1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 4 Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions

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Karnataka 1st PUC History Question Bank Chapter 4 Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions

1st PUC History Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Which is the most ancient civilization of Europe?
Answer:
Greek civilization is the most ancient civilization of Europe.

Question 2.
On which river valley did the Greek civilization develop?
Answer:
Danube.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of the word ‘Hellenes’?
Answer:
Ancient Greeks were called ‘Hellenes’, as they claimed descent from a common ancestor, Hellenes.

Question 4.
In which civilization do we find City-States?
Answer:
We find City-States in the Greek civilization.

Question 5.
In which City-State of Greece did democracy develop?
Answer:
Athens was the City-State of Greece were democracy developed.

Question 6.
Whose period is popularly called as the ‘Golden Age’ of Athens?
Answer:
Pericles’ period is popularly called as the ‘Golden Age’ of Athens.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Who is called as the father of Medicine?
Answer:
Hippocrates is regarded as the father of medicine.

Question 8.
Between whom was the Peloponnesian wars fought?
Answer:
The Peloponnesian wars took place between Sparta and Athens.

Question 9.
Name the battle in which Alexander defeated Porus.
Answer:
Alexander defeated Porus in the battle of Hydespes or battle of Jhelum (326 B.C.E).

Question 10.
Which Indian King defeated Seleucus?
Answer:
Chandra Gupta Mourya was the Indian King who defeated Seleucus.

Question 11.
Who was Euripides?
Answer:
Euripides was a Greek dramatist who specialised in tragic plays.

Question 12.
Who was the author of the book ‘Peloponnesian wars’?
Answer:
Thucycidides was the author of the book ‘Peloponnesian wars’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 13.
Who wrote the book ‘The Republic’?
Answer:
Plato wrote the book ‘The Republic’.

Question 14.
In which year did the Olympic Games begin?
Answer:
The Olympic Games began in 776 BC.

Question 15.
What were the Greeks originally called as?
Answer:
Greeks were originally called as ‘Hellenes’.

Question 16.
Which language did the early Greeks speak?
Answer:
Early Greeks spoke an Indo-European language.

Question 17.
Mention the important features of the Periclean age.
Answer:
The important features of the Periclean age were the participation of even the poorest in the political affairs of the State and the jury system.

Question 18.
When was Athens destroyed?
Answer:
Athens was destroyed during the Persian war.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 19.
Who rebuilt Athens?
Answer:
Athens was rebuilt by Pericles.

Question 20.
Of which material, was the famous Parthenon or the temple of Virgin built?
Answer:
It was built of coloured marble stones.

Question 21.
Who is regarded as the ‘The Father of History’?
Answer:
Herodotus (485-425 B.C.E) is regarded as the ‘The Father of History’.

Question 22.
Who were the poets during the Golden age of Pericles?
Answer:
Sappho and Pindar.

Question 23.
Which parts of Alexander’s Empire came under the control of Antigonus?
Answer:
Macedonia and Greece came under the control of Antigonus.

Question 24.
Who is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’?
Answer:
Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 25.
What was Ptolemy’s belief about the Earth and the Universe?
Answer:
Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe.

Question 26.
Which became an important Kingdom under Philip II?
Answer:
Macedonia, in North-Eastern Greece, became an important Kingdom, under Philip II.

Question 27.
On which river bank did the Roman Civilization develop?
Answer:
River Tiber.

Question 28.
When was the Roman Republic established?
Answer:
In 753 BCE.

Question 29.
From which word is the name ‘Rome’ derived?
Answer:
It was named Roma after Romulus, one of the founders of the city.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 30.
The word ‘Republic’ is derived from which Latin word?
Answer:
From‘Respublica’, meaning ‘A thing of the people’.

Question 31.
Who was Hannibal?
Answer:
Hannibal was a Carthagean General who had scored brilliant victories but could not capture Rome.

Question 32.
Who became the first Dictator of Rome?
Answer:
Marius became the first Dictator of Rome.

Question 33.
Who acted as a Mediator between Julius Caesar and Pompey?
Answer:
Crassus acted as a Mediator between Julius Caesar and Pompey.

Question 34.
Whose famous words were “Vini, Vidi, Vici”?
Answer:
Julius Caesar.

Question 35.
Which was the battle in which Julius Caesar defeated Pompey?
Answer:
Battle at Pharsalus.

Question 36.
Who was Cleopatra?
Answer:
Cleopatra was the Queen of Egypt.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
Who was the person responsible for the murder of Julius Caesar?
Answer:
Brutus.

Question 38.
Name the greatest Ruler of the Roman Empire?
Answer:
Augustus Caesar was the greatest Ruler of the Roman Empire.

Question 39.
What was the original name of Augustus Caesar?
Answer:
Gaius Octavius.

Question 40.
What is the meaning of ‘Augustus’?
Answer:
Holy or dignity is the meaning of ‘Augustus’.

Question 41.
Who was the Emperor of Rome when Jesus Christ was born?
Answer:
Augustus Caesar was the Emperor of Rome when Jesus Christ was born.

Question 42.
Who shifted the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople?
Answer:
Emperor Constantine shifted the capital to Constantinople.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
What is the present-day name of Constantinople?
Answer:
Istanbul.

Question 44.
What was Justinian famous for?
Answer:
Justinian was famous for his code of Roman Law called the ‘Justinian Code’.

Question 45.
Who was the greatest Physician of Ancient Roman Empire?
Answer:
Galen.

Question 46.
Who was the first person to describe the symptoms of Diabetes and Diphtheria?
Answer:
Aretacus.

Question 47.
Who built the Saint Sophia Church at Constantinople?
Answer:
Emperor Constantine.

Question 48.
Where is the city of Rome located?
Answer:
The city of Rome is located on the Banks of River Tiber on the Palatine and six other Hills.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 49.
Which was the usual form of Government in Ancient Rome?
Answer:
Republic or Monarchy was the usual form of Government.

Question 50.
When was the Roman Republic established?
Answer:
Roman Republic was established around 509 BCE.

Question 51.
Who was a great General, Dictator, and Reformer of Ancient Rome?
Answer:
Julius Caesar.

Question 52.
What is Augustan age popularly called as?
Answer:
Augustan age is popularly called the ‘Golden age’ in the history of Rome.

1st PUC History Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name any two City-States of ancient Greece.
Answer:
Sparta, Athens, Macedonia, Corinth, and Thebes were the important City-States.

Question 2.
Name any two reforms introduced by Solon.
Answer:
He helped Athenian merchants by introducing Coin-Currency and encouraged foreign artisans to settle in Athens. He brought about a system by which the people as a whole gained the power of electing their magistrates and judging their work. His reforms benefitted both middle and poor class Athenians.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Mention any two reforms of Cleisthenes.
Answer:
Cleisthenes, from an influential family, broke the power of the ruling clans by granting citizenship rights to male adults. Thus poor people also got the right to vote. He reorganized the state on a democratic trend.

Question 4.
Where is the Parthenon temple? Who built it?
Answer:
Parthenon temple is in Athens. It was built by Pericles.

Question 5.
Name any two Dramatists of Periclean age.
Answer:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were the Dramatists of Periclean age.

Question 6.
Mention any two Philosophers of Periclean Age.
Answer:
Socrates and his pupil Plato were the great Philosophers during the age of Pericles.

Question 7.
Name any two important Historians of Periclean Age.
Answer:
Herodotus (485-425 B.C.E) who is regarded as the father of history and Thucycidides (471¬400 B.C.E) were two important Historians of the Periclean Age.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 8.
Name any two battles in which Alexander defeated the Persians.
Answer:
Alexander with his 35,000 soldiers, marched against the Persian empire. He defeated them in the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Arable.

Question 9.
Which are the two works of Homer?
Answer:
‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ were two of the works of Homer.

Question 10.
Who were the two lyric Poets of Greek Civilization?
Answer:
Pindar and Sappo were the two lyric Poets of Greek Civilization.

Question 11.
Name the two works of Aeschylus.
Answer:
‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’ were two of the works of Aeschylus.

Question 12.
Mention any two works of Sophocles.
Answer:
‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’ were the works of Sophocles.

Question 13.
Who were the famous mathematicians of ancient Greece?
Answer:
Pythagoras and Euclid who had made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry were the famous mathematicians.

Question 14.
Mention any two styles of ancient Greek Architecture.
Answer:
Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian were the styles of ancient Greek Architecture.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Mention any two important Philosophers of ancient Greece.
Answer:
The most famous Philosophers of ancient Greece were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Question 16.
Mention any two works of Plato.
Answer:
‘Republic’ and ‘The laws’ are two works of Plato.

Question 17.
Mention any two works of Aristotle.
Answer:
His important works are‘The Politics’ and ‘History of animals’.

Question 18.
What is classical Civilization?
Answer:
The term classical is used to typify the climax in the development of the ancient civilizations.

Question 19.
Write about Athenian Democracy.
Answer:
Athenians made remarkable progress in politics, laws, literature, art, science, and philosophy. Monarchy and Oligarchy did not suit their temperament and so were discarded and with the contributions of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes, Democracy came into existence in Athens.

Question 20.
Who was Draco?
Answer:
Draco was an Athenian nobleman who gave the Athenians a written code of laws. It provided-safety to the people from the tyranny of dishonest and corrupt judges but did nothing to help the poor farmers.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 21.
Who was Solon?
Answer:
Solon introduced constitutional reforms of democratic character in Athens which liberated the enslaved farmers from their debts and mortgages of land. He introduced Coin-Currency and encouraged foreign artisans to settle in Athens.

Question 22.
Who was Cleisthenes?
Answer:
Cleisthenes, from an influential Athenian family, broke the power of the ruling clans by granting citizenship rights to male adults. Poor people also got the right to vote and the tribal nature of the Government was brought to an end and the State was set on a democratic trend.

Question 23.
Name the great Greek Dramatists, who wrote tragic plays.
Answer:
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were the Greek Dramatists.

Question 24.
Which is regarded as the ‘School of Hellas’ and ‘The Golden Age’?
Answer:
Periclean age of Athens.

Question 25.
Which are the epics written by Homer?
Answer:
‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’.

Question 26.
What plays did the greatest Greek tragedian write?
Answer:
The greatest of the Greek tragedians, Sophocles wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 27.
Who founded the city of Rome?
Answer:
The city of Rome was founded by the twin brothers, Romulus, and Remus in 753 BCE, on the Palatine hill.

Question 28.
Name the ‘first Triumvirate’ of the Roman Empire.
Answer:
The first Triumvirate were Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus.

Question 29.
Which are the books written by Julius Caesar?
Answer:
Julius Caesar wrote ‘Gallic Wars’ and ‘Civil Wars’.

Question 30.
Name any two reforms introduced by Julius Caesar.
Answer:

  1. He increased the strength of the Senate and reduced its power.
  2. He distributed public lands and provided employment to the poor.
  3. He extended citizenship rights to provincial subjects.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 31.
Who Formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’?
Answer:
Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’.

Question 32.
What is Coliseum?
Answer:
Coliseum was an Amphitheatre in Rome for holding fights between Gladiators. It was built in 80CE by Emperor Vespasian. It could accommodate about 50000 people.

Question 33.
Mention the two important Generals of Augustus Caesar.
Answer:
Agrippa and Maecenas.

Question 34.
Name any four Poets or Historians who adorned the court of Augustus Caesar.
Answer:
Livy, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Pliny, and Tacitus were the ones.

Question 35.
What is Pax Romana?
Answer:
Pax Romana means Roman peace. The Roman Empire under Augustus Caesar brought about a period of great peace in the Mediterranean World as never before.

Question 36.
What are the ‘Twelve Tables’?
Answer:
Earlier, laws were interpreted by the priests. The first written code came in the form of ‘Twelve Tables’ in 150 BCE.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 37.
What is Jus Gentium?
Answer:
Jus Gentium was one part of the Roman law applying to foreigners in Rome and to others within Roman lands, who were not given citizenship.

Question 38.
Name any two historians of ancient Rome.
Answer:
Livy and Virgil.

Question 39.
What is Pantheon?
Answer:
It is the most famous and best-preserved of Roman buildings. It was built during the time of Augustus and later rebuilt during the time of Hadrian.

Question 40.
From where did the first inhabitants of Italy come?
Answer:
The first inhabitants of Italy came from North Africa, Spain, and France.

Question 41.
Name any two hills on which Rome was built.
Answer:

  1. The Palatine
  2. The Capitoline
  3. The Caelian
  4. The Esquiline
  5. The Aventine
  6. The Viminal
  7. The Quirinal. (Any two)

Question 42.
What is World State?
Answer:
Having a uniform system of administration and common laws in all the countries is the idea behind ‘World State’. This was first mooted by Alexander, and the Romans gave the first practical demonstration of it.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 43.
Who was Galen?
Answer:
He was the greatest Physician of the Roman period. Galen made a scientific study of the many parts of the human body and wrote on human anatomy. He was the first to discover the circulation of blood.

Question 44.
Who were Etruscans?
Answer:
They were a group of people who settled in around 1000 BCE on Tiber. They were skilled architects and engineers. Romans learnt from them how to drain swamps and to construct roads.

1st PUC History Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write a short note on City-States of ancient Greece.
Answer:
The city-state was the outstanding political achievement of the Greeks. Topographical features of the country and the tribal characteristics of the people were important factors in the development of the City-States. The Polis originated as a fortified site but later was interpreted as a Sovereign State. It included the fort, the city, and the surrounding country side. Around 800 B.C.E, a group of Greek villages began joining into larger units to form City-States.

At the highest point in a city-state, an Acropolis or Citadel was built for defence and the city spread around the Acropolis. Sparta, Athens, Macedonia, Corinth, and Thebes were important City-States. Though the Greek City-States were independent, jealous and quarrelsome, all the Greeks strongly believed that they were all Hellenes. Another bond that united them was the common language and literature. One more factor that united them was the worship of Gods like Zeus, Apollo, and Athena.

Question 2.
Explain briefly how democracy developed in Athens.
Answer:
At first, the City-States were ruled by Monarchs. Each Monarch began to govern his City State with the assistance of a council, consisting of nobles. Then wealthy land owners took over the political power and abolished Monarchy. With the increase in the population of the cities, trade, commerce and industry expanded and middle class developed.

This class joined with poor farmers to lessen the power of the land owners. This conflict resulted in the rise of. ‘Dictators’ or ‘Tyrants’ as Greeks called them. But there were changes particularly with regard to Sparta and Athens. Sparta turned into a Military State, her government was ruled by few nobles. Two of these nobles became Kings.

Athens registered a remarkable progress in Politics, Laws, Literature, Art, Science and Philosophy. Athenians were fond of trying political experiments. Monarchy and Oligarchy did not suit their temperament. So they discarded them. With the contributions of law givers like Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes, democracy came into existence at Athens.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 3.
Why is the Periclean age called as the Golden Age?
Answer:
Athenian democracy reached its greatest height, under the leadership of Pericles. He was a great radical in politics. It was he who completed the work of laying the foundation for democracy in Athens. He deprived the ‘Areopagus’ of its political powers and transferred the same to the council of five hundred. This body suggested measures to the Acclesia the assembly. It was freely discussed by all the citizens of Athens and laws were passed.

Another important feature of the Periclean age was the jury system. Every year about 5000 jurors were elected for a term of one year. Being a great lover of democracy, he wanted even the poorest citizen to take an interest in political affairs. This is what we call today, the Direct Democracy.

Athens which was destroyed during the Persian war was rebuilt by Pericles. Athens became a centre of progress in art and architecture. Very large public buildings were constructed, which beautified Athens. The famous Parthenon or the temple of Virgin was built of coloured marble stones. It was the most beautiful temple. Pericles also patronized music.

To protect his beautiful city from foreign invaders, he built Tong walls’ connecting the city with the port Piraeus. The age of Pericles produced great Philosophers like Socrates and his pupil, Plato. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were the dramatists of Periclean age. Hippocrates is regarded as the ‘Father of Medicine’. Herodotus is regarded as ‘The Father of History’. Thucycidides was another famous historian of the Periclean age. Sappho and Pindar lived during this period. Periclean age of Athens is regarded as the ‘School of Hellas’ and ‘The Golden Age’.

Question 4.
What are the contributions of the Greeks to Literature?
Answer:
In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two works of Homer. These Epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek Culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics. Pindar and Sappo were the two lyric poets of Greek Civilization. The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The remains of Greek theatres can be still be seen all over the Aegean region.

The founder of Greek tragedy was Aeschylus, author of ‘Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today. Euripides the third of the great tragic Poets believed that in life people were more important than Gods.

Hence he concerned himself with the passions and emotions of human beings. One of his best-known plays is the ‘Trojan Women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet. World’s first great historian Herodotus, Thucydides who wrote he “Peloponnesian Wars’ and Plutarch known for his biographies ‘Lives of illustrious men’ all lived during this period. Oratory is the art of making public speeches. The most famous orator was Demosthenes.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 5.
Briefly explain the contributions of the Greeks to Science.
Answer:
Greek Philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study Of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle established Botany as a recognized science. The Periclean age produced great men. Hippocrates laid the foundations for modern Medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and are not caused by evil spirits, as many believed in those days. He is known as the ‘Father of Medicine’. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.

Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of Earth within a small degree of error of 320 Kilometres. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing west. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.

Question 6.
What are the contributions of the Greeks to Art and Architecture?
Answer:
In the early times, the Greeks used wood, and later they used sun-dried bricks and marbles to built their temples. The Greek architecture consists of three styles namely Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian styles. The Parthenon is said to be the most beautiful temple ever built out of the coloured marble stones. We find a tall marble statue of Goddess Athena carved by Phidias inside the temple.

The temple consists of 46 Doric columns, each 34 feet high. Actinus the famous architect of this temple blended Doric, Ionian and Corinthian styles to make this temple a wonder of the world. It was built by King Pericles. The majestic and beautiful temple is now in ruins. Alexander’s conquest initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia. The Gandhara art in Ancient India developed due to the Greek influence.

The Greeks expressed the human values like beauty and courage in the sculptures. They portrayed naked, well built and muscular bodies. Even Gods were portrayed as human beings. Myron and Phidias were the best-known sculptors. Myron is famous for the Statue of Discus Thrower. Greeks also excelled in Paintings on vases.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 7.
Explain the religion of the ancient Greeks.
Answer:
Ideas and practices of the Greeks in the field of religion were quite different from those of other people in the world. They did not believe in God. On the other hand, they tended to glorify men who were powerful and beautiful. The Greek Gods were the Twelve Olympians of them three were very important, Zeus, Apollo, and Athena.

Zeus was the master of God’s and father of men. Apollo was the son of Zeus. Athena was the Protectress of cities. They had their abode at Mount Olympus. Greeks believe that they would often visit the earth. Unlike other religions, the Greeks had no established Church or any particular Holy Book. The Greeks practiced the celebration of festival Olympia as early as 776 BCE. The Oracles were specially sought after to predict events or to pronounce judgment. The Oracle Apollo of Delphi was the most famous.

Question 8.
Why is Aristotle regarded as the ‘Walking University’?
Answer:
The greatest of Greek philosophers was Aristotle, a student of Plato at his Academy and he was the teacher of Alexander the Great. He was both a Philosopher and a Scientist and wrote on many subjects. He is regarded as the father of three branches of knowledge, namely Philosophy, Biology and Political Science. He said that ‘Man is a social animal’. He encouraged constitutional Governments. He classified and organized the different branches of knowledge segregating Physics, Metaphysics, Logic, and Ethics. His important works were ‘The Politics’ and ‘History of Animals’. That is why he is considered as the ‘Walking University’.

Question 9.
Explain briefly the Roman wars with Carthage.
Ans.
The wars between the Roman Republic and Carthage (near modern Tunis) were called as the Punic Wars. It was the struggle for the supremacy over the Western Mediterranean region. This was a long drawn conflict and took place in three stages. (264-146 BCE).

The first Punic war was basically a naval war, in which Rome emerged triumphant. In the second Punic war, Carthage was led by the brilliant General Hannibal. He scored many ouTstanding victories, but could not capture Rome. The Romans adopted a sort of guerrilla warfare and delaying tactics. Finally, Carthaginians were decisively beaten and Hannibal committed suicide. In the third Punic war, Rome invaded Carthage and totally destroyed them. Rome became the undisputed master of the Mediterranean.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 10.
Write a short note on Julius Caesar.
Ans.
Julius Caesar was a great General, Dictator, Reformer and the symbol of ancient Rome. He was bold and powerful. Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate.

They divided the Empire among themselves:
Caesar in Gaul, Crassus in Parthia (Iran) and Pompey in Spain and ruled the Roman Empire. Pompey and Caesar were at loggerheads and Crassus had acted as a mediator between them. The Triumvirate disintegrated after Crassus’s death. Caesar was victorious in several battles in Gaul and Britain. He advanced towards east and overthrew his opponents in Asia Minor. This was the occasion, he sent his famous message to the Senate “Vini, Vidi Vici”, which means “I came, I saw, I conquered”.

Pompey looked upon Caesar’s progress with suspicion and envy. He asked Caesar to return to Rome without his army. Caesar forestalled Pompey, reached Rome and defeated him at Pharsalus. Later, chased Pompey to Egypt where he was killed. Egypt under Queen Cleopatra became an ally of Rome. Later Caesar became the Dictator of Rome. But he was murdered in 44 BCE by the Liberators-headed by Brutus in a Senate meeting.

Caesar increased the strength of the Senate and reduced its power. He distributed public lands and provided employment to the poor.

His reforms include the following:
Improvement in Agriculture, reduction of taxes, removal of corrupt and oppressive Governors, and improvement in the coinage system and the introduction of the Julian calendar. He was also a great orator and a writer.

Question 11.
Explain briefly the rise of Eastern Roman Empire.
Ans.
Most of the immediate successors of Augustus Caesar except for Marcus Aurelius were weak, incompetent and tyrants. Caligula and Nero were the worst examples for a bad Ruler. Roman Civilization was on a decline and Diocletian and his successors checked it to some extent.

Emperor Constantine shifted the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople, a city named after him in 330 CE which marked the beginning of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantinople was built on the ancient site of Byzantium which is now called Istanbul, located in Turkey. He issued the edict of Milan, which granted liberty to Christians to profess their religion and began the Christianization of the Empire.

Justinian was the last great Emperor who had control over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Empire. His long-lasting achievements were the ‘Justinian code’ and his buildings in Constantinople. The Eastern Roman Empire with Constantinople as its capital continued to exist till it was overthrown by the Turks in 1453 CE.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 12.
What is Pax Romana? Explain.
Ans.
The Roman Empire covered a vast stretch of territory that touched three continents namely Europe, Asia, and Africa. The establishment of the Empire brought about great peace over these places, called Pax Romana, which made the growth of Roman civilization possible. The entire Mediterranean world was a place of constant wars and battles among the petty Rulers. Rome with the might of its army maintained peace there.

For about two centuries from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius the Empire enjoyed peace. As a result, trade and commerce flourished. People began to lead a prosperous life because of peace and prosperity. Cities were built, temples were constructed and remarkable development took place. Roman citizenship was granted to all those who came under the hegemony of Rome. It was a guarantee enough for them to be treated on par with all the others.

Question 13.
Write a short note on Roman law.
Ans.
The most outstanding intellectual contribution of Romans was the formation of a body of laws. Their laws have made a profound impact on almost all the civilized nations of the world today. It was largely their system of law and administration that enabled the Romans to maintain order over a vast Empire which the Greeks were unable to do. Laws encouraged travel and boosted trade. English words like Taw’, ‘legal’, ‘legislation’, ‘Justice’, ‘equality’ and ‘judge’, have all been derived from Latin. Much of the early laws were interpreted by priests. The first written code came in the form of Twelve Tables in 150 BCE. In order to keep abreast of changing economic conditions, the commercial transactions were legalised and all were equal before law.

Roman law can be divided into two parts.

1. The Jus-civil law, which applied only to Roman citizens.

2. Jus Gentium, originally applying to foreigners in Rome and to others within Roman lands, codified by the great Roman Emperor Justinian. Rome saw a series of legal reforms and the creation of principles of legal science. Practically all the later legal systems-from the common law of England to the Napoleonic code owed much to the Roman legal systems.

Question 14.
What are the contributions of Romans to language and literature?
Ans.
Latin was the language of the ancient Roman Empire. It belongs to the family of Indo-European languages. The native sons of Latium saw the superiority of the Greek languages and proceeded to use its style, formulating their own. Before the fall of Rome, Latin became the accepted language of much of the civilized world. Latin remained the language of the Church, science, medicine, law, and education. It was used for most of the written transactions in Europe, throughout the middle ages.

In the field of literature, the Romans tried to imitate the Greeks. The ‘Golden Age’ of Latin literature was heralded in the Prose works of Cicero and the Poetry of Catullus and Lucretius. Julius Caesar wrote ‘Gallic Wars’ and ‘Civil wars’. The dawn of Augustinian age saw writings of Virgil, Horace, Livy, and Ovid, Virgil has been given the title, the most splendid ‘Voice of Rome’.

He wrote ‘Aeneid’. Augustinian age saw the Lyrics of Horace and the ‘Natural History’ of Livy. Livy’s another great work was ‘History ”of Rome’. The ‘Silver Age’ (198 BCE- 138 CE) saw the Tragedies of Seneca, the Satire of Juvenal and the sceptical Histories of Tacitus. Tacitus also wrote ‘Annals’ and, ‘Histories’. Pliny, the Elder wrote ‘Natural History’. The other well-known Historians were Sallust and Plutarch. Marcus Aurelius wrote ‘Meditation’ and was a great orator on philosophy.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 15.
Explain briefly the contributions of Romans to Science.
Ans.
Roman Contributions in science were very limited. Most of the conclusions reached by Roman scientists were philosophical, and not the result of careful experimentation. They were the first to provide free medicine to poor patients. They maintained personal cleanliness, and for this purpose they built baths. They constructed hospitals and patients were treated by qualified Physicians.

The greatest Physician was Galen (130-200 CE). He wrote on Human Anatomy and Physiology. The knowledge of Human Anatomy enabled them to conduct operations and to remove goitres and tonsils. Galen was one of the first to discover the circulation of blood. The ‘Natural History’ of Pliny was a large Compendium of all known Science. Aretacus was the first to describe the symptoms of Diabetes and Diphtheria. The Romans borrowed the Etruscan rotation system, but it was not developed much above the level of arithmetic. Roman numerals I, X, L, C, etc. are still used today. The ancient Romans used numerals for commercial mathematics.

Question 16.
What are the contributions of Ancient Romans to Art and Architecture?
Ans.
The Romans were stupendous builders. Temples, Theatres, fine Public Buildings, Baths, and homes were built in large numbers. Pompey’s Theatre (55 BCE) was a magnificent structure. Augustus erected the Imperial Palace on the Palatine, one of the seven Hills of Rome. Vespasian built the Coliseum, where gladiatorial contests were held. Probably the most famous and best-preserved of Roman buildings is the Pantheon. It was originally built during the time of Augustus and it was fully rebuilt during the time of Hadrian. Justinian Church of Saint Sophia at Constantinople is still regarded as the most magnificent building of its kind in the near east. Romans were the inventors of concrete. They also introduced two architectural improvements.

  1. Arches
  2. Cupolas or Domes.

An efficient water distribution system and well paved and durable roads are examples of Roman engineering. Roads were primarily built for the movement of armies and for trade with distant parts of the world. So complete was Rome’s system of roads, linking all parts of the Empire, that there is a saying that ‘All roads lead to Rome’. Frontinus wrote a pioneering work on engineering.

Romans developed their sculptures on Greek models. Buildings were decorated with Sculptures and Bas Reliefs. Most of the Sculptures depicted Emperors, placed in-City squares as symbols of their authority and power. The Unknown Roman is the best-known example of their. sculpture. Most of the Roman paintings have disappeared. The best of the surviving murals are found in Pompeii. The art of painting was revived through Christian influence in Church Frescoes in the later period.

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Question 17.
Write about the History of Rome.
Ans.
The city of Rome was founded by the twin brothers, Romulus, and Remus in 753 BCE, on the Palatine hill on the banks of river Tiber. It was named Rome (Roma) after Romulus. In its early history, Italy faced formidable enemies such as Aquinas, Etruscans, and Volscians. Under the leadership of Romulus, their attacks were effectively repulsed. But the Gauls attacked Rome and the city was burnt down. It was rebuilt later.

Republic or Monarchy was the usual form of Government. Roman Republic was supposed to have been established around 509 BCE. Even though it was a Republic, real power was enjoyed by the Patricians, the Aristocrats. The Plebeians comprised of the workers, small farmers, artisans, small traders, and soldiers. The Senate enjoyed the most important position. Rome fought the Punic wars with Carthage and destroyed it. The City of Rome expanded into an Empire.

A powerful Oligarchy dominated the Senate and the powerful army created super Generals like Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Caesar. Marius became a Dictator of Rome. Later, the ‘First Triumvirate’ of Crassus, Pompey and Caesar took over. Caesar defeated Pompey and*became the Dictator. Julius Caesar brought in many reforms. After he was killed by the Brutus led Liberators, Augustus Caesar became the Emperor and took the Roman Empire to greater heights.

Question 18.
Write about the Rise of Dictatorship in Rome.
Ans.
The city of Rome expanded into an Empire. But it was still called Rome. In the Senate a powerful Oligarchy dominated. Misgovernment and despotism became common features in parts of the Empire. The Roman army which was now professional created super Generals like Marius, Sulla, Pompey, and Caesar. Marius was the first of the new leaders of Rome. He became a Dictator of Rome and one-man rule took root with him. After Marius, it was the turn of Sulla and he acted like a Monarch. Then came the ‘First Triumvirate’ of Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar.

1st PUC History Establishment of Greek and Roman Empires – Contributions Ten Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the achievements of Pericles.
Answer:
Athenian democracy reached its greatest height, under the leadership of Pericles. He was a great radical in politics. He was the great-grandson of Clisthenes. It was he who completed the work of laying the foundation for democracy in Athens. He deprived the ‘Areopagus’ the legislative body of its political powers and transferred the same to the council of five hundred.

This body suggested measures to the Acclesia- the Assembly. It was freely discussed by all the citizens of Athens and laws were passed. A board of ten Generals elected by the Assembly acted as a kind of Cabinet. Pericles was the President of this board. The generals were responsible to the Assembly and thus could not become Dictators.

Another important feature of the Periclean age was the jury system. Every year about 5000 jurors were elected for a term of one year. Being a great lover of democracy, he wanted even the poorest citizen to take interest in the political affairs of the State. This was the forerunner for the present day’s Direct Democracy.

Athens which was destroyed during the Persian war was rebuilt by Pericles. Athens became a centre of progress in Art and Architecture. Very large public buildings were constructed, which beautified Athens. The famous Parthenon or the temple of Virgin was built of coloured marble stones. It was the most beautiful temple. To protect this beautiful city from foreign invaders, he built ‘Longwalls’ connecting the city with the port Piraeus.

Pericles patronised music and artistes. The age of Pericles produced great Philosophers like Socrates and his pupil, Plato. It was the Golden age of Greek plays. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides were the great dramatists who wrote tragic plays. Hippocrates who is regarded as the Father of Medicine, Herodotus who is regarded as the Father of History and Thucycidides another famous historian all lived under the patronage of Pericles.

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Question 2.
Discuss the contributions of Greeks.
Answer:
1. Cultural Contributions:
The Greeks contributed to human civilization immensely. They believed in the principles of a sound mind in a sound body. They imagined the human body as a thing of beauty and had great curiosity and thirst for knowledge. They made great contributions to Literature, Sports, Philosophy, Politics, Ethics, Science, Music, Drama, . Religion, Art and Architecture. Greek ideology so completely dominated European culture that, the western culture today is predominantly Hellenic in its inspiration and ideas. So the legacy of Greece is vital and universal.

2. Literature:
In the field of literature, Greeks contributed to Epics, Poetry, Drama and History. ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ are the two works of Homer. These epics give us a fairly faithful account of the social, economic and political conditions of early Greek culture. The shorter Greek poems were called Lyrics, as they were primarily sung to the music of lyres. Pindar and Sappo the poetess were two great lyric poets of Greek Civilization.

The drama is the most familiar of the Greek forms of literature. The founder of Greek tragedy was Aeschylus, author of Prometheus Bound’ and ‘Agamemnon’. Sophocles, the greatest of the Greek tragedians, wrote ‘Oedipus Rex’, ‘Antigone’ and ‘Electra’. These plays are admired all over the world even today. Euripides the third of the great tragic poets, believed that in life people were more important than Gods. Hence he concerned himself with the passions and. emotions of human beings. One of his best-known plays is the ‘Trojan women’. Aristophanes was the greatest comic poet. Famous historians of the period were Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plutarch. Demosthenes was famous for his oratory skills, the art of making public speeches.

3. Science:
Greek philosophers furnished the impetus for the beginning of the study of science. Aristotle laid the foundation for the study of natural science. Theophrastus established Botany as a recognized science. Hippocrates known as the ‘Father of Medicine’ laid the foundations . of modern medicine. He taught that diseases have a natural origin and not caused by evil spirits. Herophilus is called as the ‘Father of Anatomy’.

Ptolemy believed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. But Aristarchus propounded the theory that Earth and other planets, revolved around the Sun. Eratosthenes calculated the approximate circumference of earth within a small error of 320 Kilometres. He also prepared a fairly accurate map of the world and he was the first to suggest that one could reach India from Europe by sailing westwards. Pythagoras and Euclid made many contributions to mathematics, especially to Geometry. Archimedes was also a famous scientist of ancient Greece.

4. Art and architecture:
In the early times, the Greeks used wood, and later they used sun-dried bricks and marbles to build their temples. Greek architecture consists of three styles viz., Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian styles. The Parthenon is said to be the most beautiful temple ever built out of the coloured marble stones. A tall marble statue of Goddess Athena carved by Phidias is inside the temple. The temple consists of 46 Doric columns, each 34 feet high Actinus, the famous architect of this temple blended Doric, Ionian, and Corinthian styles to make this temple a wonder of the world.

It was built by King Pericles. Alexander’s conquest initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia. The Gandhara art in Ancient India developed due to Greek influence. The Greeks expressed the human values like beauty and courage in their sculptures. They portrayed naked, well built and muscular bodies. Even Gods were portrayed as human beings. Myron and Philidias were the best-known sculptors. Greeks also excelled in Paintings on vases.

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Question 3.
Write about Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.E).
Answer:
Alexander is one of the greatest names in the history of the world. He owed much to his father Philip II of Macedonia. He became greater than his father. He succeeded his father at the age of 20 and wanted to conquer the world.

He was tutored by one of the greatest Philosophers, Aristotle. He compelled the entire Greece to accept his leadership with his martial skills and industriousness. With 35,000 soldiers, he marched against the Persian Empire and defeated them in the battles of Granicus, Issus, and Arable.

Alexander conquered Egypt and built a new city called ‘Alexandria’ at the mouth of Nile delta. With this success, he marched into India, across the Karakorum Mountains. He defeated King Porus in the battle of ‘Hydaspes’ or battle of Jhelum (326 B.C.E). He sailed down of Indus, but he could not bring his Indian campaign to a victorious conclusion.

The army exhausted, refused to march forward. They were scared of facing the powerful Nandas. His efforts to inspire the soldiers to continue the expeditions became futile. At the height of his power, he died of fever at the age of 33 in Babylon.

Alexander’s concept of World Empire could not stand the test of time, as it had no firm political or economic basis. Nevertheless, he aided in the admirable task of spreading Hellenic civilization. He founded nearly seventy cities. He and his soldiers married Persian women and worshipped Persian Gods.

He encouraged Greek merchants to trade with Asiatic countries. A happy union of east and west led to the development of Greece- oriental culture. Alexander’s conquest initiated several centuries of cultural exchange between Greece and Central Asia. The Gandhara School of Architecture of Ancient India developed due to the Greek influence.

Question 4.
Explain the life and achievements of Augustus Caesar.
Answer:
He was a great ruler and a wise Statesman. After several years of political turmoil, Rome enjoyed more than three decades of peace. He not only built an Empire but also was a great patron of Art and Literature. His reign is called as the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. Julius Caesar’s assassination by the Brutus led Liberators, caused great political and social turmoil in Rome. The power passed into the hands of Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian who formed the ‘Second Triumvirate’.

The conspirators were defeated in the battle of Philippi and Brutus and Cassius were killed. The Triumvirate divided the Empire amongst themselves-Lepidus was in charge of Africa, Antony ruled in the Eastern Province and Octavian remained in Italy and controlled Gaul (France and Belgium). However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony deteriorated. Lepidus was forced to retire (after betraying Octavian in Sicily). Antony was living in Egypt and in the battle of ‘Actium’ was defeated by Octavian.

With the conquest of Egypt, anew Era began for Romans. By 27 BCE, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. His leadership brought the Zenith to Roman civilization that lasted for two centuries. He ruled the Roman Empire for 44 years with the titles ‘Augustus’, ‘Imperator’ and ‘Princeps’.

The Government established by him was known as the ‘Principate’- ‘Government by the Princeps’ – The first citizen.
Augustus introduced many reforms which had far-reaching consequences in Rome. He gave, ‘A centre to the System, a Chief to the Civil service, a Head to the Army, a Sovereign to the Subjects, a Protector to the Provinces and Peace to the Empire’.

He recognized the Governments of the conquered territories, stopped plunder and corruption and strengthened law and order. New Courts and Postal Services were established. Augustus continued the calendar promoted by Julius Caesar and the month ‘August’ is named after him. The Emperor kept the poor people happy by supplying food grains.

He spent money lavishly on the construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, amphitheaters, and fountains. The most important Amphitheatre was the Coliseum built at Rome. This could accommodate about 50000 people. Due to the construction of the well-paved interlinking system of roads, Rome became the nerve centre of trade and commerce in the Mediterranean world.

He maintained diplomatic and commercial contacts with a number of countries including India and China. There were the Generals Agrippa and Maecenas, and Writers, Poets, and Historians like Livy, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Pliny and Tacitus in his time. Jesus Christ was born during his reign.

Augustan age is popularly called as ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Rome. It was known for peace and prosperity. This period is known as ‘Pax Romana’ or Roman peace. He gave the idea of the ‘World State’. His imperial system lasted for nearly 500 years and saved the great treasures of Greco-Roman civilization.

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Question 5.
Describe the contributions of Roman Civilization.
Answer:
It is said that but for the Romans, the Greek culture would not have spread to the Western World. Directly or indirectly, Romans acted as the agents. Rome has made its own distinct contributions such as the formation of Republics and Governments. Laws, Legal procedures and Systems, Principles of Taxation, Citizenship Rights, Setting up of Hospitals and Sanitation Systems and construction of Public Buildings and Baths.

The greatest gift of the Romans was the ‘Pax Romana’ or the Roman Peace. The Roman Empire covered a vast stretch of territory touching three continents, namely Europe, Africa, and Asia. By the might of its army, Rome gave peace to the entire Mediterranean World. Prior to that, it was a place of constant wars between the petty Rulers.

But for the peaceful atmosphere, the growth of the Roman Civilization would not have been possible. It was Romans who gave the first practical demonstration of the idea of ‘World State’. They showed the world not only how to build an Empire, but also how to Govern it efficiently. They introduced a uniform system of Administration and common laws throughout the Empire.

The most outstanding intellectual contribution of the Romans was the formation of a body of laws. These laws have made a profound impact on almost all the civilized nations of the world today. Earlier, it was the Priests who were interpreting the laws for the common people.

The first written code came in the form of ‘Twelve Tables’ in 150 B.C. It established ‘Equality before Law’. It was of two parts Jus Civile applied to the Roman citizens and Jus Gentium applicable to all living on Roman lands that were not given citizenship. Justinian codified them completely.

Romans were the inventors of concrete. They introduced Arches and Cupolas (Domes) in their Architecture and built many fine Public Buildings, Amphitheatres and Temples. The Coliseum built by Vespasian and the Pantheon are fine examples for that. Romans built miles and miles of very good, well-paved highways like Via Appia, Via Latina and Via Valeria.

The roads were for the fast movement of their armies across the Empire and for trade with distant parts. Their system of interlinking roads connecting Rome with all the major parts of their Empire and the importance of Rome gave rise to the saying that “All roads lead to Rome”.

Roman Contributions in science were very limited. Most of the conclusions reached by Roman scientists were philosophical, and not the result of careful experimentation. They were the first to provide free medicine to poor patients. They maintained personal cleanliness, and for this purpose they built baths. They constructed hospitals and patients were treated by qualified physicians.

The greatest physician was Galen (130-200 CE). He wrote on Human Anatomy and Physiology. The knowledge of human Anatomy enabled them to conduct operations and to remove goitres and tonsils. Galen was one of the first to discover the circulation of blood. The natural history of Pliny is a large Compendium of all known science. Aretacus was the first to describe the symptoms of diabetes and diphtheria. The Romans borrowed the Etruscan rotation system, but it was not developed much above the level of arithmetic.

Roman numerals like I, X, L, C, etc. are used even today. The ancient Romans used numerals for commercial mathematics. Most of the Roman paintings have disappeared. The best of the surviving murals are found in Pompeii. The art of painting was revived through Christian influence in Church Frescoes in the later period.