1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2015 (North)

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Karnataka 1st PUC Sociology Previous Year Question Paper March 2015 (North)

Time: 3 Hrs 15 Min
Max. Marks: 100

I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:  ( 10 × 1 = 10 )

Question 1.
How is the term Sociology derived?
The term “Sociology” is derived from latin word “SOCIUS” means “Companion” or “Associate” and Greek word “LOGOS” means “Science” or “Study”.


Question 2.
What is conflict?
“Conflict is the deliberate attempt to oppose, resist or coerce the will of another or others”.

Question 3.
What is co-operation?
Co-operation is one of the basic pervasive and continuous social process. It generally means “working together for the pursuit of the common goal”.

Question 4.
What is monogamy?
Monogamy is type of marriage where a man marries only one woman.

Question 5.
Who introduced the concept cultural tag?
Ogburn and Nimkoff introduced the concept cultural tag.

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Question 6.
What is Socialization?
Socialization begins almost at birth and continues throughout life.

Question 7.
What is Primary Data?
The major sources of primary data are Observation, Interview and Questionnaire.

Question 8.
State two types of Observation.
Control led observation and uncontrolled observation.

Question 9.
What is Progress?
The Progress means to a forward movement or an intended Growth.

Question 10.
What is Acid Rainfall?
Factories and vehicles excrete sulphuric, Nitrogen oxides. These remain the environment for longtime. By chemical and photo chemical reactions, sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed and combines with water vapors in the environment. This is called ‘Acid Rain’.

II. Answer any Ten of the following questions in Two sentences each. (10 × 2 = 20 )

Question 11.
Name the Two books of August Comte.
Positive philosophy and positive politics.

Question 12.
Mention any two types of Co-operation.
Assimilation is the fusion or blending of two or more previously distinct groups into one.

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Question 13.
What is Assimilation?
Indirect Secondary Co-operation.

Question 14.
Mention any two types of Competition.
Social Competition and Economic Competition.

Question 15.
What is In-group?
In group is one to which an individual belongs, or feels that he belongs.

Question 16.
Define Association.
“An association is an organization deliberately formed for the collective pursuit of some interest or a set of interests, which its members share”.

Question 17.
What is Global Village?
Communication skills, transportation methods changed to such extent that today human world is called as global village.

Question 18.
What is material culture?
According to Og bum material Culture includes all the man made concrete, tangible, visible things. They include for example the house, buildings, furniture, automobiles, machine, dams, locomotives etc.

Question 19.
Is Culture an inborn trait?
Culture is learnt.

Question 20.
Mention two types of Interviews?
Structuced Interview and Unstructuced Interview.

Question 21.
What is Ozone Layer?
Ozone layer is a natural protation. This gas layer protects the Earth from Sun’s ultraviolet rays entering it.

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Question 22.
What is Water Pollution?
Any activity of human begins resulting in variations in the water quality is known as water pollution. –

III. Answer any Four question in Fifteen sentences each: ( 5 × 4 = 20 )

Question 23.
Examine briefly the nature and characteristics of Sociology,
The nature and characteristics of sociology can be summarised in the following way :
Sociology is an Independent Science: Sociology is not treated and studied as a branch of any other Science like philosophy or political philosophy. As an independent science it has its own subject matter, theories and method of approach.

Sociology is a Social Science not a physical Science: Sociology belongs to the Social Science and not to the physical science. As a Social Science it concentrates its attention on man, his Social behaviour, Social activities and Social life. It is intimately related to other social Sciences like anthropology, Political Science, economics, and Psychology, etc.

Sociology is a categorical not a Normative Discipline: Sociology Studies things “as it is” and “not as they ought to be”. As a Science, Sociology is necessarily silent about the questions of value. It does not make any kind of value-judgements. Its approaches neither moral nor immoral but amoral. It is ethically neutral. It cannot decide the directions in which Sociology ought to go. Sociology is a pure Science not an Applied science: Sociology is a pure science, because the immediate aim of Sociology is the acquisition of knowledge.

On the contrary an applied science is interested in the application or utilization of that knowledge. Sociologists never determine questions of public policy and do not recommend legislators what laws should be passed or repealed. But the knowledge acquired by a Sociologist is of great help to the administrator, legislators, diplomats, teachers, Social workers, & citizens, Sociology is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science Sociology does not confine itself to the study of particular or concrete instances of human events.

But it. studies the abstract forms of human events and their patterns. For example, it does not limit ‘ itself to the Study of any particular war or revolution. On the contrary it deals with them in a general or abstract manner, as Social phenomena, i.e., as types of Social conflict. In a similar manner, it makes such generalized Studies of marriage, religion, family, group, etc.

Sociology is a Generalising and not a particularising science: Sociology tries to make generalizations on the basis of the study of some selected events. For example, a Sociologist make generalizations on the following:

  1. Joint families are more stable than the nuclear families.
  2. Social changes tale place with greater rapidity in urban communities than in tribal or rural communities.

Sociology is a General Social Science and not a special Social Science: The area of enquiry of Sociology is general and not specialized. It is concerned with human activities whether they are political, economic, religious, social, etc., in a general way.

Finally Sociology is both an Empirical and a Rational Science: Sociology is an empirical science because it emphasises the facts that result from observation and experimentation, it rests on trial, or experiment or experience. It is a rational Science because it stresses the role of reasoning and logical inferences. An empiricist collects facts where as a rationalist co-ordinates and arranges them. All modern science including Sociology avail themselves of both empirical and rational resources.

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Question 24.
Explain any five features of Culture.
According to Malinowski: “culture is the handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends”

Characteristics of culture are:

Culture is learnt: Culture is often understood as learned ways of behaviors. Culture is not an inborn tendency. It is acquired or learnt. It includes those learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore what is learned through socialization and are acquired in group life are what is called culture.

Culture is Social: Culture is not the property of any individual. It is the social heritage of man. It is a way of group life. It originates in and develops through social interaction. It consists of a number of behavior patterns that are common to a group of people. It is the inclusive of all expectation of the members of the groups. Thus culture is a social products shared by most of the members of the group.

Culture is Shared: Culture is a social property. It belongs to the group. The elements of culture such as customs beliefs, idea, folkways, mores, and language are all belonged to the people of a group. These are commonly shared by the members of a group. So culture is the product of groups life. Culture cannot be hidden and used by one individual. According to Robert Bierstadt. “Culture is something adopted, used believed, practiced or possessed by more than one person”.

Culture is Transmissive: Culture is the total social heritage. It is linked with the past. The past continues because it lives in culture. Culture is something that can be transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture is passed through language. Language is the chief vehicles of culture. Culture is also passed from one generation to another through traditions and customs. It is a product of human experience.

Question 25.
Explain the types of Conflict by Georg Simmel.
Types of conflict:

George Simmel has distinguished four types of conflict (a) war (b) feud or rational strife (c) litigation (d) conflict of impersonal ideas.

War: According to Simmel war represents a deep seated antagonistic impulse in men. But to bring out this impulse into action some define objectives is needed. The objective may be the desire to gain material interests.

Feud and factional strife: This is an intra-group conflict. It may arise because of injustice alleged to have been done by one group to another.

Litigation: Litigation is a judicial form of conflict. It is ajudicial struggle by an individual or group to protect right to possessions. This kind of conflict is more objectives in nature.

Conflict of impersonal ideas: This is a conflict carried on by the individuals not for themselves but for an ideal. In such a conflict each party attempts to justify truthfulness of its own ideas. For ex, the communists and Capitalists carry on conflicts to prove that their own system can bring in a better world order.

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Question 26.
Describe the Characteristics of Marriage.
The characteristics of marriage are:

Marriage is more or less a universal institutional: It is found among the pre¬literate as well as literate people. It is enforced as a social rule in some of the societies. For example. In Japan celibacy is publicly condemned. In Korea, unmarried individual are called‘Half’persons. Among the Hindus, marriage is a sacrament which is regarded as more or less obligatory.

The Todas of Nilagiri refuse to perform funeral rites for a girl if she dies before her marriage. But they do perform it after completing some sort of marriage ceremony for the corpse. According to the Chinese philosopher Confucius, an individual who remains unmarried throughout his life commits a crime.

Relationship between Man and Woman: Marriage is a union of man and woman. It indicates a relationship between one or more men to one or more women. Who should marry whom? One should marry how many? Are the questions which represent social rules regarding marriage differ significantly.

Marital bond is relatively durable: Marriage indicates a long lasting bond between the husband and wife. Hence, it is not co-extensive with sex life. It excludes relationships with prostitutes or any other sexual relationship which is viewed as casual and not sanctioned by custom, law or church. Marital relationship between man and women lasts even after the sexual satisfaction is obtained.

Marriage requires social approval: A union of man and woman becomes a marital bond only when the society gives its approval. When marriage is given the hallmark of social approval, it becomes a legal contract.

Marriage is associated with some civil or religious ceremony: Marriage gets its social recognition through some ceremony. This ceremony may have its own rites, rituals, customs, formalities, etc, it means marriage has to be concluded in public and in a solemn manner. Sometimes as s sacrament it receives the blessing of religion. Marriage among the Hindus, for examples, is regarded as a sacrament. It is connected with the sacred rituals such as- Vagdana. Homa, Kanyadana, Magalia Dharana, Saptapadi, Ashmarohana, etc

Marriage creates mutual obligations: Marriage imposes certain rights and duties on both the husband and wife. Both are required to support each other and their children.

Question 27.
Briefly explain the Primary functions of Family.
The primary functions are;

Member replacement and physical maintenance: In order to survive, every society must replace members who die and keep the survivors alive. The regulations of reproduction is centered in the family as are cooking and eating and care of the sick. Once children are born, they will be nurtured and protected within the family. It is the family that feeds, clothes and shelters them.

Regulation of sexual behavior:The family regulates sexual behavior. Each member’s sexual behavior is influenced to some extent by what is learnt in the family setting. The sexual attitudes and patterns of behavior in the family reflects societal norms and regulate the sexual behavior,

Socialization of children: The family carries out the responsibility of socializing each child. Children are taught largely by their families to conform to socially approved patterns of behavior. The family as an act of instrument of transmission of culture, it serves the individual as an instrument of socialization.

Status transmission: Individual social identity is initially fixed by family membership being bom to parents of a given status. Children take on the socio-economic class standing of their parents and the culture of the class into which they are born, including its value, behavior patterns, in addition to the internalizing family attitudes and beliefs. Children are treated and defined by others as extensions of the social identity of their parents.

Emotional support: The family as a primary group is an important source of affecting entertainment love and interaction, caring. It is seemingly the nature of human begins to establish social interdependency, not only to meet physical needs, but also to gratify emotional and psychological needs also.

Fulfillment of needs: Family is the most important primary institution that gives moral and emotional support for the members. Providing safety, security, love and affection. Warmth and comfort. It provides defense against Isolation. Family as an health agency provides most of the help for the young, the old and the sick. It is by large responsibility for the Health of its members.

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Question 28.
Explain the characteristics of Social change.
The characteristics of social change are:

Social change is Universal and Continuous: The change is true for all societies. Whether it is east or west, urban or Rural societies, for example in rural society change may be slow in urban society change may be rapid. Today in India we find rapid change from north to south. The extent of change may be different but every part of society changes.

Social Change is Continuous and Temporal: Social change never stops. It continues and is continuous. It is also called a process. Social change happens in time period and it is called as temporal. We see in society that many innovations, alterations, modifications take place from time to time regularly. Time is the best yard stick to measure change. We observe two different phenomena in two different time period.

Social change is Inevitable: Naturally change is inevitable because it is natural. Natural phenomena are inevitable to society. Hence, social changes are inevitable. Social change does not occur according to the interest of man. Social change does not go according to our interest only. It is changing naturally. Man changes its direction and speed.

Inclusive Organisation : Society is the most inclusive organisation. As we have seen earlier, the concept Society may be analysed from both structural and functional view points. In its wider sense, it is used to refer to human race as a whole. In its narrower sence, it is applied to a tribe consisting of only few hundred people or families. The concept includes the total social heritage of folkways, mores and institutions; of habits, sentiments and ideals; also the groups in reciprocal relationships interacting upon one another.

Question 29.
Explain the factors that is favourable of assimilation.
According to Young and Mack: “Assimilation is the fusion or blending of two previously distinct
groups into one”.

Characteristics of Assimilation:

Assimilation is not confined to single field only: The term assimilation is generally applied to explain the fusion of two distinct cultural group. Thus, it is an universal process. The process occurs in every walks of Human life ex: social, economic, political, art, music, agriculture, food and dress, habit etc. But this process is by notifications limited to any single field. In the religious field, assimilation may take place when an individual or a group of individuals or a particular religious background get converted into some other religious sect or group. As a process assimilation encompasses life in general.

Assimilation is a slow and gradual process: Assimilation cannot take place all of a sudden it takes. Fusion of personalities and groups usually takes time. It occurs only when there is relatively continuous and direct contact. The speed of the process of assimilation depends on the nature of contacts. If the contacts are primary then assimilation occurs naturally and rapid. On the contrary, if the contracts are Secondary assimilation takes place very slowly. The formation of American Culture due to the assimilation of British, Scottish, German and other European Cultures also has taken several decades and centuries.

Assimilation is an unconscious process: In the process of assimilation the individual or group is usually unconscious of what is taking place. Mostly it occurs in an unconscious manner individual and groups discard cultural heritage and substitute it with the new one.

Assimilation is a two-way process: Assimilation involves the principle of give and take. It is normally preceded by another process called ‘acculturation’ Acculturation is a preliminary and necessary step towards assimilation. It takes place when one cultural group which is in contact with another borrows from it certain cultural elements and incorporate them into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects into its own culture. Contact between two groups essentially affects both. Usually the culturally ‘weaker’ group borrows must of the trails from the culturally ‘stronger’ group.

Factors Favoring Assimilation:

Toleration: assimilation is possible only when individual and groups are tolerated towards cultural differences of others. Tolerance helps people to come together, to develop contacts and to participate in common social and cultural activities. When the majority group or the dominant group itself is secure.

Intimate social relationships: Assimilation is the final product of social contacts. The relative speed in which it is achieved depends on the nature of the contacts. It takes place naturally in primary groups such as family and friendship groups.

Amalgamation or intermarriage: It is an effective favoring assimilation process. It does not combine two opposite sexes but also two different families, castes, religious and regional groups together. A factor which helps complete assimilation is amalgamation which refers to the intermarriage of different groups without biological amalgamation complete assimilation is not possible.

Mere intermixture of the groups to a limited degree does not guarantee assimilation but intermarriage or amalgamation must be accepted in the mores and become a part of the institutional; structure, before assimilation exists.

Cultural similarity: If there are striking similarities between them an constituents of cultures of groups assimilation is quick to take place. In America, for example English – speaking protestants are assimilated with greater aped than non-Christians who do not speak English.

Education: Education is another conductive factor for assimilation. For immigrant people public education has played a prominent role in providing culture contact. Maurice R Davis has pointed out in his “world immigration” that in American public schools has been playing the vital role in the process of Americanizing the children of foreign born parents.

Equal Social and economic opportunity: Public education alone is not enough. People of all groups must have equal access to socio-economic opportunities. Only then, they can come closer and establish relations among themselves with mutual trust. As it has been observed in the case of America, full assimilation is possible only when full participation in social, cultural and economic life is allowed.

Assimilation is a two way process when it happens between two culture groups. Each group contributing varying proportions of the eventual blend.

Forms of assimilation The process of assimilation takes place mainly at three levels:

  • Individual level
  • Group level
  • Culture level.

Individual level: A social individual when enters or joins a new patterns of different cultural patterns, he or she has to adopt new patterns of values, habits, customs and beliefs of the other group in order to be fully accepted by new group. In course of time, he or she becomes assimilated into the second group. An Indian woman after marriage starts with dissimilar backgrounds and develops a surprising unity of interests and identifies herself with the family of her husband. The tendency is to conform to other’s behaviors pattern and differences in the time may largely disappear.

Group level: When two groups with dissimilar patterns of behavior come in close contact, – they inevitably affect each other. In this process, it is generally seen that the weaker group would do more of the borrowing from and would give very little to a stronger group. For instance, when we came in contact with Britishers, being a weaker group, we have adopted many cultural elements of Britishers but they have adopted many cultural elements from Indian society. The adoption of elements of dominant cultural paves the way for total absorption, if not checked, of the new culture group with the dominant culture.

Cultural level: When two cultures merge to produce a third culture which, while somewhat distinct, has features of both merging cultures. In western countries to some extent, rural and urban cultures which were radically different are, with rapidly increasing communication, merging as differences continue to disappear although they still exist.

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Question 30.
Explain the elements of Community,
Elements of community E.A. Bogardus identified the following elements by community. Geographical area or locality and community sentiments are considered as the essential elements of community. They are also considered as characteristics of community.

(a) Locality or Geographical area: A community is a territorial group. It always occupies some geographic area. Locality is the physical basis of a community. Locality Means – “a group of people became a community only when it starts to reside permanently in a definite locality”.

In contrast with Society a community is more or less locally limited. Living together facilitates people to develop social contacts, provides to fulfill their common interests. In community physical conditions may influence people’s social life, family, religion, belief, employment etc.

(b) Community Sentiment: Community sentiment: “A feeling of belongingness towards, or “a kind of conscious identification with the local group.” Community sentiment makes the people share their joys and sorrows and brings social integrity in them. Common interests, and similar lifestyles awakens community sentiments in pepple.

Other Characteristics of community:

1. Stability or Relative Permanence: A community is not temporary group like a crowd or a mob. It includes a permanent life in a definite territory. As along as there is life on the earth, People continue to reside permanently all through their life in the communities.

2. Naturalness: Communities are normally established in a natural way. They are not deliberately created. They are not made by planned efforts. The members of a community are the individual who are born in a community. As people live over a period of time in a particular territory naturally the community feeling develops.

3. Size of the Community: Community has no certain size. A community may be big or small. A village is small community where as a city is a big one. A city and a village may be included in a wider community called the district. Hence there are communities within communities. Nation as a big community, may include communities like, Village, towns cities etc.

4. Social Control: Every community has its own rules and regulations to control the relationship of its members. The nature of this regulation depends very much on the nature and type of the community. For example. In the rural and tribal communities informal means of regulations such as customs, folkways, mores, beliefs, rites and rituals etc are enough to exercise social pressure on the behavior of the people.

5. A Specific Name: Every community has some particular name, whether community is a village or a city or a tribe it has its own name and identity, on the basis of these one community is distinguished from the other.

Question 31.
Explain the functions of Religion.
Functions of Religion: Religion is an important universal institution in human society. It is a part of society, interwoven with all other aspects of human life. It is obvious that religion has an important role in society, it performs a number of important, functions:

Social Solidarity:

(a) Emile Durkheim, defines religion as “a unified system of belief and practice related to ‘ sacred things”. A thing is sacred not because of a peculiar quality inherent in the thing itself. What makes a thing sacred is an attitude filled with emotion and sentiment a feeling that certain things are above and apart from the ordinary matters of everyday life.

(b) By defining the values and moral beliefs as sacred, religion provides them with greater power to direct human action. Social obligations are transformed into religious duties, in worshipping society men recognize the importance of the group, their dependence upon it.

(c) Collective worship as a means of reinforcing social solidarity in a social group. In collective ceremonials, the members of a group express their faith in common values and belief, a sense of group solidarity is affirmed and frightened.

(d) Malinowski argues that religion promotes social solidarity by dealing with situations of emotional stress such as birth, puberty, death, accidents and natural disaster which threaten social cohesion-.

(e) Religious beliefs provide the ultimate justification for the values do social system. It provides support for social standard, socially accepted behavior. Thus the doctrines of Karma and Dharma in Hinduism. The Christian society maintains the tradition like Christmas, baptism and monogamous marriage, and tries to encourage conformity to society’s norms.

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Question 32.
Write a note on Development.
Owing to the weakness of the analogy between biological and social evolution. Some sociologists preferred to used the term ‘Social Development’ to refer to the process of historical change. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Development means a gradual unfolding a fuller working out of details of anything. In the recent sociological literature the term Development is used firstly to refer to the distinction between two types of societies, namely Industrial Society and Rural and agricultural society.

Question 33.
Explain the Resistance to Social change.
Ogburn and Nimkoff says that sometimes “Boon to society is also opposed”
The factors for resistance are:

Inadequacy of invention: For one or the other reason. People may or may not show interest in inventions. Some time the innovatory fails to convince the community. Inventions do not impress community life or are needful by that perfect of time.

Fear: Men in general are happy with present. People always .feel that new disturbs or may bring new problems. When Thomas Edison invented electric bulb, exhibition of illuminating electric bulb was arranged, immediately when electric bulb illuminated, people ran away with fear. Earlier people did not show interest in photography.

Ignorance: Education and training make him intelligent. Even though man is ignorant about new. Before he is given proper knowledge his ignorance make him to resist. Secondly some men do not even learn to live. They are happy with their ignorance. America took generations to learn use of iron plough. Material change and its resistances is temporary. For example Mahatma Gandhiji and his efforts are still in process to bring “non alcoholic society”.

Habit: Man develops his personality thorough socialization. Once developed Personality cannot be changed easily. Personality is a complex whole of many habits. Habits force man to follow traditions. Habits influence our thoughts and dialylife.. people hesitate to accept new rules and regulations in society.

Vested Interests: Vested Interest are selfish groups who want statuesque. Most social changes carry a threat to some vested interests. Land Reform Act in India brought change. But such change and legislative reformations were opposed by land lords. Orthodox society is always in fear of losing its interests, it opposes inter caste marriage.

Economic Costs: Money play important role in adopting social change. For example to implement five year planning Indian government invested money. In recent tears cost of planning is raising. Some of the welfare measures like education, health, housing are lagging behind.

Lack of an integrated approach: Society is combination of different parts, for example religion, education, government are in social system only. Change in one element brings change in another part also. When we want to bring change in religion it is necessary to bring change in education system also. To eradicate blind belief or evil practices all other conditions in prevailing society should be changed.

Technical difficulties in implementation: Looking to new technical innovations, society adopt its life style. Community many times accepts technical changes immediately, but does not accept some time. Technical devices should be restructured or they are not suitable to the conditions, hence there is hindrance in acceptance.

Intellectual Laziness: Creativity drive the attention immediately. Lack of creativity in man does not accept new. Active men agree to modern condition. Lazy do not. To understand the importance of new one must show interest in it. when there is lack of interest and do not pay attention, it is difficult to make men to change themselves.

Desire for stability: Society and its functions go smooth with required stability. Individuals are safe in stable society. Change disturbs the balance in present society. Often change brings insecurity to people in society. Common men feel

  1. No guarantee in new social system, and
  2. New things may bring pain.
  3. Pleasure and comforts may not exists in new
  4. Wants to maintain present status.

Therefore, members in stable conditions do not accept change. Desire for stability is guard against change.

Question 34.
What is the effects of Global Warming?
The effects of Global warming
Mother earth is the essence for the birth and fastening of all living creatures. The earth’s temperature increases when water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, other harmful gases get collected in environment and when these gases do not find, an outlet naturally increase the earth’s temperature.

The whole ecological system is endangered by global warming. Wind movement is affected untimely rains, increase in temperature are the changes that occur It is a serious responsibility of the civilized world to control global warming and greenhouse effects. Preventive measures to be undertaken to control warming to protect the environment from greenhouse effects should impose strict laws on the excessive use of fuels. Use of chloro-phoro carbon chemicals should be banned totally.

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IV. Answer any Two of the following in Twenty Five sentences each: ( 10 x 2 = 20 ) 

Question 35.
Explain the importance of Sociology
a. Development of Personality : Man is fundamentally a social being. He has to adjust to the changing conditions of the society. Sociology gives a scientific and a comprehensive knowledge of human society. The scientific knowledge about the structure of society, its development, change, problems, individual rights and obligations, etc., makes not only individual an enlighten member of the society, but also leads to the development of his personality in a proper manner.

b. Change in attitudes: Sociology is useful in developing rational attitude towards society, religion, customs, mores, institutions, values, ideologies, etc. Sociology plays an important role in changing the attitudes towards others. The study of Sociology helps us to overcome prejudices about others people, class, caste, religious hatredness, misconceptions ambitions. Totally Sociology helps us to develop a critical approach towards the ‘ Social World’, So that, we can have better relations with the people of not only our society but also with the people of other societies.

c. Solutions of Social Problems: Every society is facing its own problems. For example, India is facing so many problems like poverty, unemployment, terrorism, corruption, untouchability, prostitution, gambling, over population, beggary, etc. The deep study of these problems is necessary to solve them. Sociology helps us to make an objective study of social problems. It also gives valuable suggestions to solve.

d. Social Planning and Policy Making: Sociology is playing a key role in social planning and policy making. Sociological knowledge is very much useful and the service and suggestions of expert sociologists are sought even in the formulations of Government Policies, Social Legislations regarding family, population control, child labour, environment pollution, beggary, etc.

e. To promote welfare of the backward and weaker section of the society: In India, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other weaker sections are exploited in social, economic, and political fields for centuries. To promote welfare programmes for these groups sociological knowledge is necessary.

f. Sociology as a Attractive Teaching Subject: Sociology is gaining importance as a popular teaching subject. Careers apart from teaching are now possible in Sociology. Sociology is introduced as one of the subj ect to be studied in many colleges and Universities. Sociology is also included in the subjects to be offered by candidates taking completive examinations like IAS, IPS, IFS, KAS and KES, etc. There are many employment opportunities in many fields like Education, Social Welfare, Family Welfare, Public Administration, Women and Child Welfare Development, etc.

g. Role of Sociology in developing countries: Social factors are also responsible for the economic backwardness particularly in under developed countries. Economists have now realized the importance of sociological information and knowledge in analyzing the economic life of their countries. So, it has been said that “Economist should be Sociologist also”.

h. Sociological knowledge about modern situations and developments: Sociology always gives information about the recent changes and developments that takes place in and around us. So that we can act according to the changes. The knowledge about these things makes us conscious about our responsibilities towards society.

Question 36.
Explain the characteristics of Society
Characteristics of society.

(a) Society- The Group of Groups: People collect together to form groups. Such groups combine together to give rise to society. Each society has family, neighbor, village, city, labor association, religious gathering, Political Parties etc, H.M.Johnson – Has thus remarked that “society is the group of groups”, but it is not’just like a crowd. It is a system. It consists of innumerable groups which fulfill the various needs of the people.

(b) Society is a web of Social Relations: Social relation means -’’The reciprocal contact between two or more persons. Social relationships have a wide range. For example Teacher – student, Parent-children, patient-doctor, husband-wife and so on. One individual enters into several social relationships at the same time. Maclver and Page- Point out that “society exists only where social beings behave towards one another in ways determined by their recognisation of one another. Thus society is a web of social relations.

(c) Similarity or likeness: The principal of ‘ likeness’ is essential for society. It exists among the people who have similarities with regards to their needs, work, aims, ideals, values and so on. these similarities inspire the people to interact and like each other and live together. Hence mutual intimacy, Co-operation, love and affection, Sympathy, sacrifice and feeling of oneness among people develop. Similarly the people of same nature and behavior live together in society.

(d) Differences in Society: Likeness and differences are two faces of the same coin. Therefore we see natural differences among people in their interest, ability, talent, attitude, intelligence and so on. Thus we find farmers, labors. Teachers, soldiers, businessmen, advocates, doctors, engineers and other working in different capacities, Maclver and page – Said that “Primary likeness and Secondary differences are the chief features of human society.

(e) Co-operation and Division of Labor: Human Society is essentially based on ‘co-operation and division of labour. Due to the feeling of co-operation people share their joys and Sorrows. The division of labour depends on people’s interest, ability, sex, and age etc. Due to division of labor in various fields task are performed more efficiently. In modern society, skilled and specialized persons have more importance. Thus co-operative and division of labor are reciprocal.

Question 37.
What is Law? Explain its characteristics.
Law is the most powerful formal, means of social control in the modern society. It is an indispensable part of the modern social life. Laws appear only in societies where a political organization called “Government” is found.
According to J.S. Roucek “Laws are a form of social rule emanating from political agencies”


  • Laws are the general condition of human activity prescribed by the state for its members.
  • Law is called law, only if enacted by a proper law making authority. Hence it is a product of conscious thought deliberate attempts and careful planning.
  • Law is written definite, clear, precise and unambiguous.
  • Law applies equally to all without exception in identical circumstances.
  • Violation of law is followed by penalties and punishments determined by the authority of the state.
  • Laws are always written down and recorded.
  • Laws are not the result of voluntary consent of persons against whom they are directed.

Laws a dynamic and subject to change. Law is not a static body of rules handed down from generation to generation. Rather, it reflects continually changing standards of what is right and wrong of how violations are to be determined, and of what sanctions are to be applied.

Laws differ from country to country. Though the outward pattern of the legal system to be same every where the content of laws often differ significantly.

Question 38.
Describe the contributions of Herbert Spencer.
Herbert Spencer is one of pioneers of Sociology and it has been described Herbert Spencer’s Sociology as socially Darwinistic. Herbert Spencer has been called as “Second Father Sociology.”

Being a famous evolutionist, Spencer was very much influenced by Charles Darwin’s book “The origin of the species”. He tried to apply the theory of Biological evolution to Sociology. Spencer used the concept of evolution of animals to explain the evolution of society and he compares the society to human organism. His theory of organic analogy was very much popular earlier even though it has been rejected now. Spencer claimed that man’s mind has evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking of man.

Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. He also developed a theory of two types of society. They are (1) militant society (2) Industrial society. These are corresponded to the evolutionary progression. Thus according to him society is changing from simple form to complex form. Spencer stressed that the whole society should be considered as a unit of society.

According to him the different parts of society are interrelated and interdependent, not only the parts influence the whole system, but also the whole system influences the parts. While explaining the stages of the development of society his attitude of comparison draws a special attention. Major works of Herbert Spencer are “Social Statics”, “First Principles”, “Principles of ‘ Ethics”, “The Man Versus State”, “The study of sociology”, Principles of sociology”.

IV. Answer any Two of the following in Fifteen sentences each: ( 5 x 2 = 10 ) 

Question 39.
Write the effects of Environmental Pollution.
Effects of Air pollution
Air pollution is a extensive problem badly affecting Man’s health, plants and Animals.

  • The minute particles of Sulphuric Dioxide, Coal, Silica, Barium and other chemicals cause lung cancer, heart diseases like hypertension.
  • Due to rapid technological radiation anemia, Leukemia, Cancer, Physical weakness are caused.
  • Due to air pollution world famous marble Taj Mahal is getting destroyed stage by stage. The rare intricate carvings are getting spoiled day by day.
  • Due to use of different fuels the temperature of the earth is increasing. This is called as Green house effect
  • The photo synthesis activities of plants and trees are showing down due to dirt and dust getting collected on leaves every day. This is sole reason for decreasing levels of oxygen in the air.

Effects of water pollution:

Water pollution leads to so many side effects. Those are:

  • Contaminated water results in various water borne diseases like cholera, typhoid, Diarrhea, dysentery and other infectious diseases.
  • Contaminated water prevents photosynthesis and retards the growth of Plants and trees.
  • Because of oil leakage into the sea plants, sea animals and birds die. Every’ year nearly 50000 to 250000 birds die due to oil pollution of sea water.
  • Water pollution leads to damage of ozone layer.
  • If polluted water is used for agriculture, Poisonous/ dangerous molecules are added to the food by products. Agriculture yield also reduced by 17% to 30% if polluted water is used Effects of noise pollution

Sound pollution result in various effects. These are as follows:

  • If the sound is more than 120-150 decibels, it results in respiratory disorders, physical imbalance, vomiting and deafness.
  • Sound pollution results in mental problem, disinterest in the work and leads to many mistakes. It also has effects on Animals and birds behavior
  • It increase heart rate, B.P and other heart related problems
  • Contribution is affected resulting in loss of memory.

Effects on soil Pollution
Soil is one of the main source of the nature of pollution of the soil will leads to so many negative effects.

  • Reduction in the crop yield
  • The food obtained by the contaminated soil will spoil the human health
  • Soil contamination leads to the water scarcity in some regions causing the death of animal multitude
  • Contamination of soil will leads to the water pollution

KSEEB Solutions

Question 40.
Explain the characteristics of Primary Groups.
The concept of ‘primary groups’ is a significant of C.H. Cooley to the social thought. Building black of human societies throughout the world history.
Characteristics of Primary Group

(a) Dominance of primary or face-to-face relationships: Primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships. These exists a face-to-face relationship among the members. In primary Groups everyone knows everyone else; one’s name and fame, one’s status, wealth, occupation, level of education etc.

(b) Small in size: Primary groups are generally small in size, because its consists of few members. Size of primary groups should be small if the relations among members are to be close personal and intimate. ‘

(c) Physical proximity or nearness: Face-to-face relations can be found only when members reside in particular area more or less permanently. Seeing and talking with each other facilitates the exchange of ideas, opinions and sentiments.

(d) Durability of the groups: Primary groups are relatively a permanent groups. Other things equal, the longer the groups remains together, the more numerous and deeper are the contacts between its members.

(e) Similarity of background: The members of the primary groups may have more or less
the same background. These must be some approximations in their levels of experience. Each must have something to contribute to give as well as to take.

(f) Shared interest: The shared interests of the groups also hold them together, any interest becomes focused and enriched in the group process. Since all are working for a common cause each acquires stimulation and a heightening of the emotional significance of the interest.

Question 41.
Explain Legislature measures to protect environment.
The legal and constitutional measures are:

As per 1948 rule it’s a mandatory to get permission from the granting commissions for establishment and extension of the factories. From this policy which directs the factories will have the full information about the chemical that can spill out from the factories .

The Atomic energy rule (1962). Each and every matter relating to the atomic energy will be directly affiliated to the Central government. This rule controls and directs the atomic energy related matters.

The 1972 rule of Wild life protection provided complete protection to the wild life and birds. As per the directed of this rule every state government and centralized states must create a committee for wild life suggestion. This law restricts the hunting of wild animals violates of this law will be punished .

Control and prevention of Water pollution act (1974) has enforced and the water pollution is prohibited through this law and for prevention of water pollution a special rule in 1981 is introduced( prevention on control of air pollution)

Environment protection act (1986) have intended to protect and improve the environment; it implements nationwide programs on environment pollution and encourages the researches on Environment Pollution.

The Motor vehicles act 1988 control the air pollution caused by the vehicle traffic.

The noise pollution act of 1989: This law controls the decibels of the sounds residential places, schools and colleges, hospitals, courts premises are declared as silent zones and prohibits using mikes crackers etc. in these areas.

1991 rule of Public Security: the Government of India has introduced this law in 1991 this law suggested to establish a environment solution fund and provided security to the citizen, it enables to lodge a criminal cases on the law breakers.

State pollution control board is active in state level and with the co-ordination of central pollution control board is engaged in the environment protection. Environment department will implement many works regarding environment protection.

KSEEB Solutions

Question 42.
Write a note on impact of Urbanisation in villages.
Do it your self as a project report.