It is said that but for the Romans, the Greek culture would not have spread to the Western World. Directly or indirectly, Romans acted as the agents. Rome has made its own distinct contributions such as the formation of Republics and Governments. Laws, Legal procedures and Systems, Principles of Taxation, Citizenship Rights, Setting up of Hospitals and Sanitation Systems and construction of Public Buildings and Baths.
The greatest gift of the Romans was the ‘Pax Romana’ or the Roman Peace. The Roman Empire covered a vast stretch of territory touching three continents, namely Europe, Africa and Asia. By the might of its army, Rome gave peace to the entire Mediterranean World. Prior to that, it was a place of constant wars between the petty Rulers. But for the peaceful atmosphere, the growth of the Roman Civilization would not have been possible.
It was Romans who gave the first practical demonstration of the idea of ‘World State’. They showed the world not only how to build an Empire, but also how to Govern it efficiently. They introduced a uniform system of Administration and common laws throughout the Empire.
The most outstanding intellectual contribution of the Romans was the formation of a body of laws. These laws have made a profound impact on almost all the civilized nations of the World today. Earlier, it was the Priests who were interpreting the laws for the common people. The first written code came in the form of ‘Twelve Tables’ in 150 B.C. It established ‘Equality before Law’. It was of two parts: Jus Civili applied to the Roman citizens and Jus Gentium applicable to all living on Roman lands that were not given citizenship. Justinian codified them completely.
Romans were the inventors of concrete. They introduced Arches and Cupolas (Domes) in their Architecture and built many fine Public Buildings, Amphitheatres and Temples. The Coliseum built by Vespasian, and the Pantheon are fine examples for that. Romans built miles and miles of very good, well paved highways like Via Appia, Via Latina and Via Valeria. The roads were for the fast movement of their armies across the Empire and for trade with distant parts.
Their system of interlinking roads connecting Rome with all the major parts of their Empire and the importance of Rome gave rise to the saying that “All roads lead to Rome”.
Roman Contributions in science were very limited. Most of the conclusions reached by Roman scientists were philosophical, and not the result of careful experimentation. They were the first to provide free medicine to poor patients. They maintained personal cleanliness, and for the purpose they built baths. They constructed hospitals and patients were treated by qualified physicians.
The greatest physician was Galen (130-200 CE). He wrote on human Anatomy and Physiology. The knowledge of human Anatomy enabled them to conduct operations and to remove goiters and tonsils. Galen was one of the first to discover the circulation of blood. The natural history of Pliny is a large Compendium of all known science. Aretacus was the first to describe the symptoms of diabetes and diphtheria.
The Romans borrowed the Etruscan rotation system, but it was not developed much above the level of arithmetic. Roman numerals like I, X, L, C etc., are used even today. The ancient Romans used numerals for commercial mathematics.
Most of the Roman paintings have disappeared. The best of the surviving murals are found in Pompeii. The art of painting was revived through Christian influence in Church Frescoes in the later period.
Explain the causes and results of the Reformation.
The main causes for the Reformation are as follows:
1. Religious causes or existence of abuses: Reformation began with the rebellion against the abuses of the Church. The Popes, who claimed to be the representatives of God, neglected their religious duties. The Church was ready to sacrifice moral and spiritual values for the sake of money.
The Clergy became corrupt and idle and naturally the Church lost its early purity. The principles like simplicity and forgiveness preached by Jesus were completely forgotten. The anger against such evils was one of the chief causes for the Reformation.
2. Intellectual causes: The spirit of enquiry and criticism generated by the Renaissance intellectuals like John Wycliffe and others resulted in protests against the abuses by the Church and the corrupt practices of the Clergy. They demanded the purification of the Church organization. They challenged the supremacy of the Pope and declared that the Pope was not the representative of God and every Christian should be guided only by the Bible.
3. Political causes: The Roman Catholic Church claimed the spiritual and temporal power over the States of Europe. Kings and people opposed the political power enjoyed by the Church. The growth of nationalism led to the establishment of National Churches with Kings as their heads. They felt that the Church should take interest only in the religious, spiritual and moral domains. They wanted to restrict the power of the Church and these political circumstances prompted reformation.
4. Economic causes: The Roman Church owned vast lands, money and property. Church property was exempted from all taxes, but the common people were burdened with various taxes, fees and fines. The Church claimed that the wealth of the Church was the wealth of God and Kings had no rights to tax on Church property.
5. Sale of indulgences: The immediate cause of the Reformation was the sale of indulgences by Pope Leo-X, who was badly in need of money for the rebuilding of the St. Peter’s Church at Rome. Church regardless of all the criticism levelled against it, continued to collect money in various ways. Pope Leo-X sent his agent, John Tetzel to Germany to sell indulgences.
Indulgences were certificates issued by the Pope for money, exempting the people from receiving punishment for their sins. Brokers and Bankers were appointed to sell them and were paid commissions. Martin Luther opposed this sale in his famous 95 points and nailed them to the Church door at Wittenberg. He began to question the Pope and the doctrines.
The results of the Reformation are as follows:
1. Reformation destroyed the unity of the Christian Church by the establishment of the Protestant Church.
2. The medieval religious tradition and superstitious beliefs were rejected. The leaders of this Movement also rejected the supreme authority of the Church and accepted the authorities of the true Bible.
3. Reformation freed the Kings of Europe from the control of Pope. It gave birth to secular states.
4. Reformation led to reforms within the Catholic Church and also much clearer statement of Christian doctrines.
5. It had a great economic effect. The properties of the Church were confiscated by the Protestant Nobles and Princes, which made them powerful. This wealth was utilized for the economic development and as a result, money lenders, bankers and financiers secured a high status.
6. It had great effect on the development of national literature. The translation of Bible into the vernacular languages spread the knowledge of scriptures among the common people.
7. The religious clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants caused much bloodshed, death and destruction. It finally gave birth to secular States as the only way for national integration. European Kings adopted religious tolerance.
8. It gave further stimulus to the growth of spirit of nationalism
Part – E
V. Answer any two of the following questions in 30-40 sentences each. ( 2 × 10 = 20 )
Describe the contributions of Mesopatamiam civilization.
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Mesopotamians followed by cattle rearing and dairy farming. To that end, they developed erection of bunds to lands and artificial irrigation. They gave to the world the know how about digging of canals, construction of dykes, embankments and storage basins to regulate water consumption and usage throughout the year. It is believed that the Shadoof was developed by them for artificial irrigation.
They had a barter system in the beginning, but later started using metal coins. Weaving, dyeing, wood works, pottery, jewellery and metallurgy were the important crafts. They exported wooden articles and fibre clothes and had trade relations with India and Egypt.
As stone was not available in Mesopotamia, we do not find sculpture and architecture as we find in Egypt. Most of the buildings were built with brick and mud and only very few of them have survived.
King Nebuchadnezzar constructed a Palace with a variety of gardens on the roof known as the Hanging Garden of Babylon which was considered as one of the Seven wonders of the Ancient World. Mesopotamians were excellent artisans and sculptors. They carved beautiful images of eagles and other animals.
Student copybooks and a library of clay books of 4,000 years old were found at excavations. They used flat bricks for writing which was known as ‘cuneiform’ writing. They composed many myths, legends and poems. Their Epic of Gilgamesh is a rich poetry.
They knew about the Planets and believed that Sun and Moon influenced the life of men. They had faith in Astrology which was based on Astronomy. They divided the year into 12 months with 354 days. They followed the lunar Calendar. Their hour had 60 minutes and a minute had 60 seconds.
They had made good progress in the field of medicine. Their book ‘Matoria Medica’ mentions of 550 medicines prepared from vegetables, minerals and animal products. That book also gives details of various diseases and their symptoms.
Mesopotamians worshipped Nature along with innumerable Gods and Goddesses. They built Ziggurats – Temples with tall towers. The Temples were also centres of education. They had streamlined Central and Provincial administrations. Governors were appointed to look after the provincial administration. They had a horse borne postal system for communication.
The greatest contribution of the Mesopotamian civilization was the ‘Code of Hammurabi’. King Hammurabi was a great Conqueror and an able Administrator. He collected all the existing laws, classified them, improved them, added new ones and codified all into one body of laws. It covered all aspects of human life and was a mixture of enlightened laws and barbarous punishments. It was an everlasting and monumental legal achievement of Hammurabi, which has made him immortal.
Explain causes for the American war of Independence.
The main causes for the American Revolution or war of Independence were the following.
- Commercial policy of England
- Seven years War
- Intellectual Causes
- British taxation Policy
- Coercive Act
- Quebec Act
Commercial policy of England: British Parliament thought that the colonies were for the benefit of the motherland. So they levied heavy taxes and to further restrict the trade of the colonies, they introduced the Navigation act.
The main features of this act-were:
- The raw materials produced in America (coffee, cotton, tobacco, etc) should be exported to England only.
- The essential goods like cotton, linen, cloth, glass, sugar, etc. that America needed should be imported from England only.
- Americans should use only the British ships for trade to keep away competition of other European nations.
- Iron, blue, paper, cotton, linen, cloth, etc. that were produced by England should not be produced in America.
- England’s merchant-agents should be kept and be given security.
Seven years War: England could not tolerate the progress of France, and did not want her to establish settlements in their neighbourhood. The colonies also wanted British protection against the French. England declared war in 1756, which lasted till 1763. It is called the ‘Seven years war’. England won the war. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, and France had to give away Canada to England. Thus the American colonies were freed from the fear of the French attack.
Intellectual Causes: The colonists set up their own social and political institutions. Their enlightenment was due to their own heritage. John Adams, a philosopher remarked, “The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of Americans and it had started even before the American war of Independence”. Roger Williams, a symbol of American enlightenment, preached Religious Tolerance and separation of State from the Church.
‘Two Treatises of Government’ by John Locke is considered as the Bible of American war Of Independence. Thus the American enlightened class and philosophers laid the strong foundation for the American Revolution.
British taxation Policy: The seven years war with France was a big financial burden on England. To recover these expenses, England levied taxes on goods imported into the colonies. The Sugar and Molasses Act was passed in 1764 which levied taxes on sugar and molasses. This was a hindrance to the production of wine. It led to the increase of smuggling activities and the colonies faced many problems. The public outcry made the British Parliament to decrease the same.
The stamp Act was passed in 1764, which declared that stamp duties were to be paid on all legal documents. The colonists opposed this Act. They said that the British Parliament did not have the right to tax the colonists when they were not given representation in the Parliament. Their slogan was ‘No Taxation without Representation’. The colonists showed their anger by burning the stamps. British Parliament was forced to withdraw this act.
In 1767, the Townsend Act was passed which imposed heavy taxes on Glass, Paper and Tea. Troops were sent to help the officers in collecting the taxes. When the colonists protested and revolted, troops were sent to put down the same. British troops occupied Boston and in a fight with them, five people lost their lives and many were injured. After this ‘Boston Massacre’, taxes on glass and paper were withdrawn and to show their power and control, tax on tea was retained.
Boston Tea Party: British Parliament passed an Act in 1773 and gave the monopoly of Tea trade to the East India Company. Colonists resented it. Cheaper Tea powder was available in the black market. When the first consignment came to New York and Philadelphia they were forced to go back to England. But again when another ship loaded with Tea packets arrived at Boston in 1773, the colonists disguised themselves as ‘Red Indians’ under the leadership of Paul Revere, entered the ship and threw the Tea boxes into the ocean marking the ‘Boston Tea Party’.
Write about life and conquests of Napoleon Bonarparte.
In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte ended the rule of the Directory in France and assumed supreme military command. He provided a stable political system based on personal dictatorship. He reign lasted for fifteen years, from 1799 to 1814.
Early life of Napoleon: Napoleon was born at Ajaccio in the island of Corsica on 15th August 1769. At sixteen, he joined the French army as an Artillery Officer. He was unquestionably a man of extraordinary force of mind and character. He believed that he was a man of destiny. The outbreak of the French Revolution gave him an opportunity to fulfill his ambitions and also channelize his energy.
The Italian campaigns which he led in 1796 made him the most brilliant General of the French Republic. In 1799, he overthrew the corrupt and inefficient Directory Government and established a three member Consulate Government and became the first Consul. He was the man who presided over the destiny of France for the next 15 years. He was virtually a Sovereign.
Napoleon as Emperor of France (1804 – 1814): In 1802, Napoleon’s control over France was total. He aspired to become Consul for life. On December 2nd 1804, Napoleon was coronated as the Emperor of France. He had invited the Pope to give his blessings and also to crown him. But at the last moment he himself placed the crown on his head and later remarked “I found the crown of France lying on the ground and I picked it up with my sword”.
Wars of Napoleon: The Napoleonic Empire lasted for ten years from 1804 to 1814. It was a period of uninterrupted warfare. He had become all powerful in France. Now he desired to become all-powerful in Europe. He had overthrown the three great military states of Europe are Austria, Russia and Prussia. Only Great Britain and Sweden remained to be defeated.
Continental system: Britain was the chief commercial and industrial nation of the world. But invading Britain was impossible as it was the strongest naval power. So Napoleon planned that its commerce and industry must be attacked, by preventing the import of British goods into the continent, which was its chief market. Such a move would ruin British commerce and industry and compel Britain to sue for peace. Towards this end, Napoleon fought an economic war with Great Britain from 1806 to 1814, this economic warfare was known as the “Continental System”.
In 1806, Napoleon proclaimed a decree which provided for closure of all ports on the continent to the British manufactured goods. In retaliation the British Government issued ‘Orders in Council’. The result of this confrontation was that Napoleon would not allow import of British goods into the continent and Britain, in turn, would prevent the sea trade of France and its allies.
For Napoleon it proved physically impossible to enforce the “Continental system” thoroughly. It was difficult to prevent the bribery of customs officials and smuggling. In the course of enforcing the ‘Continental System’, Napoleon was involved in a series of disastrous wars in Europe.
Abdication of Napoleon: In March 1814, Napoleon’s chief enemies – Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia concluded a treaty with the sole aim of overthrowing their arch enemy and they declared war against France. The French resistance was broken within a month and Paris was surrounded on March 31,1814. Napoleon at last abdicated his throne.
In return, the allies offered him Elba, an Island in the Mediterranean. Amid the tears of his soldiers, Napoleon left for Elba. The allies decided to restore the Bourbon dynasty on the throne of France, Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI, was offered the crown.
The Hundred Days: For ten months Napoleon was in Elba. On March 1, 1815 he escaped from Elba, and landed with 1,100 men on the South Coast of France. Then he advanced towards Paris. Hearing this news, Louis XVIII fled to Belgium. Napoleon occupied the throne of France and ruled as Emperor from March to June 1815. This episode is known as “The Hundred Days”.
The allies once again pledged to fight against Napoleon to the finish. They declared war on France and finally defeated Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo (1815) in Belgium. This was Napoleon’s sixteenth and final battle. The battle destroyed once for all the last army of the French Emperor. Napoleon abdicated for the second time and was exiled to St. Helena.
Explain the causes and results of the First World War.
Introduction: World War I was one of the greatest, largest and most destructive events in the history of the modern world. It was the first time when such a large number of countries from Europe and other parts of the world were involved in conflict and affected either directly or indirectly. It destroyed more human lives and material than ever before. It broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918. Nearly 30 countries participated in this conflict between highly organised and well armed countries with modem weaponry.
Causes of world war:
1. Aggressive Nationalism: Nationalistic aspirations have always led to political rivalries. The narrow nationalism which always meant love of their own people, their own nation and culture became a predominant feature. As a result, there began to develop among the Europeans a kind of negligence towards other countries e.g., William-Il the King of Germany declared that “Germany should either rule the world or perish”. Even England was not free from this self- exaltation. This competitive patriotism forced them to jump into military and naval competitions.
2. Economic and Military imperialism: The European powers competed with each other for commercial and colonial expansion in the non-European world. The launching of industrial schemes on a large scale needed raw material and also a ready market for their finished goods. This led to colonial competition among the European countries, which was carried on to other fields as well. Commercial competition led to mutual jealousy and tension.
3. Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente: Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany in 1871 A.D. He fought many wars with the neighbouring countries. He’sought to give the Empire stability and security and to achieve that end, formed a Triple Alliance with Austria and Italy.
In 1907 A.D, alarmed by the formation of this Triple Alliance, Russia, France and England came together and formed an alliance called the Triple Entente. Thus Europe came to be divided into two hostile blocks.
4. The Arms Race: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente led to a keen competition of manufacturing war materials. Germany had made tremendous progress in the military to produce tanks, machine guns, and submarines etc., Greater number of soldiers Were recruited and equipped with modern weapons. Kaiser William-II of Germany glorified war. He wished to make Germany a world power. His belief that “The German race alone should rule the world” greatly alarmed England.
5. England also began to invest more on Navy and greater effort was undertaken to preserve the title “Queen of Seas” and that “Sun never sets on British Empire”. The militaristic attitude of Germany roused the fear in France which began to strengthen her military. Many European nations introduced compulsory military training. Further, the arms race created fear, suspicion tension and distrust between each other. All the nations of Europe were preparing for war.
6. Attitude of France: France had never forgotten her defeat at the hands of Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871. After the war, she had also ceded the Alsace and Lorraine provinces to Germany. France was eagerly waiting for an opportunity to take revenge against Germany besides getting back those provinces.
7. Immediate cause: The Austrian Crown Prince, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on 28th June 1914. So Austria felt that the Serbian Government was responsible for that and sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding to handover the perpetrators within 48 hours. Serbia rejected the ultimatum. Austria backed by Germany, declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914. Russia coming to the help of Serbia, entered the fray and other countries followed suit.
Results of the First World War:
1. Loss of life: The horrors and miseries of the war were plentiful. The total loss of life of all nations put together was some 10 million killed in action, more than 1 crore people wounded and millions permanently disabled. As they were incapable of self support, they remained a burden on their family and their nations.
2. Economic dislocation: A large number of people lost their property (186 billion dollars), millions of civilians died of diseases and starvation. The national loan of the participants in the war was enormous. This financial disorder and widespread suffering led to violent social and political changes.
3. The First World War ended with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The prominent delegates who represented the different nations in the Peace Conference were Woodrow Wilson, the President of U.S.A., Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, Cietnenceau, the Prime Minister of France and Orlando, the Prime Minister of Italy.
4. The victors sought to brand Germany as responsible for the war and all the consequences of the war. It had to give up a lot of its territories and colonies. It was imposed a huge war indemnity and its military strength was reduced.
5. The war created a demand for an international organization to protect world peace. As a result, the League of Nations came into existence on 1st of January 1929.
6. France reoccupied Alsace and Lorraine, the two provisions from Germany. Besides, France gained the Saar coal basin.
7. The great Empires of Austria, Hungary, Russia, Germany and Ottoman Turkey came to an end. These were replaced by republics. Poland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia became independent.
Part – F
VI. 36. Match the following. ( 05 )
37. Arrange the following events in Chronological Order. ( 05 )
- Belgrade Conference.
- Battle of Waterloo.
- Origin of Earth.
- Establishment of Roman Republic
- French Revolution.
- Origin of Earth (4.5 billion years ago)
- Establishment of Roman Republic – 509 B.C.
- French Revolution -1789
- Battle of Waterloo -1799
- Belgrade Conference – 1961